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Remembering Babylon Summary | SuperSummary
Best Resume Examples for a Variety of Jobs. Do you need to essay babylon write a resume? Knowing how to thesis statement start can be the biggest challenge and looking at examples can be very helpful. Essay Remembering Babylon! The following samples are among the and vices, best resumes and essay remembering, you can use them as a starting point for creating your own resume. They vary greatly in skill level, profession and format and are filled with inspiration. Beowulf Essay! Take notes as you browse the examples, this will help you remember what you like and dislike and which elements you want to include when you begin writing your own. The first step to writing a great resume is to choose the best type of resume for your work history, experience and the jobs you#39;re applying for. Browse these examples to get a sense of your options before choosing the right format for you. Chronological Resume - A very traditional resume format that focuses on your work experience and lists previous jobs in order. Functional Resume - Focus on your skills and expertise with a minor emphasis on the companies you worked for. Essay Babylon! Combination Resume - Combine the elements of chronological and functional resumes to highlight both your skills and essay self who am, previous employment.
Targeted Resume - Write a resume tailored to remembering babylon the specific position you#39;re applying for. Mini Resume - Everyone in your job search does not need to see a full-length resume, use the example to essay on the i write one that#39;s brief and to the point. Nontraditional Resume - From a video to essay remembering babylon an online portfolio, discover how to help college application essay create and remembering babylon, use a resume that is unique. Resume Examples with Specific Highlight Sections. Every job seeker#39;s experience and goals are different and it#39;s important to add sections to your resume that highlight what makes you the outlay essay, best candidate. In these resumes, you will find examples of specific sections that can help you direct a hiring manager#39;s attention to what you feel is most important. Resume with Profile Statement - Give a brief and specific overview of your skills. Resume with Accomplishments Section - Highlight your career accomplishments at essay remembering, the top of critical your resume to essay babylon show off your biggest achievements. Resume with a Branding Statement - Create a short, catchy statement that sells you and your skills. Essay! Resume Example with Headline - Add a headline to bring attention to your value as a candidate. Resume with Summary of Qualifications - Summarize your entire resume in essay remembering a well-written paragraph that gets to the heart of on writing essay your work experience and skills.
Resumes for Executive and essay remembering babylon, Management Positions. Who Am! The following resumes are good examples for individuals in management and executive positions. They can be used when applying for other office and business jobs as well. The highlights of these resumes are the supervisory experience and business management. These are skills that employers are looking for when hiring business professionals and it is best to essay babylon include concrete facts and examples of your achievements. The world of business is vast and there is a great variety of positions available in it. The examples below are a sampling of great resumes used by business professionals. No matter your skill level or the position you#39;re applying for, these resumes should provide inspiration while writing your own. They include various skill sets and experience, which will help you along the way. Positions in the tech industry are particularly competitive and it is extremely important that your resume stands out from your competition.
You need to outlay of an be specific about your skills, the programs you#39;re proficient with, and it#39;s good if you can give examples of end results as well. Essay Babylon! Many resumes in the technology space include a #39;Technical Skills#39; section in which you list every program, language, etc. you know. It gives your prospective employer the chance to quickly understand where your skills lie. Resumes for Education and Human Services Positions. If your career is in education or any field related to human services, your resume needs to virtues essays highlight both your work experience and certifications. Essay Remembering! Be sure to who am include any professional licenses or affiliations you have as well. Essay! You will notice that a number of these sample resumes feature volunteer experience. What you do outside the essay on the self, workplace can have an impact in landing a great job in these fields, so it#39;s worth noting any volunteer work you do.
Careers in healthcare are filled with technical skills as well as patient interaction and both should be highlighted in your resume. Essay! Nurses, therapists and medical specialists should include any certifications and licenses you hold as well as details of essay on the who am i your work experience. Volunteer experience is also a nice addition to healthcare resumes because it shows the hiring manager that you have compassion off the essay remembering, job as well. If possible, include how you went above the call of duty or add any significant career achievements. Essay On The Self Who Am! Every trade position has a specific set of skills that are required on babylon, the job and it is important that you highlight your technical training in your resume. Include any certifications, licenses, affiliations and achievements that are relevant or necessary to your field. Notice how the example resumes are very specific when it comes to essays technical skills. Many also include supervisory and management experience as well as the adherence to codes and the ability to troubleshoot technical problems.
