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Should animals be used for scientific research? - GCSE English
Sample Essay Responses and Rater Commentary for the Argument Task. The sample essays that follow were written in response to the prompt that appears below . The rater commentary that follows each sample essay explains how the response meets the criteria for that score. Essay On Should Animals For Scientific? For a more complete understanding of the criteria for science outline format each score point, see the Analyze an Argument Scoring Guide. In surveys Mason City residents rank water sports (swimming, boating and be used for scientific research fishing) among their favorite recreational activities. The Mason River flowing through the city is rarely used for thesis these pursuits, however, and the city park department devotes little of its budget to maintaining riverside recreational facilities. For years there have been complaints from residents about the quality of the river's water and the river's smell. In response, the state has recently announced plans to clean up Mason River. Animals For Scientific? Use of the speech river for water sports is therefore sure to increase.
The city government should for that reason devote more money in this year's budget to riverside recreational facilities. Write a response in which you examine the stated and/or unstated assumptions of the argument. Be sure to explain how the animals be used for scientific argument depends on the assumptions and speech statement what the implications are if the on should animals be used assumptions prove unwarranted. Note: All responses are reproduced exactly as written, including errors, misspellings, etc., if any. While it may be true that the paper Mason City government ought to for scientific research devote more money to riverside recreational facilities, this author's argument does not make a cogent case for increased resources based on river use. It is easy to understand why city residents would want a cleaner river, but this argument is rife with holes and assumptions, and thus, not strong enough to lead to dying essay increased funding.
Citing surveys of city residents, the author reports city resident's love of water sports. It is not clear, however, the scope and essay research validity of that survey. For example, the survey could have asked residents if they prefer using the river for water sports or would like to see a hydroelectric dam built, which may have swayed residents toward river sports. The sample may not have been representative of city residents, asking only persuasive, those residents who live upon the river. The survey may have been 10 pages long, with 2 questions dedicated to river sports.
We just do not know. Be Used For Scientific Research? Unless the sat essay help survey is fully representative, valid, and reliable, it can not be used to effectively back the author's argument. Additionally, the essay for scientific author implies that residents do not use the river for swimming, boating, and bmat section fishing, despite their professed interest, because the water is polluted and smelly. Essay Be Used For Scientific Research? While a polluted, smelly river would likely cut down on river sports, a concrete connection between the resident's lack of river use and the river's current state is not effectively made. Though there have been complaints, we do not know if there have been numerous complaints from a wide range of speech people, or perhaps from one or two individuals who made numerous complaints. To strengthen his/her argument, the author would benefit from implementing a normed survey asking a wide range of residents why they do not currently use the river.
Building upon the implication that residents do not use the river due to the quality of the essay on should animals river's water and the smell, the bmat 3 essays author suggests that a river clean up will result in increased river usage. If the river's water quality and smell result from essay animals be used for scientific research, problems which can be cleaned, this may be true. Writing Help? For example, if the decreased water quality and aroma is caused by pollution by factories along the river, this conceivably could be remedied. But if the quality and aroma results from the natural mineral deposits in the water or surrounding rock, this may not be true. There are some bodies of water which emit a strong smell of animals be used for scientific research sulphur due to help the geography of the area. This is not something likely to be afffected by a clean-up.
Consequently, a river clean up may have no impact upon river usage. Essay Be Used For Scientific Research? Regardless of whether the river's quality is able to be improved or not, the author does not effectively show a connection between water quality and river usage. A clean, beautiful, safe river often adds to a city's property values, leads to increased tourism and speech statement thesis revenue from those who come to take advantage of the river, and a better overall quality of life for residents. For these reasons, city government may decide to invest in be used for scientific, improving riverside recreational facilities. However, this author's argument is not likely significantly persuade the bmat section city goverment to animals be used for scientific research allocate increased funding. Rater Commentary for problems solved Essay Response Score 6. This insightful response identifies important assumptions and thoroughly examines their implications. The essay shows that the essay animals for scientific proposal to spend more on riverside recreational facilities rests on dying essay, three questionable assumptions, namely: that the survey provides a reliable basis for budget planning that the river’s pollution and odor are the only reasons for its limited recreational use that efforts to clean the water and remove the essay animals odor will be successful.
By showing that each assumption is highly suspect, this essay demonstrates the science outline format weakness of the entire argument. For example, paragraph 2 points out that the essay on should animals research survey might not have used a representative sample, might have offered limited choices, and might have contained very few questions on water sports. Paragraph 3 examines the tenuous connection between complaints and limited use of the river for recreation. Before Dying Essay? Complaints about water quality and odor may be coming from only a few people and, even if such complaints are numerous, other completely different factors may be much more significant in reducing river usage. Finally, paragraph 4 explains that certain geologic features may prevent effective river clean-up. Essay On Should Animals Be Used? Details such as these provide compelling support. In addition, careful organization ensures that each new point builds upon the previous ones. For example, note the clear transitions at the beginning of dissertation paragraphs 3 and 4, as well as the logical sequence of sentences within paragraphs (specifically paragraph 4). Although this essay does contain minor errors, it still conveys ideas fluently. Note the effective word choices (e.g., rife with . . . assumptions and may have swayed residents). In addition, sentences are not merely varied; they also display skillful embedding of essay for scientific research subordinate elements.
Since this response offers cogent examination of the problems solved argument and conveys meaning skillfully, it earns a score of 6. The author of essay research this proposal to increase the budget for Mason City riverside recreational facilities offers an paper interesting argument but to move forward on the proposal would definitely require more information and thought. Animals Be Used For Scientific Research? While the correlations stated are logical and science paper format probable, there may be hidden factors that prevent the City from on should for scientific, diverting resources to this project. For example, consider the survey rankings among Mason City residents. The thought is that such high regard for water sports will translate into usage. But, survey responses can hardly be used as indicators of actual behavior. Many surveys conducted after the winter holidays reveal people who list exercise and weight loss as a top priority. Science Paper Outline Format? Yet every profession does not equal a new gym membership. Even the wording of the survey results remain ambiguous and vague.
While water sports may be among the residents' favorite activities, this allows for many other favorites. What remains unknown is the priorities of the general public. Do they favor these water sports above a softball field or soccer field? Are they willing to sacrifice the essay on should be used municipal golf course for better riverside facilities? Indeed the survey hardly provides enough information to maths discern future use of improved facilities.
Closely linked to the surveys is the bold assumption that a cleaner river will result in increased usage. Essay Animals For Scientific? While it is not illogical to essay lesson expect some increase, at what level will people begin to on should use the vita river? The answer to this question requires a survey to find out the reasons our residents use or do not use the river. Is river water quality the essay be used primary limiting factor to usage or the lack of docks and piers? Are people more interested in water sports than the recreational activities that they are already engaged in? These questions will help the city government forecast how much river usage will increase and to assign a proportional increase to before dying essay the budget. Likewise, the author is optimistic regarding the state promise to clean the river. We need to hear the on should research source of the voices and consider any ulterior motives. Is this a campaign year and the plans a campaign promise from the bmat 3 essays state representative? What is the timeline for the clean-up effort? Will the state fully fund this project?
We can imagine the misuse of funds in renovating the riverside facilities only to watch the new buildings fall into dilapidation while the state drags the river clean-up. Last, the animals be used for scientific research author does not consider where these additional funds will be diverted from. The current budget situation must be assessed to persuasive speech thesis determine if this increase can be afforded. Essay On Should Animals For Scientific Research? In a sense, the City may not be willing to 3 essays draw money away from other key projects from road improvements to schools and education. Animals? The author naively assumes that the bmat section money can simply appear without forethought on where it will come from. Examining all the various angles and essay on should research factors involved with improving riverside recreational facilities, the argument does not justify increasing the budget. While the section 3 essays proposal does highlight a possibility, more information is required to warrant any action.
Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 5. Each paragraph in the body of this perceptive essay identifies and examines an essay on should animals be used for scientific unstated assumption that is crucial to the argument. The major assumptions discussed are: that a survey can accurately predict behavior that cleaning the river will, in itself, increase recreational usage that state plans to clean the river will actually be realized that Mason City can afford to spend more on writing help, riverside recreational facilities. Support within each paragraph is be used, both thoughtful and thorough. Dying Essay? For example, paragraph 2 points out vagueness in the wording of the essay on should for scientific research survey: Even if water sports rank among the favorite recreational activities of before dying lesson Mason City residents, other sports may still be much more popular. Thus, if the for scientific research first assumption proves unwarranted, the argument to fund riverside facilities rather than soccer fields or golf courses becomes much weaker. Paragraph 4 considers several reasons why river clean-up plans may not be successful (the plans may be nothing more than campaign promises or funding may not be adequate). Thus, the weakness of the third assumption undermines the science paper outline format argument that river recreation will increase and riverside improvements will be needed at on should be used, all. Instead of dismissing each assumption in isolation, this response places them in a logical order and considers their connections. Note the appropriate transitions between and within paragraphs, clarifying the links among the assumptions (e.g., Closely linked to the surveys or The answer to this question requires. ).
Along with strong development, this response also displays facility with language. Minor errors in persuasive, punctuation are present, but word choices are apt and sentences suitably varied in be used research, pattern and length. The response uses a number of rhetorical questions, but the science paper format implied answers are always clear enough to support the essay on should animals points being made. Thus, the response satisfies all requirements for a score of 5, but its development is not thorough or compelling enough for a 6. The problem with the arguement is the assumption that if the dying essay lesson Mason River were cleaned up, that people would use it for water sports and recreation. This is not necessarily true, as people may rank water sports among their favorite recreational activities, but that does not mean that those same people have the financial ability, time or equipment to pursue those interests. However, even if the writer of the arguement is correct in assuming that the Mason River will be used more by the city's residents, the arguement does not say why the recreational facilities need more money. On Should Be Used? If recreational facilities already exist along the Mason River, why should the city allot more money to format fund them?
If the recreational facilities already in existence will be used more in the coming years, then they will be making more money for themselves, eliminating the need for the city government to devote more money to them. According to the arguement, the reason people are not using the Mason River for water sports is because of the smell and essay on should be used for scientific the quality of water, not because the recreational facilities are unacceptable. If the city government alloted more money to the recreational facilities, then the budget is being cut from paper outline, some other important city project. Also, if the assumptions proved unwarranted, and on should be used for scientific research more people did not use the river for recreation, then much money has been wasted, not only the paper outline money for essay on should animals research the recreational facilities, but also the money that was used to clean up the river to attract more people in the first place. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 4. This competent response identifies two unstated assumptions: that cleaning up the Mason River will lead to increased recreational use that existing facilities along the river need more funding.
Paragraph 1 offers reasons why the bmat section 3 essays first assumption is questionable (e.g., residents may not have the necessary time or money for on should animals be used for scientific water sports). Similarly, paragraphs 2 and 3 explain that riverside recreational facilities may already be adequate and essay lesson may, in fact, produce additional income if usage increases. Thus, the response is adequately developed and satisfactorily organized to on should animals for scientific research show how the argument depends on questionable assumptions. However, this essay does not rise to a score of 5 because it fails to consider several other unstated assumptions (e.g., that the survey is paper, reliable or that the efforts to animals be used research clean the river will be successful). Furthermore, the final paragraph makes some extraneous, unsupported assertions of its own. Mason City may actually have a budget surplus so that cuts to other projects will not be necessary, and cleaning the river may provide other real benefits even if it is not used more for water sports. This response is generally free of errors in grammar and usage and displays sufficient control of language to support a score of maths solved 4.
Surveys are created to speak for essay animals be used research the people; however, surveys do not always speak for the whole community. Dissertation? A survey completed by Mason City residents concluded that the residents enjoy water sports as a form of recreation. If that is so evident, why has the river not been used? The blame can not be soley be placed on essay animals, the city park department. The city park department can only do as much as they observe. Persuasive? The real issue is not the residents use of the river, but their desire for a more pleasant smell and a more pleasant sight. If the city government cleans the river, it might take years for the smell to go away. If the budget is changed to accomodate the clean up of the Mason River, other problems will arise. The residents will then begin to complain about other issues in for scientific research, their city that will be ignored because of the great emphasis being placed on Mason River. Vita? If more money is taken out of the essay on should animals for scientific budget to clean the river an assumption can be made.
This assumption is that the budget for another part of cit maintenance or building will be tapped into speech, to. In addition, to the budget being used to clean up Mason River, it will also be allocated in on should for scientific, increasing riverside recreational facilites. The government is trying to appease its residents, and one can warrant that the role of the government is to please the people. There are many assumptions being made; however, the government can not make the assumption that people want the river to be cleaned so that they can use it for recreational water activities. The government has to science paper outline realize the long term effects that their decision will have on the monetary value of essay be used for scientific research their budget.
Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 3. Even though much of this essay is tangential, it offers some relevant examination of the argument’s assumptions. The early sentences mention a questionable assumption (that the survey results are reliable) but do not explain how the survey might have been flawed. Then the response drifts to irrelevant matters a defense of the city park department, a prediction of budget problems and the problem of pleasing city residents. Some statements even introduce unwarranted assumptions that are not part of the original argument (e.g., The residents will then begin to complain about other issues and This assumption is that the budget for bmat section another part of city maintenance or building will be tapped into). Near the on should animals be used research end, the response does correctly note that city government should not assume that residents want to use the river for recreation. Hence, the proposal to increase funding for riverside recreational facilities may not be justified. In summary, the language in this response is reasonably clear, but its examination of unstated assumptions remains limited and therefore earns a score of 3. This statement looks like logical, but there are some wrong sentences in it which is not logical.
First, this statement mentions raking water sports as their favorite recreational activities at the first sentence. However, it seems to have a ralation between the first sentence and the setence which mentions that increase the quality of the river's water and the river's smell. This is a wrong cause and result to bmat solve the for scientific problem. Second, as a reponse to the complaints from residents, the state plan to clean up the river. 3 Essays? As a result, the state expects that water sports will increase. When you look at two sentences, the result is not appropriate for essay animals the cause. Third, the last statement is the 3 essays conclusion. However, even though residents rank water sports, the city government might devote the budget to another issue. This statement is also a wrong cause and result.
In summary, the statement is not logical because there are some errors in it. The supporting setences are not strong enough to support this issue. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 2. Although this essay appears to be carefully organized, it does not follow the directions for animals be used for scientific the assigned task. In his/her vague references to causal fallacies, the writer attempts logical analysis but never refers to any unstated assumptions. Furthermore, several errors in grammar and sentence structure interfere with meaning (e.g., This statement looks like logical, but there are some wrong sentences in it which is not logical). Because this response does not follow the directions for the assigned task and contains errors in sentence structure and logical development, it earns a score of 2. The statement assumes that everyone in Mason City enjoys some sort of recreational activity, which may not be necessarily true. The statement also assumes that if the state cleans up the river, the use of the river for water sports will definitely increase.
Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 1. The brevity of this two-sentence response makes it fundamentally deficient. Sentence 1 states an assumption that is problems, actually not present in the argument, and sentence 2 correctly states an assumption but provides no discussion of its implications. Although the on should animals be used response may begin to address the assigned task, it offers no development. As such, it is clearly extremely brief . providing little evidence of an organized response and earns a score of 1. Register for the GRE General Test. Get never-before-offered official GRE practice tests, scores within minutes for all three measures and explanations for correct answers! Show schools only the scores you want them to see only with the ScoreSelect ® option.
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Should animals be used for research? - ESSAY WS
+20 Resume Objective Examples - Use Them On Your Resume (Tips) We glanced at essay animals be used research your resume. And we want to tell you: Thanks, but no thanks. An employer who just threw your resume in the trash. Sat Essay Help! Poor Michelle. Essay Be Used For Scientific Research! Why aren’t employers looking at her resume? Michelle has a ton of job experience, but she is preparing to change her career. Michelle could have used a great resume objective to grab the recruiter’s attention and let the recruiter know that her resume is in the right place. The recruiter would have known from the beginning that Michelle was the right person for the job. This article will tell you why good resume objective statements are important plus: What a good objective for a resume should look like.
When to before essay lesson, write an on should animals be used, objective on a resume. How to science paper format, write a resume objective. And I will explain the differences between a general resume objective, resume summary, and on should be used for scientific resume profile. Vita! For industry-specific examples , keep reading. If you don't find a sample resume objective for your industry, let us know in the comments and we'll write an example for you. On Should For Scientific Research! A resume objective is dissertation vita, a short, targeted statement or blurb at the beginning of a resume that reflects what you have already achieved, and how you are a perfect match for the position that is on offer. Outgoing Certified Public Accountant with an MBA and essay be used for scientific research +2 years of experience in specialized tax services. Seeking to leverage my technical and professional expertise to grow in the new role of science paper outline format Accountant at your company.
Seeking a job as mattress tester because I like sleeping and be used research I can quickly fall asleep anywhere. Here is a template from our resume builder . Essay Lesson! Notice how the animals for scientific research, sample resume objective stands out. If you want to save time, get professional tips, and quickly write your resume, you can try our resume builder. It's fast and easy to use. See more templates and create your resume here. So, what does objective mean? The dictionary definition of ‘objective’ (noun) is a goal or aim to get something specific.
What is your goal for applying for help, a job? Employers know you want the essay on should, job. Sat Essay Writing! You gave them your resume. Essay Animals Research! But, once upon section a time, the resume objective definition was a statement that told hiring managers who you were and why you wanted the on should animals be used research, job. Resume Objective Statement Example.
Want fun, stimulating job that pays me in tacos and a mountain of money every month. Dissertation Vita! Oh, and fifty days of paid vacation. For Scientific! And a gym membership. Section! Oh, and one of those people who follow you around and get you coffee - a personal assistant. Yes, one of those. You can write an objective for a resume like this and still get good jobs (kind of).
But, some experts argue that it is no longer fashionable to include a resume objective like the resume objective statement example I just gave you. In fact, the general consensus is that the old resume objective format is animals for scientific research, a 90’s relics that is about as fashionable as wearing denim on speech thesis denim. Because employers care more about what they want. Surprise, surprise. You aren’t writing a letter to Santa. When you send your resume to large companies in 2016, it could end up in animals, a pile of +250 other resumes on average. The modern recruiter needs to quickly scan each resume. They only have time to look for what they want and need. Writing! Attracting a recruiter's attention in the fastest, most direct way possible is essay research, now invaluable. So the beginning of the resume needs to provide a different sort of information - the information that the recruiter wants and needs.
This is sat essay, why the format for essay animals for scientific, great resume objectives has changed. Format! Modern resume objectives have become a tool for showcasing your ability to achieve the employer’s objective not your own. Resume Objective Statement Example. Experienced chef interested in becoming a zoo keeper. Tons of experience with picky clients who need to be fed with the right food at the right time. Want to apply my patience and understanding of complicated clients to taking care of angry lions at animals be used the Zoo. Pro Tip: A good resume objective needs to show that you are a perfect match for that position . You will need to 3 essays, change the objective statement for a resume every time you apply for a different job. You may also want to take a look at essay research our guides and resume examples (here) for specific positions. So, if you apply for bmat, 1,000 jobs how many good resume objectives do you need? Yes, that’s right - 1,000 resume objectives.
You don't need to on should be used, change everything, just re-tailor each objective on problems a resume to for scientific, match the new job post. The topic of science paper outline writing a resume objective is confusing. There seem to be about a dozen different names for what you can put in the space at the top of essay animals be used a resume. The resume profile layout gets called: career summary career objective personal profile statement profile statement resume summary resume summary statement summary of qualifications. Here’s the thing - they are all basically the same. But, there are minor differences and persuasive you should not confuse them.
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And the best way to make recruiters keep reading is to introduce yourself in a way they can't ignore . Okay, but let's go back to writing a resume objective for essay animals be used research, a resume. Solved! There are three main types of introductions for essay on should for scientific, resumes: 1. The Resume Objective. 2. The Resume Summary or Executive Summary. Bmat Section 3 Essays! 3. The Resume Profile. Resume objectives are the introduction of animals be used for scientific research choice for sat essay writing, three types of people: 1. People who are entering the job market for the first time. 2. Essay Animals For Scientific! People who are switching industries, changing careers, or need to explain an unclear career path. 3. People who are targeting specific positions. The rest of vita you might want to consider either a resume summary or resume profile . Or you don’t have to use anything if you don’t feel like it. You can just jump right into your experience or education section.
It depends on what you think is most important and on should animals for scientific research what you want a recruiter to see first. The Resume Objective vs. Science Outline! The Summary vs. The Profile. Essay Animals! Another reason why experts will tell you that general resume objectives are dead is because of the rise of the resume summary and the resume profile. Here are the differences: A resume objective is one or two lines at science paper format the beginning of animals be used for scientific research your resume that state how you are a good fit for the position on offer. This type of introduction is useful for people who have little or no work experience. Dump Truck Driver with a valid Class A Certified Driver's License (CDL) and dissertation 2 years of essay on should experience. Wishing to leverage my experience to fill the position of Truck Driver at your company. Zero accidents or injuries throughout entire career.
Obtain a challenging management position where I can develop myself creatively and become a high-level professional. A resume summary is also a couple of science format lines at the beginning of your resume. But a resume summary statement will include a brief overview of work experience that matches the requirements of the position. On Should Animals For Scientific! Professional Dietician and Caterer with 6+ years in maths solved, the foodservice industry. Be Used For Scientific Research! Highly entrepreneurial and efficient at dissertation building and maintaining client relationships. On Should For Scientific! Seeking to leverage my interpersonal skills to sat essay help, bring a solid customer service perspective to the position of Catering Manager at animals research your company. Professional Photographer seeking a full-time position taking picutres in the fashion industry. Bonus: Download actionable examples of real job descriptions and the resume objectives that match them. Resume Objective Examples for Your Profession (Download) For people who have work experience in the same field as the job for which they are applying. If this is speech statement thesis, your case, make sure you read our guide: A Resume Summary That Will Get You The Job [7 Secret Steps] A resume profile lists your qualifications, experience, and education in terms of the company’s needs and values. It is exactly like a resume summary statement, just more extensive.
It can be formatted as a paragraph or as a list with bullet points. Let’s look at IT jobs for a moment. Essay On Should Animals For Scientific Research! The resume profile structure works well for IT resumes because IT hiring managers want to dying, see a list of all the be used research, different software and hardware you are familiar using. Analytical problem solver (6) with High School Diploma and 3.5 GPA (1). Undergraduate studying computer science with an emphasis on computer systems and architecture. Strong exposure to Windows Server 2008 / 2012, Win7, and Microsoft Office 2010 / 2013 (2).
Working understanding of maths problems solved remote connectivity software (RDP, Citrix, and Cisco VPN), Cisco switches, routers, and TCP / IP networking (3 and essay on should 4). Experience with Microsoft Active Directory, administration, creation of user accounts, and Internet email (5). In the end, the real difference is 3 essays, whether or not you have quantifiable work experience . Pro Tip: Never confuse resume introductions with cover letters. Yes, it is still necessary to write cover letters. Cover letters introduce you to an employer and explain why your skills and experiences fit the job for which you are applying. An introduction to animals, your resume does the same thing, but in a couple of lines at the beginning of your resume. Introductions reinforce what you write in your cover letter and the experience you show in maths solved, your resume. Five Examples of Resume Objectives for Specific Situations. In this section, I’ve put together a bunch of essay on should animals research examples of great resume objectives for people in specific situations.
These examples are for the three types of people I mentioned at the beginning of the article: People who are entering the job market for the first time (entry level). People who are switching industries, changing careers, or need to explaing an unclear career path. Sat Essay Help! People who are targeting specific positions (professionals). A. Entry-level Resume Objective Samples. Entry level or first-time employees include: Recent High School graduates with zero work experience and on should be used for scientific no higher-level education. College graduates looking for their first professional job. People who have been out of work for longer periods of time or have not worked.
If you are a person looking for your first job, you should focus on persuasive speech thesis the traits that will make you a good employee. But you shouldn’t randomly pick three nice adjectives out of on should for scientific thin air. Maths Solved! Look back at your accomplishments and activities as a student. Find traits that are easily displayed during those activities. Whatever it is that you did before as a student, pull traits from that experience that match the traits required for the job. Use your experience as proof that you actually have these traits later in the resume. A high school resume objective sample might look like this: Dedicated team player (1) (captain of the swim team 2 years) with proven leadership and communication skills. For Scientific! Seeking an opportunity to leverage my talents as a server at your restaurant (2) . I have the follow-through and positive attitude that will allow me to achieve company targets (3) . Lead with your strongest trait. The traits you list should match the traits you marked as keywords from the job description.
Here is the example of the server job description with the keywords marked: Here is our career objective example again with the persuasive statement, keywords highlighted: Dedicated team player (captain of the swim team 2 years) with proven leadership and communication skills. Seeking an opportunity to leverage my talents as a server at essay be used your restaurant. I have the vita, follow-through and positive attitude that will allow me to achieve company targets. If you have graduated from university, your resume objective statement will look a bit different: Highly-motivated (1) Business Administration graduate (2) looking to fill a position as a Management Assistant (3) . I am ambitious, hardworking (4) and want to find a company that I can grow with as I achieve their goals. 1. Lead with a strong trait. On Should Animals! 2. Follow with the type of education you have and any work experience you have. 3. State the position you are seeking. 4. End with a sentence that emphasizes that you add value to the company. Let’s say you’ve just been out dissertation vita, of the game for a long time. You took time off to be a full-time mom or dad, but now you want to go back to work.
If you have higher education or work experience, a good job objective for a resume will look the research, same as a university graduate or young professional's resume objective. Persuasive Speech Thesis! Start with your education or your previous work experience - even if you gained it years ago. Maybe you have never worked and don’t have higher education. What would a good resume objective example look like then? Organized and motivated (1) employee able to apply my skills (be specific - which skills?) in various environments.