Resumes for Writers, Creatives, and Freelancers. Freelancers, writers, and other professionals in creative fields may have the most difficult time writing a resume. Your jobs may be varied, your experience and skills vast, and it can be difficult getting it all on paper. There are many ways to approach these types of resumes and the examples should help you find a direction that#39;s right for you. You are a creative, so you need to remembering babylon put some of that ingenuity into statement, writing the most effective resume you can. You might also consider developing a curriculum vitae (CV) and have that available as well. Resumes for Customer Service Jobs. Essay Babylon! Customer service is a key element in many jobs and it is important that you focus on that in essay self i your resume. Whether you are applying at a restaurant, a hair salon or a local store, the hiring manager will want to know that you will put their customers first. Some of these resume examples also include specific skills required for the position.
For instance, a chef may choose to highlight the presentation and speed involved in serving meals to customers. Essay! A stylist will want to focus on special treatments they have learned and and vices essays, a retail associate may want to show off their merchandising expertise. Also, be sure to essay babylon include any special honors or achievements you have received. Were you the employee of the month? Did you reach a high sales goal? Teenagers and recent college graduates may need to write a resume as well and this can be tricky because of your limited work history.
You will need to supplement your resume with other achievements. Include volunteer work and accomplishments at school in your resume and use these examples to learn how to feature them. Thesis Comparison! Employers understand that you are young and looking to add to your experience, so give them as much as you can that shows you#39;ll be a valuable employee.
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Light and Darkness in Remembering Babylon by David Malouf
Happy Endings Margaret Atwood Essay. ‘Happy Endings’ is one of Margaret Atwood’s most frequently-anthologized stories because it is remembering babylon so unusual. In form, it isn’t so much a story as an instruction manual on essay on the who am, how to write one. In content, it is a powerful observation on life. The story is broken up into six possible life scenarios plus some concluding remarks. In scenario A, John meets Mary and they have a perfect life, living together devotedly until they die.
In scenario B, John sleeps with Mary, whom he doesn’t love; he treats her abysmally, she commits suicide, and he marries Madge, whom he does love, and remembering babylon ‘everything continues as in A.’ In scenario C, Mary sleeps with John, who is married to Madge, who has become boring. Mary only sleeps with John because she pities him, and she is really in love with James, who rides a motorcycle. John discovers Mary and James in statement comparison, bed together and shoots them before turning the essay remembering gun on himself. Critical Essay? Madge goes on to marry a nice man named Fred, and we continue as in essay remembering babylon, A. In scenario D, Fred and Madge have no interpersonal problems at all, but their house is epic hero essay swept away by a tidal wave. They emerge ‘wet and dripping and grateful, and continue as in A.’ In scenario E, Fred is found to have heart problems. Madge nurses him until he dies, after which she selflessly devotes herself to volunteer work for essay remembering, the rest of beowulf hero essay, her life. It is in this scenario, incidentally, that Atwood begins to essay remembering, break down this encapsulated version of comparison, ‘fifty ways to write a story.’ Maybe it’s not Fred with the heart problems, she suggests; maybe it’s Madge who has cancer. Maybe she’s not kind and understanding; maybe she’s guilty and essay remembering babylon confused.
Or maybe Fred is. Essay? Maybe Fred, after Madge’s death, devotes himself to bird watching rather than volunteer work. We are obviously getting the point that none of this really matters. In scenario F, Atwood hammers this point home. ‘If you think this is all too bourgeois, make John a revolutionary and Mary a counterespionage agent and see how far that gets you. . . . You’ll still end up with A.’ What is the essay remembering babylon common denominator between all these scenarios? In case you missed it, Atwood sums it up in her concluding remarks. ‘John and Mary die.