Seeking a position as an office assistant (2) in (name of company). I am personable and reliable and will prove to essay on should be used research, be an asset to the company. B. Transitioning Industries or Career Change Resume Objective Samples. Bmat Section 3 Essays! You have experience, you just have it in another industry. A career objective for a resume is a place for you to state that you are making a change and that where you were is relevant to where you are going. That way, a hiring manager doesn’t think your resume is in the wrong place.
What is this concert pianist’s resume doing in my pile of flight attendant applications? A killer resume objective will answer that question right away so that your resume doesn’t end up in the trash. Accomplished (1) Marketing Manager (2) with 10+ years (3) of experience in the retail real estate industry (4). Essay On Should Research! Seeking to dissertation vita, use my background in planning, overseeing, and implementing marketing campaigns (5) to take on essay on should animals research the role of outline format Brand Manager (6) at (name of company). I am creative and effective at presenting and developing the essay on should be used research, brands I represent (7 and 8) . Problems Solved! Strong Trait (1) + Past Work (2) + Number of Years (3) + Specific Industry (4) + Types of essay animals research Duties (5) + Specific Position (6) + How these Skills will Translate (7) + Added Value (8) You could also add a reference to your education either at the beginning or end of the resume objective statement. Dying Essay Lesson! C. Professional Resume Objective Sample: Applying for a Specific Position. This sample is for people who have the education and work experience but feel that a brief introduction will address an interest in a specific position. IT Professional (1) with 3+ years (2) of on should for scientific research experience in maths problems solved, systems management and configuration at a large telecommunications company (3). Aiming to use my proven technical, management, and communication skills (4 and 5) to be used, effectively fill the position of Network Engineer (6) at persuasive speech thesis (name of company). Possess a BA in Computer Science (7). Past Work (1) + Number of Years (2) + Specific Industry (3) + Types of Duties (4) + Strong Traits (Keywords) (5) + Specific Position (6) + Your Degree and on should animals for scientific research Training (7)
Seven Tips How Not To Ruin a Good Resume Objective. 1. Here Is the Best Way To Be Credible. One of the benefits of putting a good resume objective on a resume is that it makes you stand out to an employer at first glance. Unless you write a general resume objective like this one: Dedicated person interested in pursuing a job that allows me to sat essay writing help, use my skills to animals research, benefit the company. Remember? We already talked about this. This is the maths problems solved, “Nice person applying for nice job at nice company” career objective that almost made it taboo to on should animals be used research, pur resume objectives on a resume at all. The problem is that it doesn’t answer any of the following questions: What job do you want to pursue? What skills do you have? How will they benefit the company?
Be specific. Avoid writing generic statements that could apply to any job seeker looking for any job in the world. Dedicated waitress interested in pursuing a retail sales position that allows me to vita, use my interpersonal and customer service skills to benefit the customer service goals of Awesome Jeans Incorporated. Now that’s specific. Pro Tip: Some experts will tell you that being too specific will box you in essay on should animals be used, and hurt your chances if there are other jobs on bmat offer. Essay On Should Be Used! That may be true if you are not responding to a specific job offer. In most cases, you will respond to sat essay, specific job offers. They will include job descriptions that will tell you exactly what type of traits and skills the employer wants. It won’t box you in if you show that you have everything they want in the first two lines of your resume. You will come across as the exact person they need to hire for the job.
2. How To Use Numbers To Attract Attention. Use numbers and details when possible: 2 years of on should animals for scientific experience 50% increase in sat essay writing, sales 100 people in attendance at my event managed a team of 50 people saved 25 baby seals from poachers. My proven managerial and organizational skills were developed through 2 years of experience creating a series of events that drew over 100 people each. Essay On Should Animals For Scientific! Both of these things will also help you avoid being generic and having a general resume objective on a resume. The main question you should be asking when writing a resume objective for a resume: How are your skills and traits going to benefit the employer? This is especially important for dying essay lesson, people transitioning from one industry to another. How does your past experience translate to your future position?
Dedicated waitress interested in pursuing a retail sales position that allows me to use my interpersonal and customer service skills to benefit the customer service goals of on should research Awesome Jeans Incorporated. We can see that the interpersonal and customer service skills that this waitress used at her old job can be used to help achieve the customer service goals of Awesome Jeans Incorporated. Science Paper Outline Format! Read more about showcasing your skills here: +30 Best Examples Of What Skills To Put On A Resume (Proven Tips) You will find out what are the skills that employers desire most. Oh, and did I mention that the article comes with a fun and actionable infographic? Go check. 4. How Long Should A Good Resume Objective Be? Make it short and sweet. Resumes are short documents.
A career objective for a resume shouldn’t be more than two or three lines at the beginning of animals be used for scientific your resume. No one wants to read a novel about your job experience. 5. Should You Use First Person Pronouns? Maybe you’ve heard a rule like: Don’t use pronouns or the first person on dissertation your resume. There is something called a “smart” third person approach that eliminates the pronoun and starts with an action verb. Instead of saying “I manage” you write “Manage.” When writing a resume objective in the third person and in the present tense, you are giving the employer a chance to imagine you transferring your skills and duties to essay animals, their open role.
It focuses on the employer by leaving direct references to you out of the equation. But, like I said before, there are no real rules. As long as you are making a clear point and showing added value, it won’t matter that you used personal pronouns. Solved! Also, what are you supposed to call the essay on should, thing? As I mentioned before, there are endless names for the introduction section of a resume. You can start a good objective for a resume like this: Or forget the title and just start writing. Make it work for you. Write what’s comfortable and compelling.
Pro tip: Most of the examples provided in the sample section of this article start without a title. Because general resume objectives on a resume are seen as cliche and out of fashion, it might be better not to sat essay writing, slap the label in front. 6. Essay On Should Be Used For Scientific Research! How To Use Keywords To Get Results. Instead of using a bunch of random, flowery adjectives like “hard working” or “dedicated” use the adjectives from the thesis, job description. Note: use “hard working” and “dedicated” if they are in the job description. Essay On Should Animals Be Used For Scientific Research! This is a form of keyword optimization.
All you need to do is go back through the job description looking for keywords. These keywords should be written throughout your resume. A couple of before dying essay them can show up in your resume objective as well. Whoever is looking at essay on should be used for scientific research your resume will probably start by scanning the document. Problems Solved! Recruiters will be looking for the keywords they put in the job description, and if you add them to on should for scientific research, a resume and an objective in a resume, they will find what they are looking for right away. Do you want to know how to use keywords to persuasive statement, tailor your resume to on should be used for scientific research, the job description?
I'll show you in our actionable step-by-step guide: 6 Proven Tips On How To Tailor Your Resume To The Job Description 7. Most People Make These Mistakes - Do You? Okay. I lied. There are two rules you should always follow. Dissertation! Never use the word utilize and don't lie. Never use “utilize” in a job objective on essay on should animals research a resume (or any unscientific situation for that matter) - just do not do it. Bmat 3 Essays! You will sound pretentious. You will sound like you are trying too hard to sound intelligent. Essay Be Used Research! You will sound like someone who slips French words into conversations at essay parties.
There are only a few people who can do that without being embarrassing - French people. Also, don’t lie about your traits or skills: If you hate people, then don’t say you are “friendly” or “bubbly” or have “good interpersonal skills.” Don’t say you hate people, just pick a different trait to essay animals be used for scientific research, emphasize. Help! Writing a resume may seem scary and intimidating. You have to catch the on should animals for scientific, attention of hiring managers within the writing, first few seconds. Writing a strong introduction can turn a glance at your resume into a full read. Putting a great resume objective on a resume could be the one thing that keeps your resume on essay on should be used for scientific the hiring manager’s desk and vita out of the trash can.
A good resume objective is key for anyone lacking professional experience. It signals to the person reading your resume that you are right for the job, even if you have never had a job. Bonus: Download actionable examples of real job descriptions and essay on should animals be used the resume objectives that match them. Resume Objective Examples for Your Profession.” Do you have any questions about how to write a great resume objective for a resume? Leave a comment.
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Should animals be used for scientific research? | Debate org
essay on animals research, steelpan The Creation of solved a People’s Music. William R. Aho, Ph.D. Re - published with the expressed permission from author William R. Be Used For Scientific Research! Aho. Published in before essay lesson Latin American Music Review, Vol. 8, No.1, 1987, 26-58.
Contents or portions of this video cannot be rebroadcast, changed or manipulated in any way without the essay animals be used, expressed permission of the author. The focus of this paper is the class, color, and bmat 3 essays race components in the struggle to create a people’s music — a music originally and essentially of the economically disadvantaged and less formally educated citizens of Trinidad and Tobago, primarily those of African descent. Essay On Should Animals For Scientific Research! It is based on interviews with former and present panmen and pan women in Trinidad and Tobago and 3 essays also draws on government documents, newspapers, and personal observations during some sixteen months of fieldwork in Trinidad between 1972 and 1985. Music as a social phenomenon has been of essay be used research interest to before essay lesson, scholars for some time and has given rise to numerous books and scholarly articles and to several scholarly journals (for example, The Sociology of Music, Ethnomusicology and The Black Perspective in Music). Max Weber has noted that some of the forces shaping music have social origins and that musical instruments themselves are socially ranked (Martindale etal., 1958:111). Da Silva has referred to music as subjective, shared mental conduct by a collectivity that sometimes defines a community’s boundaries. He has also called attention to the conflict inherent in the social organization of music (1984:34). Shepherd has observed that an essay on should be used elite musical establishment of intellectuals persuades society that popular music is an science outline format inferior and less desirable art form and that music’s value is not a socially shaped reality but an ultimate one with objective criteria for judging its quality. In music, as in much else, writes Shepherd, the ruler’s ideas dominate (1977:1-2). Such social ranking, community boundary definition, conflict, and elitism in the musical realm have all found expression in Trinidad’s steelband movement. Trinidad and Tobago is a two-island independent republic in the southeastern Caribbean, seven miles off the coast of Venezuela.
A British Colony for 165 years and be used research a Spanish one for 300 years before that, it has been independent since 1962. English is the official language (both a dialect and before dying lesson “Standard” English are spoken), and the literacy rate is about 95 percent. Some Hindi and on should be used for scientific some French patois are spoken. Outline Format! Historically, there has been considerable social and cultural influence from French, Portuguese, Indian (from India, called East Indians in Trinidad), Chinese, Lebanese, Venezuelan, other Caribbean, and North American people, institutions, and ideas. Over one-half of Trinidad and Tobago’s citizens are Christian, about one-third of the total population Catholic, and one-fourth are Hindu. About the same percentages of Trinidadians (41) are East Indian and Negro (the official term used there), about sixteen percent are of mixed ethnic/racial heritage, and on should animals be used for scientific about one percent is white. Mixed and white people are generally believed to dying lesson, have a disproportionate share of the wealth, power, and on should animals be used for scientific social status, although there are many high-ranking civil servants, professionals, elected and appointed government officials who are East Indian or Afro-Trinidadian. The late Dr. Section! Eric Williams, Trinidad’s popular prime minister for 25 years and a historian of considerable reputation, was Afro- Trinidadian, as are most of the essay be used research, members and persuasive supporters of the political party he led (the People’s National Movement). Steeldrums are called steel pans or just “pans” in Trinidad and Tobago. Essay Animals For Scientific Research! Beginning in the 1930s, they were created and dying essay refined in essay on should animals research the poorer sections of Trinidad’s capital, Port of Spain, by sat essay writing help young men of essay be used for scientific African heritage with little formal education or musical training.
At first the drums were simple biscuit tins, pitch-oil tins, dustbins or their covers, without tuned pitches. Gradually, through experimentation and refinement, pitches were added by pounding in and out on the top surface of the drums, and dissertation vita drums of varying depths were created to produce different ranges. Today steeldrums are quite amazing and versatile musical instruments. The small tenor pans may have up to 32 different pitches. Pans are played with rubber-tipped sticks and essay animals be used are tuned either by ear, with a tuning fork, or with an science paper outline electronic tuning device. The small number of skilled tuners and essay on should animals be used panmakers command considerable respect and earn high incomes. Making and tuning steeldrums requires considerable knowledge, experience, patience, and a good ear. The proper raw material must be carefully chosen, the top hammered down to a precise depth, notes carefully marked in, sometimes with calipers, the drum cut down to the correct size and tuned, and the metal tempered by dissertation throwing water or oil over essay on should animals be used for scientific research the drum while it is in a fire. According to a 1952 government report on the steelband movement, “The magician behind this wizardry of sound is the ‘tuner’ who, with his uncanny sense of ear, tempers and pounds the metal until its notes respond to the tonal pattern deep in the recesses of his soul.” (Farquhar, 1952:1) The tuning of steeldrums is not standardized, so it is usually not possible for two or more steelbands to before dying essay, play well together unless their drums have been tuned by the same person.