John and Mary die. John and characteristics essay Mary die.’ As in ‘The Age of Lead,’ ‘Happy Endings’ forces us to question the point of life. Every story, carried to babylon, its ultimate logical conclusion, has the same ending, because all lives have the study same ending. We may die in the heat of battle; we may die in our sleep. We may die in infancy, in a gang war, in a nursing home. But we’re going to die. The story isn’t in the ending — it’s in what we do on the way there. So you may have found that this week’s reading left you with quite a few questions, such as, “What did I just read?” Margaret Atwood’s “Happy Endings” is not a typical short story. In fact, we could even raise the question of whether it actually is a short story or not. “Happy Endings” is an example of metafiction. Essay Remembering? You may want to think of metafiction this way: it is a writer writing about writing.
To clarify, in metafiction, an epic hero author writes a story in order make the reader think about the essay babylon nature of a story. With metafiction, the outlay essay author becomes self-reflective about the act of writing. Did you notice those moments in babylon, “Happy Endings” when Atwood comments on the story she is writing? (For example, in plot C, the voice of the author mentions, “…this is the thin part of the of an plot, but it can be dealt with later” .) Atwood’s goal is for essay remembering, the reader to contemplate what is the essence of a story. “If you want a happy ending, try A.” “Happy Endings” primarily consists of 6 different bare-bone plots stemming from the very basic catalyst: “John and Mary meet.” Plot A – the one recommended it we want a “happy ending” – presents the ideal married life of Mary and John: they enjoy well-paying, fulfilling careers;the value of their house skyrockets, their children “turn out well;” they go one vacation;and even get to retire. (Heck, their sex-life together doesn’t even fade!) Atwood offers Plot A as the stereotypical, cliched “happy ending.” The problem with Plot A, at least as far as storytelling goes, there’s no drama. Here the couple does not face any conflict, crisis, or tension. Of An? Without crisis, there’s no character development. John and Mary become merely empty names; there’s no reason to care for them. While a “happy ending,” Plot A falls completely flat. (Plot A reminds me of a quotation from essay remembering babylon, Leo Tolstoy: “All families resemble one another, each unhappy family is on writing college application unhappy in its own way.”) Plots B through F test out different directions that events can go after “John and Mary meet.” Each of these plots are remarkably predictable, mainly since they are based on cliched, stock characters. Plot B places Mary in the role of the unrequited lover, just hoping that John, the insensitive male, will come to see how much she truly cares for remembering, him. (The terms that Mary’s friends use to describe John – “a rat, a pig, a dog” – are unimaginative.) In Plot C, John takes on the part of the insecure, middle-aged man seeking assurance from a much younger woman, Mary. Plot D is the well recognizable disaster story, like last year’s film “The Impossible”.
If you are a fan of Nicholas Sparks’ “The Notebook,” you are already familiar with Plot E. Finally, Plot F resembles that of the thesis statement comparison story of lovers caught up in the political turmoils of their time. However, whatever the plot maybe, we always end with Plot A. Essay Remembering Babylon? The names of the characters may change and “in between you may get a lustful, brawling saga of passionate involvement, a chronicle of essay, our times, sort of” but the ending to essay remembering, the story will always be the same (767). Is this because, according to Atwood, readers will only accept this idealized ending for and other, tales of romance? Could Atwood be commenting on readers’ expectations for how the story will end when two lovers meet? Moreover, is Atwood claiming there is something false about Plot A? Atwood emphatically states near the end of “Happy Endings” is that “the only authentic ending” is: “John and remembering babylon May die. John and Mary die. John and Mary die.” Adopting a bleak outlook, Atwood argues that the one ending that we all will share in and so rings true is help on writing death. Now rather than leave us on that depressing note, Atwood offers a bit of hope, “So much for endings.
Beginnings are always more fun” (676). If you consider this statement, Atwood is right. Generally, romantic tales don’t open with the essay couple being married, with a home and children. Instead, the story of a couple centers on how they get together – what are the obstacles, the emotional turmoil, they face to reach their Plot A? From William Shakespeare to essay, Jane Austen to Nicholas Sparks, marriage is a conclusion not a beginning. The drama lies in everything the lovers have to do to reach that point. “Now try How and Why” In the essay remembering final three paragraphs, Atwood identifies where the essence of a story lies. Virtues And Other Essays? No surprise at all that she dismisses plot as formulaic, just a mere sequence of events – “a what and a what and a what” (676). Looking back on over Plots A through F, that is all she gives us.
John and remembering Mary’s characters are left undeveloped; again, we could interchange their names with those of critical study essay, Madge and Fred, while leaving the plot the same. Essay Babylon? We don’t care about John and Mary because we don’t have the chance to get to know them. Also, at the end of each plot Atwood leaves us with the question of what is the point of the story. There’s an emptiness felt after reading each plot. Study? Why tell us the story? Generally, we, as readers, look for authors through their writings to give us some insight into babylon, our world. Stories have themes, morals, profound messages that go beyond just the bones of the plot. Consider some of the short stories that we have read so far this term. Is it just that Chopin gives us the story of on the who am i, Louise Mallard’s dying after learning her husband is still alive? Is the importance of “The Yellow Wallpaper” limited to remembering, just Gilman’s narrator’s going mad through seeing a woman trapped within the outlay of an wallpaper? Why does the story of Emily Grierson’s keeping the essay remembering babylon body of her murder lover in bed with her matter?
For Atwood, the plot becomes the vehicle for the author to shows us a new truth. … Happy Endings Margaret Atwood Analysis. This detailed literature summary also contains Further Reading on Happy Endings by Margaret Atwood. Margaret Atwood’s “Happy Endings” first appeared in the 1983 Canadian collection, Murder in help application essay, the Dark, and essay remembering it was published in 1994 for American audiences in Good Bones and Simple Murders. Subtitled “Short Fiction and Prose Poems,” Murder in outlay of an essay, the Dark featured four types of essay babylon, works: autobiographical sketches, travel notes, experimental pieces addressing the nature of writing, and short pieces dealing with typical Atwood themes, notably the relationship between the virtues and other sexes. “Happy Endings,” which is essentially a self-referential story framework, falls into the third category. In several thumbnail sketches of different marriages, all of which achieve a traditional “happy ending,” Atwood references both the mechanics of writing, most particularly plot, and essay the effects of gender stereotyping. In earlier works, including the novel Bodily Harm, as well as speeches, Atwood discusses the outlay of an writer’s relationship to essay remembering, society.
She defined the artist, in part, as “the guardian of the moral and ethical sense of the essay on the self who am i community.” In “Happy Endings,” Atwood fulfills this role with a challenge that she throws out to remembering babylon, those writers who rely on the stereotypical characterization of men and women and to the reader who accepts such gender typing. At the virtues and other essays same time, she challenges other writers to essay remembering, more closely examine typical literary convention. Theme. the “happy” couple in “Happy Endings,” whether comprised of John and Mary, John and Madge, or Madge and Fred, enjoys the trappings of middle-class values and represents this element of essay on the, society. The husband and wife hold professional jobs, earn good money, and make sound investments that afford them some of life’s luxuries, such as nice vacations and a relaxing retirement. Even in the more troublesome aspects of these stories, the couples manifest their middle-class values.
In version C, John’s marital crisis is brought on by the fact that he feels his life is settled and dull. This mid-life angst drives him to attempt to boost his self-esteem through an affair with a much-younger woman. Despite the middle-class values that permeate the piece, only in version F does Atwood frankly address them. Style. “Happy Endings” is babylon satirical in the way that it makes fun of the naive conception that a person’s, or a couple’s, life can have a simple happy ending.
In version A, John and Mary build a life based on their nice home, rewarding jobs, beloved children, enjoyable vacations, and on the post-retirement hobbies. They experience one success after another. No problems or difficulties—major let alone minor— are mentioned; as such, their life is completely unreal. Essay? Such unreality is emphasized by the events of version B. While John and Mary do not achieve this happy ending, John does achieve it—but with Madge. Virtues And Vices? And in yet another version, Madge achieves this happy ending with Fred. Although all the essay remembering individuals bring to their relationships a unique past and set of experiences, each couple eventually achieves the exact same ending described in version A. … Margaret Atwood uses her short story Happy Endings to show that it is not the end of a story that is important it is the middle. She seems to beowulf essay, say that the endings are all clichA© that the middle is the part that is unique.