The number and essay animals for scientific research position of the notes on statement thesis, the drums vary from tuner to tuner, and the pitches on some of the drums are not arranged in chromatic order, which facilitates striking the notes with the rubber-tipped sticks. Unlike the piano or guitar, steeldrums are tuned from high to low pitches. There is wide variation in the types and combinations of steeldrums used in a given ensemble, depending on the occasion and the personal preferences of the essay on should animals be used, band leaders and arrangers. Following are the maths problems, basic types of drums and their voice parts: (a) The tenor pan, also known as the on should research, melody pan or the ping-pong, approximates the soprano voice and plays the melody. It has from 28 to 32 pitches and is about six inches in depth. (b) The double tenor is a set of two tenor drums, which play harmony and counterpoint and are about one-half inch longer than the single tenor. (c) The second pan is in the alto voice range and about eight inches in depth. (d) Double seconds play harmony, in a set of two drums, providing the upper register of chords. (e) The guitar pan plays rhythm and has about sixteen pitches. It is about fourteen to sixteen inches in depth and is played in pairs.
(f) The cello pan is in the tenor voice range, about twenty-one inches in depth, and played in sets of three, with eight, eight, and five pitches, respectively. (g) The tenor bass plays rhythm, in sets of four, with two or three pitches on each drum. It is vita, about five inches shorter than the full bass pan. (h) The bass pan is the on should animals be used for scientific, full size of the oil drum and plays rhythm in sets of six or nine. Arranged on stands either horizontally or vertically, the bass pans have two, three, or four notes. A steelband might also include a set of trap drums, some congas, bongos, maracas, and persuasive speech a piece of steel or heavy iron (sometimes an for scientific automobile brake drum), played as a percussion instrument with a piece of steel or an iron bar. (Keer, 1981:1-2; Mahabir, 1986:33; Seeger, 1961:22) Because pan music is almost always played by dying ear, band members, who today include more women, East Indians, mixed and white people than at the start of the movement, must attend long and frequent rehearsals to memorize their parts for the repertoire. The repertoire includes classical music, popular, Latin, rock, jazz, and the Jamaican-born reggae, along with the traditional Trinidadian calypso and the more recent Soca (soul calypso) music. Color, Race, and essay on should animals be used for scientific research Class in Colonial Trinidad.
Class, color, and race conflict over musical styles, preferences, instruments, and life-styles emerged as early as the 1800s in colonial Trinidad and before lesson continues in a milder form today. Although some see the conflict as a socioeconomic rather than a color or race issue, color and race have also played an animals research important role. In British colonial Trinidad in the 1800s there was considerable prejudice and discrimination against writing, people of African heritage, whether slave or free, colored or black. Brereton observed that under Governor Picton in 1802: “The coloured militia officers…were stripped of their rank, the troops were racially segregated with…exofficers put under a white sergeant. They had to get police permission to be used for scientific, hold a ball and (had to) pay a discriminatory tax… A curfew at 9:30 P.M. was imposed on them, and sat essay help when on essay on should, the streets after dark they were obliged to carry a lighted torch.
They could be arrested if found carrying a stick on the streets. Free coloureds, even respectable land owners, were forced to vita, serve as constables, performing the humiliating duty of guard service at officials’ houses. The free coloureds were subjected to a whole battery of discriminatory’ laws designed to humiliate them and for scientific cow them into submission.” (1981:49) Errol Hill has observed that for centuries in Trinidad, Europeans have been afraid of any sort of diversions that might “incite the passions” of black people. Dancing and drumming were seen as agan or immoral and as potentially dangerous as a rallying point for slave revolts. Drumming was outlawed in Jamaica in 1792 and in Tobago in 1798. A 1797 law in Trinidad required police permission for the “ coloured classes” to have dances or entertainment after 8 P.M., and slaves could not even apply for such permission (1972:33). Even after Emancipation in 1834, white and coloured leaders held African cultural practices, particularly drum music, in contempt. Writing! They felt it their duty to rid the country of on should animals for scientific research what they considered “barbaric customs” (Brereton, 1979:152-153). Drumming, important in social and religious ceremonies, especially at wakes, was noisy, and before lesson the elites considered noise of that kind to essay animals be used research, be primitive. Drumming was important also to Trinidad’s East Indians, so this was an instance of cultural as well as class and science paper outline format racial repression.
The government-introduced Music Bill of 1883, although it was later withdrawn, reflected the essay on should, attitude of section many government officials. Animals For Scientific Research! It would have banned drumming after 10 P.M., but allowed the playing of European instruments by vita license. Between 6 and 10 P.M. drumming would have required a police license, but European instruments would not (Brereton, 1979:161). An 1883 ordinance outlawed “singing, dancing, drumming and other music-making by …rogues and vagabonds or incorrigible rogues” and called for the punishment of the owners of dwellings or yards that allowed it (10 July 1883 Amendment to on should research, Ordinance No. 6 of 1868). So vital is the drumming tradition that measures to restrict it have always been fiercely resisted in Trinidad. Between 1881 and 1891, there were several violent clashes between the police and sat essay the people, both East Indians and those of African heritage, over the use of essay on should drums in religious and social observances. In one of dissertation these, twelve persons were killed and over 100 injured (ibid., l84). Because skin drums could not be used freely, other instruments were improvised. In the be used for scientific research, early 1900s, the “tamboo bamboo (bamboo drum) band was developed.
Hollowed- out bamboo sticks of various lengths and diameters were struck against each other, with sticks, or against the ground to produce sounds of varying pitch. Persuasive! Bottles and spoons were used for higher-pitched sounds. The discovery and animals be used research refinement of the steel drum followed the tamboo-bamboo bands. The Development of the Steeldrum. Trinidadian artist Patrick Chu-Foon recalls the early tamboo-bamboo sounds and the beginnings of the steeldrums: “Long before even steelband came out, I remember seeing the bandsmen thumping bamboos on the raw pitch, the asphalt on the street. I used to stand at writing, the top of my father’s shop front and look down into the street and see all the goings on of early carnival… I remember the sounds. Maybe this is essay on should, where the solved, African influence comes in, because it was a thumping, a thumping of the drums… They also had some skin drums. This was also the early beginnings of steelbands.” (1983:1) The Roaring Lion - 1979. Rafael DeLeon, known professionally as The Roaring Lion, is animals be used for scientific research, a calypso singer of international reputation and a historian of Trinidad’s folk music. When I interviewed him in 1983 when he was age 76, he recalled that people in Trinidad had been beating on metal and tin for some years before the steel drum itself was created: “Long ago and to some extent up to now, children used to get together on Good Friday and make an effigy of Judas.
The children would collect all the old cooking utensils—empty milk tins, pieces of iron, pitch-oil tins, and garbage pans or dust bins would be “ borrowed “ for the occasion. They would march back and science paper format forth through the district beating their pans while they sang …and the rhythm of that pan was identical with what is now known as the steelband, even up to essay animals be used for scientific, the middle 1940s, before they started to discover notes and produce bits and pieces of melody.” (1983:1-2) He further reports that around 1930 the members of a tamboo bamboo band led by David Leach, from George Street in Port of Spain, “would pick up garbage pan covers, pieces of steel from the ‘smith shop in George Street, and any cooking utensil they could find and proceed to beat it in time with the rhythm of the tamboo-bamboo” (ibid. :3). There are several versions about when, who, or even what event or refinement constitutes the invention of the steeldrum. Oscar Pile, pioneer steelbandsman and the organizer and leader for many years of the Casablanca steelband, claims that: “ …way back in 1935 they had the dying essay lesson, tamboo-bamboo and playing on the road, by an accident, one of the leading men, which was Forde, was playing one of the bamboos. On Should For Scientific! That bamboo happened to section 3 essays, break, and in the excitement and the heat of it he wanted something to beat. He then run across the on should, road and persuasive thesis take up a dustbin cover, and by beating the dustbin cover they found out really the essay on should animals, dustbin cover had a more stinging and more rhythm sound than the bamboo just knocking on the ground and from then on that particular band from Newtown, Alexander’s Ragtime Band, they then went back and they start looking for pans …old paint pans and so on and getting a more genuine sound than the bamboo.
Whilst they was at that, Gonzalez (a district in Port of lesson Spain) went and start making pans and getting pans, old disregarded bins, biscuit drums, gasoline tanks, and so on, and animals this was the birth of the bmat section 3 essays, steelbands.” (1983:6) The crucial point in the transition from bamboo to steel is probably when different pitches were added to essay be used, the metal drums and melodies could be played on them. Solved! There is animals for scientific research, a consensus that the first pan with notes was created in the mid-1930s, evidently by accident, and 3 essays that one of the essay on should animals be used, first, if not the first, to sat essay, add notes and play recognizable songs was the late Winston “Spree Simon, who is essay on should for scientific research, accepted by many Trinidadians as the “father” of steelband music. Here is his version of dissertation how notes were added to the crude pans: “I had lent this drum and on coming back to retrieve my drum, the face of the drum was beaten in so badly that it had taken on a concave appearance. Now I just took the drum and essay animals research went on the side of the road and tried to get back the face of the drum to its normal surface. By pounding on the inside with a stone and sat essay writing a stick, in and out, I discovered that I was able to get four distinct notes, which enabled me to play something of a bugle call—and therefore I played at that moment (a short bugle call).” (Martin, 1981)
Steelband music—the discovery and evolution of the instrument itself, the essay on should be used research, bands that played it, and the entire social organization of the band, its followers and sat essay help supporters, and, in many cases, virtually the entire community where the band was based—was a product of the underprivileged areas, primarily in Port of Spain, inhabited almost entirely by people of African heritage. Essay On Should Animals For Scientific! Young people in these areas did not have much opportunity for recognition, success, or self-fulfillment in the customary areas of achievement— education, job, or career—so they channeled their energies and talents into whatever areas were available to them, in spite of, in some cases, precisely because of, resistance by the ruling colonial government and elites. Format! In the case of steelband music, they were using their own distinctive culture, instruments and on should for scientific research music of their own creation, to express themselves and to define an acceptable and comfortable social location for themselves in their own eyes, in the eyes of dissertation vita their peers, and in the eyes of the communities in which their bands were based. George Yeates, leader of the Desperadoes steelband during the 1940s and essay for scientific research 1950s, elaborated in an interview on the economic and sat essay writing help social conditions of the animals be used for scientific, early band members: “Those were the colonial days and …the boys didn’t have much education …they just reached of age for primary school and they left and section were all unemployed, without a skill… The steelband was the only pursuit at the time a young man could have involved himself in on should be used and sort of gave a status to a village youth so that when you come from Desperadoes or the Laventille Hill and you go to another district if your band is a powerful band, you will be respected.” (1983:3) At the time that the steel drum was being refined, in maths problems solved the mid-1930s, there was considerable political and labor unrest in Trinidad. There was high inflation, much unemployment, underemployment, and low wages, particularly for the black and East Indian sugar estate and oil field workers. There were strikes, hunger marches, and, in 1937, a labor riot. Essay Animals Research! The workers and unemployed complained of prejudice and discrimination in hiring, pay, and promotions.
There was an awakened race consciousness and heightened feelings of vita exploitation by British and other foreign investors in Trinidad’s oil companies, sugar estates, and on should for scientific research other enterprises. Vita! The Italian invasion of Ethiopia in essay animals for scientific 1935, unopposed by the Western nations, served as a stimulus throughout the West Indies to black nationalism and support for Ethiopia (Brereton, 1981:174). During the problems, mid-1930s in essay on should animals be used for scientific Trinidad, a group of writers and intellectuals started a literary and artistic movement that encouraged and supported Afro-Trinidadian culture and the poor and repressed in general. This entire political, social, artistic, and intellectual milieu very likely stimulated or, at the least, was very consistent with the development of the problems solved, newly-emerging steel drum as an essay be used innovative musical creation of poor Afro- Trinidadians. The Social Importance of the Steelband. The importance pan players attached to their activity, and the role it played in their self-image, is dissertation vita, reflected in an anecdote told by Trinidadian writer, patron of the arts, and politician, the late Albert Gomes. As a high-ranking government official in animals be used research the early 1950s, he was asked by the girl friend of statement a young pan player condemned to hang for murder to intervene on on should be used, his behalf. Gomes saw the youth and learned that he had killed another young man in a rage because the man had told him that he didn’t know anything about steelband or how to beat pan (among other insults). The prisoner was hanged (1974:96). Panmen have been celebrated in poetry as well as prose in Trinidad, as these excerpts from Sugar George, by Paul Keens-Douglas, show:
Ah was dey when dey bury Sugar George. When he get de fus’ piece ah property he ever own, Six foot of hard, dry Trinidad soil . . . De pans was playin’ When George dead dat nite, Beatin’ de dark wit’ notes so sweet. Ah fittin’ death for Sugar George, For he was ah man, ah real man, An’ more dan dat ah steelban’ man. An’ now Sugar dead an’ gone. An’ ah see him lyin’ dey on de bed, De greatest Tenorman in Trinidad,
As poor as de day he born, Yet richer than any millionaire in de land, More respected than any politician, For Sugar was ah something, ah somebody, He was part of ah plan. Dat we eh even begin to understand … Before he dead he say ‘beat pan.’ So dey beat when he sick, An’ dey beat when he dyin’
An’ dey beat when he dead, And when dey finally put Sugar away, Every band in bmat 3 essays Trinidad play. An’ ah swear to Jesus ah could hear Sugar tenor playin’ softly, softly, An’ Sugar laughin’ …’’ (Keens-Douglas, 1979:34-35, 37) Celebration of the lives of steelbandsmen at their deaths is not confined to poetic representations but is a fact of real life in Trinidad. When Rudolph Charles, the animals be used research, leader of the Desperadoes steelband, died in 1985, his funeral was rivaled only by that of the late prime minister, Dr. Eric Williams. The media mourned him as a national hero, and his body was drawn through the streets of Port of Spain in a casket fashioned from two large steeldrums.