This holds true with literature versus a beach novel although a beach novel and piece of literature may end the same way it is the rest of the book that makes one different from the other. As she says the true ending is “John and essay Mary die” the critical essay only guarantee in life is death. So since the ending is already known why does it have the tendency to “steal” the spotlight from the rest of the story? Sure in some cases people can guess the middle of a story from the ending, if they find someone died in an electric chair they can assume he committed a crime. However if someone dies from heart failure no one can know anything about his life, they may guess the remembering person ate too much junk food, or drank too much but if they don’t know anything else they can’t guess the middle. However if someone knows the essay self middle they can guess the ending, if they are told that person “A” had to remembering babylon, have triple bypass surgery and that person “B” murdered a few people they can make an and vices and other educated guess how each story ends. But even the middle of the story is only part of a greater whole, without the remembering beginning of the virtues and other story no one can tell why certain events happened and what lead to person “A” to doing “action z”. Essay? Atwood also says that what happens is not all-important but how it happens and why it happens. According to Atwood, all the whats are just the plot, one thing that happens after another, however the how and the whys are what really make a story more than a story.
This is the important part, the hows and the whys are what makes a story literature with out virtues and vices and other them it makes no difference if the prose is expertly laid out or not it is all still a story nothing more. The step from story to literature is a gray line and is based on personal taste, as Justice Stewart said “I know it when I see it” although he was referring to obscenity it is just as applicable here. The use of story like this to portray the essay remembering babylon differences in opinion on what makes a story is pure genius on the part of Atwood, what is even more interesting is the fact that it is also considered literature. The main theme in most literature that divides it from the virtues and other rest of the stories is that literature tries to make a specific point, and in doing so forces the reader to think about the essay remembering babylon point that the thesis essay author is essay babylon trying to make. In this way it is easy to self who am i, decide what is essay literature and what is not, if at of an, the end of a story if the reader’s only thought is “Gee, what a nice story” then it is most definitely not literature, but if instead if the essay babylon thought is more along the virtues and vices essays lines of “The author said A, B and remembering C but were they really trying to make a point about thesis statement, D?” it is literature. Essay Babylon? Although even this test has it’s holes because literature for outlay essay, one person is just a nice story for someone else. As Flannery O’Connor said, “[if you don’t get the enlightenment] just sit back and babylon enjoy the story.” “Happy Endings” is a short story by Margaret Atwood.
It was first published in a 1983 Canadian collection, Murder in the Dark. It includes six stories in one, each ending with death. The author believes that this is the only sure ending to anything. The stories are all inter-related, containing the same characters and similar actions. Essay? Behind the obvious meaning of these seemingly pointless stories lies multiple deeper and remembering babylon more profound meanings; exploring, for example, themes of domesticity, welfare, and success. It all ends up with John and Mary dying at the end of the story. John – He is critical one of the main characters of the remembering short story.
In A, he is in love with Mary and is happily married to her. In B, he doesn’t feel the same way Mary does for him as he only uses her for help college essay, her body. He eventually takes a woman named Madge to a restaurant. Essay Babylon? In the end, he marries her. In C, he is a middle-aged man married to Madge but is in love with twenty-two year old Mary. One day he sees Mary with another man and shoots both of them before shooting himself. Mary – She is the main character of the short story. In A, she is happily married to John and had children with him. In B, Mary is in love with John but is saddened with the fact that he doesn’t love her. Epic Hero Characteristics? In C, she is remembering babylon a twenty-two-year old who is in love with James.
She is shot by John. James – He is a twenty-two year old whom Mary has feelings for. He isn’t ready to settle down and prefers to ride his motorcycle. He wants to outlay of an, be free while he’s still young. One day, he and Mary have sex. He is babylon shot by John towards the end. He doesn’t appear anywhere else. Madge – In B, Madge is John’s love interest. She is taken to a restaurant and virtues eventually, they get married.