Thousands jammed the downtown square and the cathedral where his funeral was held. It was attended by the country’s leaders and by the people he had loved and served as bandleader, friend, community leader, and role model for young people. His ashes were scattered by before essay helicopter over essay animals be used Laventille Hill, home base of the Desperadoes. Chu-Foon Pan Sculpture. Steelband has also been honored in the other arts. Vita! Patrick Chu-Foon’s sculpture Tribute to the Steelband in on should animals research Port of before dying essay lesson Spain, Errol Hill’s drama The Ping-Pong, and the well-known oil painting Steelband Boys in White by Boscoe Holder are just three of the better-known examples. An example of the essay on should for scientific research, enduring pride former steelbandsmen often have in 3 essays their bands was revealed to on should animals be used for scientific, me at a professional meeting by dissertation vita a Trinidadian university professor employed in Canada. He showed me his band’s symbolic tattoo on on should research, his arm and persuasive speech thesis seemed as proud of that as of his Ph.D. degree. The Interim Report of the Committee to Consider the Role of the Steelband in the National Life reported that the steelband movement brought not only a knowledge of music to its adherents: “It contributed the discipline of band organization and of steady practice to essay for scientific research, persons who might never have had such opportunities to acquire skills and disciplines fundamental to proper adjustment to a progressive role in society. Many villages have a steelband (some more than one) and in many cases the leader of the problems, steelband is a member of the Village Council.
There appears also to essay animals be used for scientific research, be great willingness on speech statement thesis, the part of the on should for scientific, Village Council to cooperate in writing help such things as the putting on of concerts involving the steelband and the loan of the Community Centre for practice sessions by the steelbands… Most rural bands also make it quite clear that they were established for musical enjoyment. The urban bands have become quite commercialized and specialized and as a result do not form as integral a part of essay on should animals community life as do the persuasive statement thesis, Village bands (with the exception of animals for scientific Desperadoes and Casablanca).”(1965:9,11) These findings point out an important factor—that at least some of the urban bands, and paper many, perhaps most, of the rural ones, play an important role in essay on should be used for scientific the community. It is important to realize that the two or three large bands are from poor communities with little else to enhance their images. The community band is a source of pride to the community, which supports it with tremendous enthusiasm and devotes time and energy to making it successful. Vita! Followers and supporters identify with the band much as some Americans identify with hometown athletic teams. It is an important social organization in the community, which may have a practice yard (panyard) or an enclosed practice area or hall that furthermore serves as an important focus of social activity. Furthermore, the leader of a community band may well be an important community leader, as well as act as an intermediary with government officials and the police and civil servants. Essay For Scientific Research! Bandleaders often provide vital assistance in obtaining jobs for community residents, get them out of trouble with the police, or cut through government red tape. One such leader was the sat essay, late Rudolph Charles of Desperadoes.
Journalist Peter Blood has observed that: “The panyard of Desperadoes stands precariously nestled atop the lofty heights of Laventille Hill, overlooking the city of Port of Spain. Like chromed sentinels, its pans, some of traditional design and others of futuristic form, loom defiantly, fringing the contours of the hill’s peak. Pan is a way of life on the Laventille Hill and Desperadoes provide the lifeblood for this vibrant and creative community… Beside being the band’s captain, [Rudolph] Charles also tunes the band’s low pans, and is regarded, amongst other things, the godfather and the sole lawmaker of the hill.” (Blood, 1983:62) Schoolteacher Rudy Piggott, at Rudolph Charles’s funeral, claimed that, “Rudy was the Moses of the people of Laventille. We do not even need the police there. Rudolph was a leader and he controlled us all.” (Piggott, 1985:3). Essay Be Used For Scientific! Another mourner, Dalton Narine, referred to before dying essay lesson, Charles as “the beacon on Laventille Hill …a lighthouse signal to the forces of innovation that contributed to an uncommon respect from his peers.” (Narine, 1985:3) Journalist Meryl James Bryan referred to Charles as “a fallen leader—appointed African style by essay on should animals be used a council of elders” and as “the General of one of urban Trinidad’s most African populations.
His life symbolized unity and continuity to the people of Laventille, and his death a new life, expanded vision, and renewed commitment to the steelband movement.” (Bryan, 1985:38-39) And a Trinidad Express editorial of April 5, 1985, referred to Rudolph Charles as a welfare officer and community leader. In a 1985 interview with a prominent business executive very closely connected to Rudolph Charles’ Desperadoes band, it was observed that: “Charles was an exceptional leader. Dynamic, with personal magnetism and good managerial talents. It was hard to refuse him what he asked for his band. He was a genius in steelband, an innovator. He built discipline in the band, although some of this was achieved through brute force. The Laventille area, home base of the band, is a state within a state, and he was its undisputed leader.
He dispensed money and aid on the Hill like a politician.” (Anonymous 1, 1985:1) Another very close Rudolph Charles confidant, who also asked to remain anonymous, said that he was a very determined person, had an inventive brain, and that though he used physical strength at times to enforce discipline, he was accepted and vita respected. “He would intervene in court and at police stations to help his followers. The doors of government ministries were open to him. He was a skillful manager and a born leader. He even ruled Laventille while he was away, living for most of the last several years in Los Angeles. He worked with the village elders, outside the legitimate county council.” (Anonymous 2, 1985:1).
Not all of the people in the poor sections approved of steelband activity. Some had adopted the attitudes and values of the ruling elite toward noise, drumming, and the entertainments of the poor African masses. Others, often parents of young people, didn’t want their children hanging out with the on should animals be used for scientific, rough crowd that frequented the panyards in the early years. Science Paper Outline Format! Many of the essay, men there engaged in sat essay writing gambling, drinking, carousing, and essay on should animals physical fighting and were generally thought to maths solved, be a bad element—”badjohns” in Trinidad parlance— who were often in on should animals be used for scientific research trouble with the law. Bertie Marshall, pan player, tuner, and steel drum innovator, recalled that, “I didn’t have to before essay, ask my mother’s permission to play pan. I knew her well enough to know that I would be able to hang around pan and panmen only over her dead body” (Marshall, 1972, Vol. On Should Animals Be Used For Scientific Research! 2, No. 1:8). He recalled also that teachers would warn students about hanging around the panmen, but the panyard was on the path he took to and from school and he could hear the sounds of the panyard from writing, his schoolroom. “So, in spite of everything we hung around and I came to know Spree (Simon) …and others.” (ibid., No.
2:3) The opinions and observations cited above seem to represent the dominant middle-class view of steelbands today in Trinidad. At present, they are seen as a unique and creative cultural achievement in which all Trinidadians can take pride. This view evolved due to several factors to be discussed later. Essay On Should Be Used For Scientific! Unlike an earlier period, today strong criticism of, or negative attitudes toward, steelband music and musicians is minimal. Rather, there is a general feeling of respect and pride for those involved in science paper outline Trinidadian or West Indian cultural forms. Violence in the Steelband Movement. During the essay on should for scientific research, heyday of the steelband era, from roughly 1945 to 1965, there was considerable violence in the movement. There was violence between bands and between bands and the police. It is writing help, generally accepted that the police-steelbands conflict was related to the noise the bands made, parading on the streets without a permit, stealing dustbins and other items to use as instruments, and the steeldrum’s lack of acceptance by the government, ruling classes, and police as a legitimate musical instrument. Some also believe the police simply harassed people living in the poorer districts. Inter-band rivalry was related to territoriality, arguments over girl friends, accusations of on should animals for scientific theft of science paper format each others’ tunes, over-enthusiastic followers and supporters, or even accident, when, for instance, a bottle was thrown by someone unrelated to either band.
The 1952 report of the government steelbands committee, known as the Canon Farquhar Committee, is instructive in this regard: “The steelband is essentially a creation of the essay on should be used for scientific, masses with their poor housing, overcrowding, unemployment, large families and general lack of opportunity for recreation and cultural expression. It was as if in unconscious protest of these delimiting circumstances that underprivileged youth evolved a medium of self-expression which seems destined to bmat section, make a distinctive contribution to the cultural life of the West Indies. The typical steelband population is predominantly negroid with a fair sprinkling of East Indians. Essay Animals For Scientific! To them the steelband is paper outline format, not merely another local institution: it is a way of life. Its devotees have their peculiar mode of dress, manner of speech, style of walking and dancing and, though yet in rudimentary form, group codes and norms of their own. Unfortunately, however, this unique form of music-making was characterized by feuds between rival bands. These clashes were invariably instigated by and centered around the young women of ill repute who followed the bands. There was, too, that element of what might be described as professional jealousy. Essay On Should For Scientific Research! These clashes became more frequent; public apprehension was aroused, and in the interest of society police intervention became necessary. Section 3 Essays! A state of tension existed, often rendered more acute by sensational headlines in the local press, and the steelband community, despite its internecine conflicts, developed the characteristics of an outlawed minority group. The movement became a menace; clashes developed into pitched battles in essay animals for scientific research which weapons ranging from sticks, stones and bottles to scribers, knives and science paper outline cutlasses were brought to research, bear with an alarming disregard for persuasive human life and property.
There were two fatal woundings. Public apprehension gave way to fear. Essay On Should Animals Be Used For Scientific! Police action became more decisive, though at times positively unimaginative, and vita whole bands and even individual members were restricted to 11 rigidly proscribed areas.” (Farquhar, 1952:2-3) According to Albert Gomes, instruments were seized, players roughed up, slums invaded, and players frog-marched to prison cells (1974:99). Similar repressive treatment had been accorded to other African-based cultural forms in the past—the Shouters religion, the essay be used, calypso singers, and persuasive speech the annual Carnival celebration after it was taken over by the poor and the blacks. Earl Lovelace nicely captured the spirit of this era when he wrote that: “…those were the days when every district around Port of Spain was its own island, and the steelband within its boundaries was its army, providing warriors to uphold it sovereignty. Essay On Should Be Used For Scientific Research! Those were the war days, when every street corner was a garrison; and to be safe, if you came from Belmont, you didn’t let night catch you in St.
James; if your home was Gonzalez Place, you didn’t go up Laventille; and if you lived in Morvant, you passed San Juan straight.” (1979:54) The Trinidadian calypso singer The Mighty Sparrow sang a calypso entitled Outcast about how the steelbandsmen were treated: For a long time to persuasive speech thesis, associate yourself wid dem. Was a big crime. If you’ sister talk to a steelband man.
De family want to break she hand. Lick every teet’ out essay be used she mout’ Pass, you a outcast. Other sections of Paul Keens-Douglas’ previously-quoted Sugar George illustrate the defensive side of steelband clashes and lesson the concern of on should be used for scientific research panmen for their instruments: An’ in those years when pan meant fight, Sugar learn to fight. There was no one to pull ah blade. As fast as Sugar George; He cut an’ he get cut too. But people respect Sugar,
For he only fight when he had to. An’ only maths, because he had to. But Sugar never forget he pan, Dey say when fight start an’ band clash, Sugar take care of he pan first. Like ah baby he used to on should animals be used research, wrap it up an’ hide it, Sometimes in ah canal, sometimes in de bush; An’ woe to de man who touch. De pan of Sugar George. Errol Hill recalls the incessant noisy practicing, often at times when people wanted peace and quiet.
The noise carried a considerable distance, so people did not want pan beating in towns, but up in the hills somewhere. Thus, the police restricted the beating to dissertation, specific hours (1983:3). Further, recalls Hill: “We always jumped up behind these bands on Carnival Day …and I have been in several …where a rival band is coming and they’re actually in a no-man’s land and you can feel the tension in the band as they came closer and closer and essay be used for scientific closer but no one would leave. On one occasion the bands actually crossed each other on the same street, and you could just feel them going and everybody’s looking and the eyes come out all over bmat section your head, looking around to see what’s gonna happen. Occasionally at essay animals be used research, that time someone would throw a bottle and that was the last thing you’d want to happen because it would immediately be felt that it’s coming from one of the enemy and all hell would break loose.” (ibid.) The roots of some of the steelband territorial rivalry may well go back to earlier times. According to Ralph Araujo: “In those days, the days of the Great Depression, youth in Belmont was generally touched with poverty but not unhappy, full of rivalry but not of factional bitterness. Format! Belmont was the center of our lives. Woodbrook was a place where we had to essay animals for scientific, change tramcars. it lay in a direction in which our elder brothers sometimes sallied forth on their bicycles in pursuit of new girlfriends—and it is interesting how many marriages resulted in cross-breeding of the Woodbrook and Belmont strains.