In C, she is John’s wife. In D, she meets a man named Fred. Fred – He is the man Madge meets. In her short story “Happy Endings”, Margaret Atwood simultaneously displays her feelings about not only the art of creative writing, but also the equally artistic act of living one’s life to the fullest. The story, if it can really be called a “story” in the traditional sense of the word, immediately breaks the remembering babylon thin wall of author/audience by presenting a completely unique structure: that of an outline or a jumbled notebook. Essay? By asking the reader, “If you want a happy ending, try A,” Atwood is seemingly giving the reader a choice. Since A must be the happy ending, it implies that there are other, more sinister endings yet to be discovered. Appropriately, after the happy ending has completed, there follows five more endings, all of which seem to essay, be quite depressing, but nevertheless end in “everything continues as in A.” Why would Atwood do this? In each of her scenarios, she creates two main characters, John and Mary appropriately boring names for characters that are so underdeveloped and beowulf characteristics stereotyped as to be almost comedic.
It would be possible to essay remembering, call them each protagonists, but they are the very definition of flat characters: dull and undeveloped. In fact, the reader is informed of their personality traits not because Atwood shows them through a conflict or a plot rather, she simply tells them. Study Essay? Lines such as, “She sleeps with him even though she’s not in love with him,” present the type of stock character that Mary or John will assume for said scenario without any mystery involved. By creating such flat characters that differ between scenarios, but still coming back with “everything continues as in A,” Atwood brings up an interesting point: it’s not the destination that matters it’s all the same for everyone it’s the journey. In fact, after presenting all of her mock scenarios for the characters, Atwood abruptly changes tone to tell the reader an essay remembering babylon important fact: “The only statement essay, authentic ending is the one presented here: John and Mary die. John and Mary die. John and remembering Mary die.” After all, at the end of every person’s life, regardless of how they lived it or what they experienced, they will encounter death. This is not an example of the and other work written by our professional essay writers. Order a custom essay on essay remembering, Happy Endings by Margaret Atwood written by an expert online. Atwood notices that people tend to not think quite like this, if only because it is not the most comforting of thoughts, and she uses “Happy Endings” to allow people a chance to be a bit introspective. “So much for outlay, endings.
Beginnings are always more fun. Remembering Babylon? True connoisseurs, however, are known to outlay of an essay, favor the stretch in between, since it’s the hardest to babylon, do anything with.” Such is true for writing; such is comparison essay true for essay, life. And Vices? With her unconventional structure, caricatures for characters, and sometimes sarcastic tone, Atwood manages to remembering babylon, convey one of the most important concepts about life of all. Do not let life become “a what and a what and application a what.” Learn to favor the stretch between beginning and end, and then, perhaps, you can make your own happy ending. University/College: University of essay remembering, Chicago. Type of on writing, paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter.
Date: 3 April 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Happy Endings Margaret Atwood. for only $16.38 $13.9/page. Haven't found the Essay You Want? Get your custom essay sample. For Only $13.90/page.
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REMEMBERING BABYLON ESSAY - Q Discuss the use of symbolism
General vacancies occupation information. Everything You Need to Know about Careers in Banking Consulting! In collaboration with student societies at Oxford, The Careers Service is hosting two key events ahead of the onslaught of babylon, employer presentations, workshops and beowulf epic fairs to help you navigate careers in ‘the city’. On Tuesday 10 October we’ll be hosting ‘Careers in Consulting: Everything You Need to essay babylon, Know’ from 14.00 to 16.30 at Exams Schools. Outlay Of An Essay! Hear from essay remembering babylon, 3 very different firms (Strategy, Oliver Wyman and CIL Consulting) to learn what a week in the life of a consultant is like and gain key advice to be on top of your game for competitive applications. Then on Wednesday 11 October from 14.00 to 16.30 at Exams Schools join us for ‘Careers in Banking: Everything You Need to Know’ where you’ll hear from beowulf characteristics essay, a range of essay remembering, firms including HSBC, BNY Mellon, Jefferies and Schroders. They will be giving vital tips on how to critical study, find your dream job in finance and illustrating what their day-to-day roles involve.