It was a standing joke…that Belmont boys never married Belmont girls—as we told the girls, they were too “own way.” This Montague/Capulet arrangement seems to have created a certain amount of dissertation friendly rivalry between Woodbrook and Newtown boys on essay on should animals be used, the one hand and Belmont boys on the other, a rivalry which sometimes surfaces now amonsgt those who grew up in that era.”(1984:5) George Goddard, old-time panman and early president of the Trinidad Steelband Association, also claims that “turf clashes preceded the development of steelbands and underprivileged youths would have fought among themselves or with the police in maths problems solved any event.” (1983:7). In the on should be used research, eulogy delivered for Wilfred “Speaker” Harrison, early leader of the Desperadoes steelband, he was remembered as having: “insisted that the early Despers all have tatoos on their backs, chests or forearms, which was to indicate Life Membership, and be given code names. He was referred to as The Dresden, and on the battlefield as Sergeant Rollock and sometimes Inspector Fugot, becoming General in charge of Central Intelligence, Despers. 3 Essays! He organized battle practice sessions…for all the men he would select to operate with him in launching attacks on the enemy.” At the height of the violent steelband era, it was not only the government, police, and elites in Trinidad who feared or were against the steelband clashes. A calypso of the essay on should be used for scientific, time advised the bmat section, government to “ …give the hooligans the old time cat-o-nine and they bound to change their mind. With licks like fire send them Carrera (a prison island) and they bound to surrender.” (DeLeon,1983:5).ld-time panman Carleton Constantine, popularly known as Zigili, recalls that: “So much different things used to cause them.
A woman from one band, she have a man from one bnd and probably see a next guy from a next band. That is one of the factors. Be Used For Scientific! Then…sometimes …like tunes bands playing—this band playing this tune say the section, next one take their tune. In a dance where drinks is concerned— anything, anything at all, because that was a era that violence was very high. So anything could start a fight.” (1983:4)
Concerning the weapons used in clashes, Tony Slater states that, “bottles (were used), one or two people may have a gun …a lot of people get damaged, a lot of instruments get damaged; ‘67 was the worst, it was a total wreck. Essay Be Used For Scientific Research! All amplification, everything mash up. It was a form of jealousy.” (1983:8) Curtis Pierre offers a chilling account of his personal experience in a 1953 steelband clash: “There was a certain amount of turf rivalry, which there is in any type of group activity. For no other reason than, you know, you just want to be King of the vita, Rock and guys said, ‘You’re from Belmont and you should not be walking in on should animals for scientific Woodbrook.’ It had nothing to vita, do with the animals be used for scientific, quality of dissertation vita your music, it had nothing to be used for scientific, do with whether you had their girl, people have advanced all kinds of reasons, that, you know, this girl was seen walking with a guy from Invaders so that the boy from Desperadoes got annoyed. My experience in maths problems 1953 when steelbands were asked to come on essay on should be used for scientific, the road for the coronation of Elizabeth when she was crowned; we had a clash with a band called Ebonites. It was not anything that they knew who we were or we knew who they were. Speech! Some little incident sparked it off and animals it got real messy.
You know, guys were swinging baseball bats. I got hit with a baseball bat. Lucky nobody was holding it at the time, somebody just flung it across. One guy next to me got his cheek cut open with a razor. That was the maths solved, scariest part, you just saw the on should animals research, flesh part and maths problems solved you saw the teeth and a couple minutes after, the blood. One guy came charging at me with what looked like a piece of essay on should animals research a kitchen fork, a large kitchen fork, and all I could do was raise the tenor pan I had and hit him across the outline, bridge of on should animals be used for scientific his nose and that I remember also seeing the bone just go white and the guy’s eyes closed and he flaked out and I disappeared. Speech! But it was not a pitched, prolonged battle. Within minutes there were sirens and everybody scattered.
Nor were there any sort of for scientific research vindictive feelings in that particular battle.” (1983:5) World War II saw several U.S military bases in Trinidad, and paper many movies with violent war, gangster, and Western themes. The steelbands took on some of the films’ names, individual steelbandsmen took actors’ names for their nicknames and emulated actors’ behavior. There are still steelbands bearing some of these movie-inspired names. Animals! Pat Chu-Foon recalls that: “ …those were the days when we used to see a lot of paper outline format these films with Back to Bataan and essay on should be used research Robert Taylor and Audie Murphy. It inspire the moviegoer and these poor fellas, some of them just lived in the cinema in those days. Most of them didn’t work, other than playing pan, tuning pan, lazing around playing a game of wappie (a card game), they just scrunt for some money to go to the next matinee and after seeing a good war picture they want to dissertation vita, do the essay on should animals be used, same thing, and this is what caused a lot of speech statement thing, with the steelband clashing those periods.
It was like a game. You would see fellas go up and say, ‘Look, we going up to beat Casablanca tonight. Invaders, we going and beat the Invaders.’ You hear how the animals, names are, all war names. Bmat 3 Essays! Invaders from Woodbrook coming up to clash with so and so and they meet on this corner. Men used to walk with razors in their waist.” (1983:4-5) The steelband badjohn role was an important one, a source of identity for essay on should many young Trinidadian males that had to before essay, be maintained, even if only as a front. Bertie Marshall reports, “I cultivated my badjohn image.
But my badjohnism was a pose really. Essay Animals For Scientific Research! Still, it was necessary to cultivate the image. Science Paper Outline Format! And I managed to do this yet at the same time keeping my hands clean—except for essay animals be used a couple of gambling cases which were no big thing, really. But the image was an important thing in those days.” (Marshall, 1972: Vol. 2, No. Essay! 5:9) Positive Influences of the Steelband Movement. Not all of the experiences of the essay on should animals be used for scientific research, steelband movement were negative. There are success stories on all levels. As Carleton Constantine (Zigili) said in 1983: “I have to be very grateful to persuasive statement thesis, steelband.
Because I left this country in animals be used 1956 . and lived in the UK and up to this day I am making a living from steelband. It was good to me because I have seen the world, I have traveled through the whole of Europe, the sat essay, Middle East, Far East, and still playing.” (1983:5) Steelband music provided many young Trinidadian males with opportunities for essay for scientific personal growth and the development of leadership skills that they found useful in other areas of their lives. Curtis Pierre, in response to an open-ended query about dying steelband, said that: “A lot of the distance I’ve covered in my life both in terms of a businessman, as a father, as an organizer, I can safely say that the animals be used, experience I’ve gained, I owe it completely to my exposure in the steelband world. Writing! I’ve learned how to deal with people, I’ve learned how to handle people, I’ve learned how to take insults, I’ve learned how to give. You know, it is really a forge for straightening out your whole approach to be used research, life.” (1983:10) George Yeates reports on a perhaps unforeseen outcome of the police-band violence of the early steelband era: “I had been able to command a great respect among steelbandsmen, and I had that disturbance (a steelband clash) quelled. I did as much work or perhaps even more work than the police, because most of the time the police would come and call me and ask me to maths problems, go with them whenever they had any steelband clashes.
Superintendent Barnes would always come and call me to go speak to both sides because when it came to Despers, and I held the reins of Despers, I would try to keep them out of any further clashes and let them know that those who want to fight cannot be in the band that I run because I am thinking in preparing the band for the music festival and improving the arts, improving the instrument, and these steelband clashes is interfering with my works.”(1983:5-6) Social Change and Acceptance of on should be used for scientific research Steelbands. A precise ordering of the factors that influenced the gradual acceptance of steelband music is not possible, since they overlapped and since there is no consensus even among persons on the scene, concerning the chronology of events and their importance. Growing acceptance due to one factor brought about acceptance in problems another area. The factors contributing to steelbands’ greater acceptance include the following: 1. Animals For Scientific! Acceptance by several influential citizens, including writers, intellectuals, lawyers, musicians, and politicians. 2. Government concern, expressed in committee reports and the formation of a steelband association. 3. Commercial sponsorship. 4. 3 Essays! Successful exportation to and enthusiastic reception of essay on should animals research steel bands in dissertation vita foreign countries.
5. Essay On Should For Scientific Research! Open support from the People’s National Movement political party. 6. Involvement in dissertation vita the bands of be used for scientific research white, light-skinned, and better-educated middle-class persons, including more middle-class women. 7. Refinements in problems solved the instruments. 8. The playing of semi-classical and classical music. 9. Involvement of steelbands in music festivals, in essay be used for scientific research churches, at funerals, and at middle-and upper-class social gatherings.
10. A resurgence of problems Black Power and pride in the early 1970s. Support of Influential Citizens. Starting in about 1946, the Trinidad Youth Council and its members, including attorney and on should research musician Lenox Pierre, Canon Farquhar, Kelvin Scoon, and sat essay help Errol Hill, made consistent efforts to gain social acceptance of essay animals be used steelband music, instruments, players, and supporters. Albert Gomes was another outspoken supporter who fought the tide of popular and official opinion of steelbands long before the government committees were appointed. Writing! He was “frequently at essay animals be used research, the office of the Commissioner of Police, more often than not accompanied by the steelband boys themselves, lodging complaints against provocative acts by the police.
But the police were no more than instruments of the maths problems solved, prevailing prejudice… The root cause of it all was intense class feeling.” (Gomes, 1974:99). At a 1945 meeting of the Legislative Council, to which he had just been elected, Gomes said, “Some people feel that some others should never enjoy themselves …and that the music should belong to one particular class… Personally, while I sit and enjoy Beethoven, it does not blind me to the fact that we have got to live among a people …of divers races and creeds, and that we cannot fit these in a particular design.” (ibid.) Other respected members of society became outspoken advocates of the steelband movement. Essay Be Used For Scientific! Beryl McBurnie, dancer, choreographer, and persuasive founder of the Little Carib Theatre, brought the Invaders steelband into her theater for a performance in 1948 and also got a number of middle-class young men and women involved in steelband. Government Concern, Recommendations, and Action. The 1952 Farquhar Committee report noted that: “ …the government appointed a committee in November of 1949 to investigate the essay animals for scientific research, implications of the maths solved, (steelband) problem and in April of 1950 the steelbands themselves organized a representative body known as the Trinidad and Tobago Steel Bands Association… With the setting up of machinery for negotiating with the Steel Bands public reaction became more sympathetic, and a new psychological approach to the problem gradually became evident. The steel percussion orchestra, as the on should be used for scientific, steelband is now known, is no longer regarded as an outlawed nuisance. Dissertation! These orchestras perform at social clubs, hotels, concerts and dances and, in animals for scientific research many instances, have almost replaced the traditional orchestra.
It is hopefully significant too, to observe the formation of steel orchestras among middle-class youth of both sexes.” (Farquhar, 1952:5). A major concern of the committee was expressed in its findings: “The cohesion and unity inherent in the steelband movement constitute a great social force which should be exploited and directed into constructive channels. The steelband movement is a people’s movement. It has captured the imagination and energies of the youth of sat essay writing our masses, and provides a ready-made entity around which a whole system of educational activities and essay animals recreational interests can be advantageously organized. The steelband movement and the problems which stem from it must he viewed as an integral part of the paper outline, general pattern of social and economic life peculiar to the masses of the colony. In this context one underlying conclusion emerges: there is imperative need for an awakening of for scientific a national sense of community responsibility.” (ibid.: n.p.)
Although the section, 1965 interim report of another government-appointed steelband committee found some fault with the Steelband Association’s leadership and cooperation, it could observe that: “ …the Steelbandsmen feel that they have improved the social situation in respect of gang warfare and that the Association (which was formed partly for that purpose) and the National Steelband have improved the situation in respect of be used for scientific research inter-band relationships. The Police are also satisfied that the steelbands as such pose no problem to the peace and order of society” (Interim Report, 1965:9) The same report recommended “continuing most vigorously the struggle for social acceptance of the Steelband Movement at home and acceptance and problems recognition of the movement abroad.” Commercial sponsorship of the animals for scientific, bands was another, to some a dubious, advantage, carrying with it some control over the bands and less independence than they had previously enjoyed. Nevertheless, the bands needed the bmat 3 essays, legitimacy, status, funding, and perhaps organization that sponsorship could provide. Oil companies, banks, airlines, and similar large enterprises sponsored steel bands starting in the 1950s. Animals Be Used! They supplied uniforms emblazoned with their names, as were the drums themselves, and the sponsors enjoyed good publicity and public relations benefits. They sometimes sent the bands to other islands or to Europe, Canada, or the United States. Recalling his early association with the West Indian Tobacco Company as the sponsor of his Desperadoes steelband, George Yeates said that, “From then onwards, this is where I can say that Despers has been the trendsetters…for good behavior in the steelband movement, because they no longer had cause to speech statement, fight…they were thinking that they would lose their sponsorship, so that sort of held them.” (1983:7)
Other panmen expressed their views on the role of sponsorship in the steelband movement. Curtis Pierre thought: “It was a good thing because even though we all know it came from the essay animals for scientific research, underprivileged, when this thing started to dying lesson, evolve and the costs started to go up, the animals for scientific, bands who had a sponsor …you found that those bands were better. And then the sponsorship thing got very, very big and the government got onto it and decided, ‘Okay, well this would be a nice vote-catching gimmick if we can tell the steelbandsmen that we are giving instructions to the business community to sponsor their bands.’ So from a devious motive came a very good end result. It went out of control in the last couple years where sponsors were being called upon to pay some thing like twenty or thirty thousand dollars a year for a band.” (I983:4) “Sponsorships play a good part (in easing the tension). Dissertation! To me it give and it takes. Because some people say you lost your name, but you get money. And a lot of bands need money because preparing a band for Panorama (a Carnival steelband competition) is expensive.
Sponsors have done a lot. Essay For Scientific Research! They needed money to writing help, progress and sponsorship assisted a lot of bands to progress. Some bands don’t need sponsors, they get along somehow. But the bands with sponsors, those are the progressive bands today.” (1963:8). Essay Be Used! Pat Chu-Foon’s opinion of sponsorship throws a new light on the issue: “Well, long after when they settle down properly and they were like gentlemen of pan, and pan started to make history in Europe, then and only then certain top companies started to assist to choose sponsorships here and there.” (1983:12). Sponsorship did not blossom, in fact, until after the successful 1951 European tour of the Trinidad All Steel Percussion Orchestra, discussed in more detail below. The Steelband Abroad. Another important factor in the increasing acceptance of sat essay steelband music was its exportation to other countries.
In 1951, under the sponsorship of the Trinidad Youth Council, an all-star steelband, called the Trinidad All-Steel Percussion Orchestra (TASPO) was sent to England to essay for scientific research, play at the Festival of Britain, and to France. The 1952 Farquhar Report stated that the before essay lesson, band “convincingly demonstrated the possibilities of the animals for scientific, steel orchestras as a distinct and original contribution to the field of music.” (1952:n.p.). Before Dying Essay Lesson! Errol Hill has observed that: “They were very successful, and once the essay on should animals be used for scientific research, pan became recognized as a new kind of before dying essay musical form in essay on should for scientific research England, then the local population had to accept it. Persuasive Statement! Once people outside said, ‘this is great, there’s something here that needs development.’ “(1983:5) Led by police lieutenant Joseph Griffith, the band amazed the essay on should be used for scientific research, European audiences. A London correspondent wrote: “People smiled indulgently as the rusty pans were rolled off the cart and set up. It seemed impossible that music could come out of dissertation such unlikely instruments. But jaws dropped and essay be used research eyes widened as the first sweet notes were struck and the band swung into Mambojambo. Feet were soon tapping to the rhythm of the music.” (Hill, 1972:51) The music critic of the Manchester Guardian found the band’s playing of Toselli’s Serenade “equal to speech, anything that a first-class band could offer. The playing is on should animals, wonderfully skilled.” (ibid. :51) Today there are steelbands in many countries outside Trinidad. There is a U.S.
Navy steelband organized with the help of Trinidadian Ellie Mannette and steelbands in Boston, New York, Washington-Baltimore, Montreal, Toronto, and in high schools, colleges, and universities throughout the United States, thanks largely to Mannette, now living in lesson the United States, and other Trinidadian promoters. This spread is at once the result of, and evidence for, acceptance and creates even more legitimacy. Support by the People’s National Movement Party (PNM) Errol Hill reports that: US Navy Steelband. “After 1956, with the coming to power of Williams’ People’s National Movement, we saw a change in the whole psychology of the people. They had at last got in a government of their own that purported to represent the people. They were moving toward self-government.
It was necessary to establish an indigenous culture, and there was a great surge forward to on should animals, find those elements of science outline our culture that could be identified as belonging to Trinidad and Tobago. The calypso was one, the steelband was another. And I think as a result of this that the steelband began to essay on should animals be used for scientific, come into its own.” (1983:8-9) J. D. Elder supports this view: “The sickening picture has undergone radical transformation. The most obvious change in the carnival calypso- steelband movement is the demonstration, at State level, of the admission that Trinidad popular music and musical festivals are elements of a high order in persuasive the national culture and that government has responsibility to on should animals research, so recognize it and give tangible demonstration of this attitude. This move is vitalizing; it has been effective in raising to a high status not only the traditional music…but it has also elevated the total folk cultural complex to a status never known in the past. Folklore in all its forms has suddenly attained an dissertation attractive status. This new awakening in the whole society to on should, the fact that the folk and their art and craft are important, must be put down squarely to the new attitude of speech statement thesis government.”(1968:25-26). Susan Craig has observed that, “the PNM had an appeal for essay on should animals the urban unemployed, especially those who had created the steelbands. Steel bandsmen became the unofficial ‘army’ of the PNM in 1956.” (1982:391). George Yeates, in a 1983 interview, said that if Despers were to simply move in and play in an area in support of a political candidate, that could almost assure election.
They could do this even without a police permit to play. The police would be afraid of them because of their reputation and, in before dying essay any event, would not want to shoot their own people (1983:12). Others have contended that whoever controls the Desperadoes controls the whole Laventille area. And the band has always supported the PNM. Bands in the PNM areas prospered after they came to essay on should animals be used for scientific research, power, but then so did many others, because of the science format, cultural resurgence. Selwyn Mohamed has stated that the PNM does get Despers and essay be used for scientific research other bands to help it. The bands, says Mohamed, disrupt meetings of other political parties and sat essay help they take people to the polls. A political party split in one band caused bloodshed before the election, and for some PNM functions, only Casablanca would play. (1985:2) In 1956 Bertie Marshall formed a small band he named the PNM Band, because they played at everything the PNM had in Laventille. The PNM office was near their practice yard, and although the PNM officials always praised the be used research, band and promised to help them, “I have never gotten any of the things promised me by members of government over the last fifteen or sixteen years. Still, we played as the PNM Band.” (Marshall, Vol.
2, No. Problems! 4:4). Although the evidence is mixed concerning the precise role the government, ruling party, and bands play with respect to each other, Curtis Pierre points out that, clearly, the steelbandsmen constitute a potentially valuable voting bloc: “You would look at the number of be used for scientific research bands and they are made up of fifty guys each, and each one of those guys has a spin-off factor of 4.3 or something like that in his family. If you get hold of some of persuasive speech statement thesis those bands and you multiply by forty and then multiply by five, you have a sizable voting population.” (1983:4-5) Personal Involvement of the Middle Class. The acceptance of steelbands grew when middle-class, lighter-skinned, and white young people started getting involved, often over the strenuous objections of their parents, teachers, friends, and relatives. Curtis Pierre became involved in 1949: “I took the instrument home and I got enough flak from my parents, ‘What the hell you doing with this thing here? I don’t care who plays that. This is the underprivileged.’” (1983:1).
The grouping in my band would be considered a little above middle class, which was anathema, that kind of thing was just not done by people in that class” (ibid. :2). Pierre attributes to be used for scientific, his group the change in the degree to which steelbandsmen and women are accepted in society: “We have been told it’s because of our group…that …’ You fellas made a breakthrough. You guys don’t realize what you did. You fought society and you said, We’re going to make this thing great’”(1983:3). Concerning the racial makeup of his band, Dixieland, he says that, “it could be considered what the people here would call fair-skinned boys. And there was not a predominance of Negroes in it at all, mainly because that was what middle class meant in those days. Statement Thesis! And that’s true, middle class had a certain color. Essay On Should Be Used For Scientific Research! It no longer applies today… These boys from the best schools,…you found they were all fair-skinned.” (ibid. :6).
Teacher, pan player, and bmat 3 essays arranger Ray Holman recalls that: The change came about on should animals be used for scientific research when people like myself, who might have the benefit of a secondary school education, began to statement, come into the bands. So people began to look, the public at large began to look at it a little differently.” (1983:3). The principal of my college, Queen’s Royal College, was an English Army Officer; he was a pretty stern fellow. Animals For Scientific! He couldn’t really understand how I could get involved in sat essay writing that (steelbands). It was like a social outcast at the time.” (ibid.:6). The band he joined at age thirteen, the Oval Invaders, accepted him easily: “They were very glad to have us.
It was like we injected something new so we were very welcome and we had a privileged place in the band. If you are mixing with people, sometimes you would have to follow the crowd. But following the crowd for me didn’t mean getting involved in violence. It just meant playing pan…having a good time within the limits of certain standards. I saw my role should have been to try to uplift them, rather than my coming down. This is how I saw it.” (ibid.:7-8).
George Goddard believes that only animals for scientific research, when middle-class youth began being brought up on charges before the police magistrates did public concern over steelband grow and efforts begin to bmat section 3 essays, “reform” the movement and work with it. This concern speeded up the changes, even if they might have come eventually without middle-class involvement (1983:2). The 1965 Interim Report of the Committee on the Role of Steelband in National Life reported that much of the struggle for social acceptance has been fought by animals be used for scientific persons outside of the groups from which the original steelbands sprang: “The efforts…of Dixieland (a group of the St. Science Paper! Mary’s pupils which contained many persons of largely European descent) which persisted in the early 1950s despite some disapproval by some persons closely connected to essay on should be used, its members, and Girl Pat (an all female steelband of teachers, civil servants, etc.) of the early 1950s. Now we find that there is an appreciable number of ex-Secondary School pupils in the Steelband Movement and the movement has enjoyed such confidence of the Community that it has been upwardly socially mobile to the extent that it embraces many persons who would be classified in our society as middle class.
Racial integration has perhaps been the most resounding sociological achievement of the steelband movement. Writing Help! Born in circumstances rather confined to one ethnic group—the Negro—it has spread to every ethnic group in society…We have come across no bands whose rules relating to recruitment would restrict admission of any sector of the population…The steelband movement has made a most significant contribution to the integration of the races.” (1965:10) Changes in the Repertoire and Instruments. Steelbands were more accepted when the essay be used for scientific, instruments became more refined and melodious, when bands started playing more difficult classical and semi-classical music, and as they performed at maths problems solved, local and research foreign music festivals and competitions, in churches, at statement, weddings, and at middle and upper class social gatherings. Curtis Pierre believes that the music sounds better today because money and sponsors have led to improvements in the instruments.
“The instruments can be tuned better and you can afford a better class of arrangers, musically, and essay for scientific they’re not afraid to tackle any type of paper outline format music. When that kind of music is on should animals be used for scientific research, played, it will naturally attract a more curious and probably a better style of individual to play.” (1983:8-9). Lesson! Kelvin Scoon, Trinidadian businessman, steelband supporter, calypso judge, and former Secretary of the Youth Council, contends that panmen themselves wanted to learn to play the classics in order to use more notes, to challenge and stretch the range of their instruments and their own abilities, not to please others or to be more accepted by essay on should research them. They first broadened their repertoires to include Latin and popular music. (1985:2) Musician, conductor, and arranger Pat Bishop points out that at first the playing of classical music, religious music, hymns, or Christmas carols was met with revulsion by the upper classes. They were shocked that such “lofty” music would be attempted with the crude instruments and felt the steel drum unworthy of the effort. But the writing, pan players persisted and gradually their music was accepted. (1985:2). On Should Be Used For Scientific Research! According to Scoon, compared to the early days of the steeldrum, the sound of today’s instruments is far more refined, mellower in section tone, and there is a much wider range of pitches utilized. Forty years ago there were not as many types of drum, and the repertoire consisted primarily of calypsoes and Latin music. Popular and classical pieces were added, and a variety of on should animals arrangements used.
Considerable talent and ingenuity in tuning and designing the instruments has evolved, and more is known about working the bmat section, metal and tempering it. Essay Animals Research! The drumsticks are now rubber-tipped, creating a mellower tone. Influences from jazz and bmat 3 essays fusion and constantly evolving experimental arrangements characterize the present repertoire. (1985:1) Although there is no empirical evidence to animals be used research, verify the observation, it seems quite likely that as the steelbands began to engage in sponsored musical competitions with audiences including middle-class people, they sought to maintain and maths problems increase the latter’s interest and on should animals be used research support by striving for a smoother, more refined sound, a wider range of notes, and a broader repertoire. They were also motivated by their own inner desire to stretch their talents and the potential of their instruments by taking on more challenging musical scores and showing themselves, their fellow countrymen, and the world what could be achieved with talent, hard work, and sat essay an instrument of humble origins. On Should For Scientific! The attention received from respected musical personages, both local and foreign, at first informally and then more formally at competitions, carnival time and steelband festivals, encouraged those involved in steelband music to expand and excel. The middle-class social contexts in which they were asked to play also had an impact on the kinds of 3 essays music they found appropriate. Participation in Music Competitions. In 1952 steelbands were invited to participate in essay on should be used research the prestigious biennial music festival in Trinidad and foreign music adjudicators judged their performances. One of bmat section these, Dr. Sydney Northcote from England, at first quite skeptical about steel bands, eventually came to hail the music as “truly astonishing.” In 1956 he commented that “their performance was orchestral in every way.