These events are being closely supported by a number of Oxford societies including the Finance Society, the Oxford Student Foundation and The Oxford Strategy Group. No need to book, spaces are allocated on a ‘first-come, first served’ basis. Career Workshops for Researchers in remembering babylon, Michaelmas. Positive steps in career development come from meeting others and on the self i learning. Researchers at Oxford can come to any of our events, but we also have bespoke opportunities for research Masters students, Research Assistants, DPhils and Post-Docs. These are listed below for Michaelmas Term. Also look out for Careers Days, invited speakers and skills sessions run by your department, division or post-doc network. For appointments with Rachel Bray or another Careers Adviser of your choice at the Careers Service on Banbury Road, please book through CareerConnect. Essay Remembering! Rachel Bray also offers regular appointments for scientists at the JR and Old Road Campus, bookable by phoning reception on 01865 274646.
Bookings for workshops/events should be through CareerConnect and essay self i if you have any queries please email firstname.lastname@example.org. For: Research Assistants and Masters Students When: Thursday 5 October, 9.00 – 12.30 Where: The Careers Service Booking: This event must be booked. To reserve a place please go to CareerConnect. In this workshop we will look closely at the value of doing a doctorate in today’s employment market and for ourselves as people. We will consider our personal motivations for this route, the challenges we may need to overcome to secure a place and essay remembering how to thrive as a PhD student. There will also be opportunity to reflect on alternative pathways towards professional satisfaction. Study! Pointers towards further advice and support available here at Oxford and more broadly will be given. This event must be booked. To reserve a place please go to CareerConnect. Alternatively, book a place at our lunchtime seminar on remembering babylon this topic on Monday 23 October.
Career Management for Research Staff and DPhils. Looking to manage your career more effectively? This workshop has been designed specifically for University Research Staff at all levels and at of an essay any stage in their career, who want to step back and babylon spend a few productive hours focusing on identifying their ideal job and future possible career paths within, or beyond, academia. An interactive mix of short individual exercises and small informal group discussions will help you to build a clearer picture of the key factors relating to your career and personal circumstances and to explore career pathways. The session will cover: reflections on beowulf epic hero characteristics where your career is essay, right now; creating your ideal job; job satisfaction and career motivations; identifying your values and transferable skills; how to identify possible career pathways and move forward effectively. You will be encouraged to critical study, draw your insights together to begin a realistic personal career plan and to consider your next steps. Researchers@ Oxford Careers Fair.
Research students and staff planning to attend this fair are invited to book this pre-fair event. Depending on babylon the number of bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and networking, or strategies to get the most out of the fair. Further information on the fair can be found on the Oxford Careers Fair page. The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. Researchers@ Finance Careers Fair. When: Tuesday 17 October, 13.30 – 14.30 Where: Lecture Room 2, Christ Church College (then to statement, Fair in Town Hall) Booking: To reserve a place please go to CareerConnect. Research students and staff planning to attend this fair are invited to remembering babylon, book this pre-fair event. Depending on the number of bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and networking, or strategies to get the most out of the and other essays, fair. Further information on the fair can be found on our Fairs page. The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. Researchers@ Management Consulting Careers Fair.
When: Wednesday 18 October, 13.30 – 14.30 Where: Lecture Room 2, Christ Church College (then to Fair in Town Hall) Booking: To reserve a place please go to CareerConnect. Further information on the fair can be found on our Fairs page. Babylon! The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. Kickstart for Research Staff and their Partners/Newcomers. When: Friday 20 October, 13.00 – 16.00 Where: Careers Service Booking: To reserve a place Researchers should book through CareerConnect. Partners of newcomers should call Careers Service reception on 01865 274646. A special careers workshop for those looking to return to work after a long career gap or for a new direction, whether through re-location, other circumstances or choice. We will cover job search strategies, document optimisation, networking and interview technique but we will also be exploring ideas and case studies on how to get into the market and freshen up your skills and CV.
Even if you are a few years from getting back to work, come along! There are things you can be doing now to make that transition much easier when it comes. Open to anyone considering applying for a PhD. In this session we’ll cover the help college, steps you might take to discover whether a PhD is the essay remembering, right course of action for you, and hero characteristics discuss how to choose the best institution and programme for you. Essay Babylon! We’ll also briefly talk about the application process and funding. Researchers@ Careers in Computing Fair. When: Tuesday 24th October, 14.00 – 15.00 Where: Department of thesis statement, Computer Science, Robert Hooke Building Booking: To reserve a place please go to CareerConnect. Research students and staff planning to attend the above fairs are invited to book at the relevant pre-fair event. Depending on essay babylon the number of bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and networking, or strategies to get the most out beowulf epic essay of the remembering babylon, fair.
Further information on essay the fair can be found on our Fairs page. The fair booklet for remembering, this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. Researchers@ Arts, Media and Marketing Careers Fair. Research students and staff planning to attend the above fairs are invited to book at the relevant pre-fair event. Outlay Of An! Depending on the number of bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to essay babylon, discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and networking, or strategies to get the most out self of the fair. Further information on the fair can be found on our Fairs page. The fair booklet for essay babylon, this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. Researchers@ Science, Engineering and Technology Careers Fair.
Research students and staff planning to attend the above fairs are invited to characteristics, book at the relevant pre-fair event. Remembering Babylon! Depending on the number of bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to study essay, discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and networking, or strategies to get the most out of the fair. Further information on remembering the fair can be found on our Fairs page. The fair booklet for essay on the, this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. Researchers@ Teaching and essay Education Fair. Research students and staff planning to attend the above fairs are invited to book at the relevant pre-fair event. Depending on the number of bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to help on writing college essay, discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and networking, or strategies to get the most out of the fair. Further information on the fair can be found on our Fairs page. The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the remembering, event. Researchers@ Internship Fair. Research students and staff planning to attend the essay on the i, above fairs are invited to essay remembering, book at the relevant pre-fair event.
Depending on the number of bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and virtues and other essays networking, or strategies to get the most out of the fair. Further information on the fair can be found on babylon our Fairs page. The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the thesis comparison, event. CV and Cover Letter Skills for Research Staff. This intensive workshop on essay producing effective CVs and Cover Letters is specifically for doctoral students and research staff, whether you are considering an of an essay, academic or non-academic career, or are undecided. Using a mix of individual and informal small group exercises, we will. understand and recognise the characteristics of effective CVs and cover letters critique the strengths and weaknesses of their own and colleagues’ current CVs evaluate example CVs and cover letters to build their knowledge of different types and styles.
Insight into Academia Seminar: Myths and Realities Panel. When: Tuesday 7 November, 13.00 – 14.00 Where: Careers Service Booking: You do not need to book a place at babylon this event but popular events may fill early so arrive in good time. Are you considering an academic career? We will hear from a small panel of early- to mid-career academics about their day-to-day roles, how they manage a work-life balance, and opportunities for thesis comparison essay, progression. This is a chance to ask questions and generate discussion on many aspects of being an academic.
Academic Application and essay remembering babylon Interview Skills for Research Staff and DPhils. Are you a DPhil Student or Research Staff member planning to apply for academic jobs? Do you want advice on how to statement, prepare academic applications and to improve your interview skills? This workshop, designed specifically for University of Oxford researchers pursuing academic applications, is for you. This interactive course will equip you with the skills to maximise your chances of getting academic employment. Emphasis will be given to understanding the essay remembering, processes which universities use to select staff and the importance of tailoring CVs, applications, research and on writing college application teaching statements accordingly. We will discuss and essay practice the epic essay, skills required for effective performance at interview; preparation, self-presentation and how to deal with typical academic interview questions. Follow up one-to-one career discussions can additionally be used to review intended applications and to prepare for particular interviews. Career Options for remembering, Mathematicians ( leading into Jobs for Mathematicians Careers Fair ) When: Tuesday 21 November, 15.15 – 16.00 Where: Mathematical Institute Booking: To reserve a place please go to CareerConnect. Erica Tyson from the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications will outline the essay, breadth of career options that opens up for people with outstanding skills in mathematics.
It’s not only the financial and academic or teaching world that is hungry for essay remembering, this important skillset. Increasingly, commercial, government and thesis statement comparison essay not-for-profit sector players of all kinds are keen to employ highly numerate, analytical and creative thinkers to understand and predict trends, plan and develop strategy and deliver smarter and more efficient solutions. You do not need to essay remembering, book a place at this event but please bear in mind that spaces will be allocated on a first-come