The melodic line was beautifully smooth, almost like the on should be used research, playing of a string orchestra The technical skill of it all proved that there are possibilities of acquiring with the steelband an orchestral precision.” (Hill, 1972:52). The enthusiastic reception of steelbands by the U.S. armed forces stationed in Trinidad also enhanced their image, as did their inclusion in dying essay lesson the carnival celebrations. Today it is be used research, not unusual in Trinidad to hear and writing see live steelband music in church services, at funerals, at wedding ceremonies or receptions, diplomatic affairs, or middle-and upper-class parties. There has been some decline in recent years, however, due to the high costs of steel bands, competition from U.S. music styles, and the bands’ more limited repertoire (they have largely become “one-tune bands” for the annual carnival steelband competition). Today there are all women steelbands, bands sponsored by companies for their employees, and children’s steel bands. Summary and animals be used Analysis of Factors of Social Change. The gradual acceptance of steelband music seems to before dying essay, have started with a few outspoken persons who, motivated by social conscience, egalitarian ideology, nationalistic pride, and favorable attitudes toward Afro-Trinidadian culture, pressured the government for acceptance, tolerance, change, and involvement.
Government concern led to the formation of a steelband association of concerned citizens and, along with commercial sponsorship, inroads were made with the general citizenry. Research! After foreign acceptance of the music and the instruments, even more local middle-class people supported the development of steel bands. When it was seen in the early 1960s that local middle-class, white, educated youth were taking steeldrum music seriously, and even excelling at it, involvement in it became popular (Pierre, 1983:3). Politically and historically the mid-1950s were suitable for the development of a Trinidadian and West Indian identity and pride. Great Britain was granting independence to its colonies. Local political leaders needed and wanted the persuasive speech statement thesis, support of the masses and would not have been wise to oppose a form of musical and cultural expression that was so vital to their identity. As the instruments developed a more refined and research mellow tone, and maths problems as they were used to be used for scientific research, play semi-classical and classical pieces, the middle classes slowly began to accept them.
Because their social and personal identities had been so closely linked to steelband music, some panmen may have suffered from the greater involvement of government and the middle class. Generally though, because of bmat section 3 essays greater involvement in essay on should animals be used research formal education and in the labor market, Trinidadians were upwardly mobile during the era of the rise of the steel bands, and they developed alternate and supplemental social roles and identities (Scoon, 1985:1). Most bands seem to have benefited from the involvement of the middle classes because sponsorship and support allowed them to hire expensive arrangers and tuners, as well as to maths problems solved, purchase quality instruments and uniforms, and at times to travel abroad. This is a question on which opinions differ, however. Steelbands have undergone considerable change. Essay On Should Animals For Scientific! Their role in science paper the annual carnival celebration, at first a progressive step, has diminished considerably. The large carnival masquerade groups, some numbering three thousand, cannot hear the steel bands playing while they are parading.
The steelbands do not want to use amplification, and their method of moving on the streets, with somewhat clumsy racks or stands, seems to essay animals for scientific research, hinder their effectiveness at carnival. They are being replaced with brass bands using amplification or by disc jockeys. Panorama, the steelband competition at carnival, has caused bands to focus on one tune they can perform very well, so they reduce their repertoire for ftes and other social events. Sat Essay Help! The Panorama, many observers believe, is now seen by steel bandsmen as the whole carnival and not just one part of essay animals be used for scientific research it. Some bandsmen will move from a band unsuccessful in the preliminary rounds of the competition to play for bands making it to the semifinals or finals, evidence that the legendary loyalty to a particular band has decreased. Dissertation! Arrangers are Trinidadians living abroad and on should be used for scientific research command very high salaries for preparing music for the annual Panorama competition. Sponsors may pay up to $250,000 a year to support a band and $100,000 is not uncommon. The players do not earn much money, the bulk going to help, the captains and on should animals research arrangers. In 1985 the speech statement thesis, Black Power-oriented National Joint Action Committee issued a national appeal to fte promoters to hire steelbands rather than disc jockeys to support their national heritage throughout the essay on should animals be used for scientific research, year (Obika, 1985:1). It is hard to keep bands together throughout the year. Some feel that drug use is part of this problem; others point out that there is also competition from jobs (more panplayers are employed than before), education (more are in school), and television.
More people play alternate roles in society and find the pan player role merely subsidiary. Some bands have established working relationships with schools whereby they recruit a pool of players from the schools and in return provide pan instruction in section their panyards. Pan seems to reflect less cultural and national pride today. More panmen need and want pay. On Should Animals Research! Curtis Pierre contends that today’s steelbands are too large to science format, be hired for social events such as weddings or ftes. He feels they should number about fifteen players and use amplifiers to cut the costs and increase bookings (1983:8).
Socioeconomic class, color, and on should animals for scientific race have affected the creation and evolution of persuasive statement thesis steelband music in Trinidad and Tobago. For Scientific Research! African customs, including skin drumming, were suppressed by the British colonial government and later by many elite or status-seeking black and solved colored persons who wished to disassociate themselves from the animals be used for scientific research, music, instruments, and life-styles of Trinidad’s poor urban masses of African heritage. Because the instrument and the social organization of the steel bands came to symbolize important, even vital, forms of cultural and help racial expression, the poor, urban Afro-Trinidadian steel bandsmen and women persisted in their efforts, refining the instrument and sharpening their own musical talents and skills, expanding their musical repertoire, and eventually winning the support, encouragement, and active assistance of animals be used a few key people in Trinidad and science outline format abroad. Animals Be Used Research! The organization of the bands provided needed social roles for dissertation vita players and opportunities for bandleaders to essay animals be used for scientific, develop and science paper format demonstrate leadership skills and essay on should be used for scientific thus fill leadership roles otherwise unavailable to them in the society. Not all of this leadership was channeled into violent conflicts with other bands or the police, and speech many steelbandsmen have credited their experiences with steelband music with developing skills they have used in work or life in general. Their self-image, as well as that of the players, was enhanced by their roles in the steelband. As the steelbands gained favor both at home and abroad, they were viewed as symbols of individual, racial, community, and national pride and as a unique creative accomplishment. As recognition from animals, abroad grew so too did support at home from higher-status persons. The several factors that contributed to the gradually increased acceptance of the bands, the players, their instruments, and music indicate that this acceptance was achieved at the expense of the science outline, bands’ independence and research that it came about only after the musical repertoire had changed, business had exercised some control over the bands’ behavior (lighter-skinned, white, and higher-status people had joined the movement and the government openly supported it.) In short, it was not accepted on persuasive speech thesis, its own merits, but was changed by those who could confer legitimacy and higher status on it. Paget Henry, writing on decolonization and neocolonialism, has observed that there is a locally rooted demand for foreign culture, persisting even after decolonization. As a result of colonial domination, the essay be used for scientific, colonized ceased to dissertation, have an easy, creative, and self-reflexive relationship with their cultural environment.
Elements of essay it had now been systematically imposed from dissertation vita, without. (Henry and Stone, 1983:115) Colonial domination further inhibited the be used for scientific, demand for the words, songs, ideas, and other products of the bmat 3 essays, local cultural system. There was a greater demand for foreign cultural products. Decolonization only partially uprooted the set of essay on should animals be used for scientific social and psychological processes that generated the demand for imported culture. The demand for foreign culture shows no signs of abating, writes Henry (ibid.: 1l6), and the major dynamic in the foreign sector of the cultural system is the institutionalization of a growing American presence (ibid.:117). This helps explain why many Trinidadian intellectuals, artists, and musicians blame the lack of what they consider sufficient local support for science outline format the steelband on the influx of American music and lifestyle in general, which they feel many Trinidadians are adopting too readily, trying to be used for scientific research, “live like Yankees” at the expense of their own culture’s contributions. Although steelband music has become much more accepted in science outline format Trinidad and Tobago and abroad, it still faces competition from on should animals, foreign musical tastes and difficulties caused by technology, costs, and a lingering and dissertation deeply-rooted self-denigration on essay on should research, the part of many Trinidadians. I am deeply grateful for the invaluable assistance of Anthony and Avril Bryan, Mackie Burnette, Deborah Cabral, Rhode Island College Dean of Arts and Sciences David Greene, Professor Errol Hill of Dartmouth College, Yvonne James of Providence, RI , and Arima, Trinidad and Tobago, Cynthia Mahabir of Suffolk University, Boston, Ancil McLean, Judith Philip, Everald Philip, Charles Price, Kelvin Scoon, Daniel Segal, the National Endowment for the Humanities, the format, Rhode Island College Faculty Research Committee and the talented and dedicated steelbandsmen and women of Trinidad and Tobago. 1. Anonymous 1, 1985, personal interview, Port of be used Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 2. Anonymous 2, 1985, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago.
3. Writing Help! Araujo, Ralph, 1984, Memoirs of animals be used for scientific research a Belmont Boy, Port of persuasive thesis Spain, Trinidad and Tobago: Imprint Caribbean Ltd. 4. Bishop, Patricia, 1985, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 5. Blood, Peter, 1983, People in Carnival , Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago: Imprint Caribbean Ltd. 6. Brereton, Bridget, 1979, Race Relations in Colonial Trinidad, 1870-1900, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 7. Brereton, Bridget, 1981, A History of essay animals Modern Trinidad, 1783-1962, Kingston, Jamaica: Heinemann University Press. 8. Persuasive Statement! Cho-Foon, Patrick, 1983, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and on should animals be used for scientific research Tobago. 9. Constantine, Carleton, 1983, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 10.
Craig, Susan, 1982, Contemporary Caribbean: A Sociological Reader. Dissertation Vita! Vol. Be Used! 2., Maracas, Trinidad and Tobago, College Press 11. Da Silva, Fabio B., 1984, The Sociology of Music, Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press. 12. DeLeon, Rafael, 1983, personal interview, Mt.
Lambert, Trinidad and Tobago. 13. Elder, J. D., 1968, Social Development of the Traditional Calypso of Trinidad and Tobago, Mimeographed, St. Augustine, Trinidad and writing help Tobago: University of the West Indies. 14. Farquhar, M. E., 1952, Report of the Government Steel Bands Committee, Port of Spain, Trinidad and essay on should animals be used Tobago. 15. Goddard, George, 1983, personal interview, Diego Martin, Trinidad and dissertation Tobago.
16. Gomes, Albert, 1974, Through a Maze of Colour, Port of on should for scientific Spain, Trinidad and Tobago: Key Caribbean Publications. 17. Henry, Paget, and Carl Stone, editors, 1983, The Newer Caribbean: Decolonization, Democracy, and Development, Philadelphia: Institute for the Study of Human Issues. 18. Persuasive Speech Statement! Hill, Errol, 1972, The Trinidad Carnival, Austin: University of essay on should research Texas Press. 19. Hill, Errol, 1983 , personal interview, Hanover, N.H. 20. Holman, Raymond, 1983, personal interview, Woodbrook, Trinidad and Tobago. 21.
Interim Report of the persuasive statement thesis, Committee Appointed to Consider the Role of the Steelband in the National Life, 1965, Port of for scientific research Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 22. Keens-Douglas, Paul, 1979, When Moon Shine, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago, College Press. 23. Keer, D. F., 1981, Music of the Pans, Information Bulletin Series F, 91, No. 4., Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago: Trinidad and Tobago Tourist Board. 24. Thesis! Lovelace, Earl, 1979, The Dragon Can’t Dance, Essex, England: Longman Group. 25.
Mahabir, Cynthia, 1986, “Steeldrums,” Faces: The Magazine about People (Sept.):33-35. 26. Marshall, Bertie, 1972, “The Bertie Marshall Story,” Tapia, Vols. 1, 2, 4, 5. 27. Martin, Von, 1981, Audio tape on the Trinidad steelband movement, Washington, D.C. 28. Mohamed, Selwyn, 1985, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago.
29. Obika, Nyahuma, 1985, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 30. Pierre, Curtis, 1983, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 31. Pierre, Curtis, n.d., “History of the Drum” Script for slide/tape program, Port of Spain, Trinidad and essay be used Tobago. 32. Pile, Oscar, 1983, personal interview, Barataria, Trinidad and Tobago. 33. Scoon, Kelvin, 1985, personal interview, Bay Shore, Trinidad and persuasive speech thesis Tobago. 34.
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The Trinidad Calypso, Washington, D.C.: Three Continents Press. 38. Weber, Max, 1958, The Rational and Social Foundations of Music, edited and bmat translated by Don Martindale, Johannes Reidel, and be used for scientific Gertrude Neuwirth, Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press. 39. Maths Solved! Yeates, George, 1983, personal interview, Belmont, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago.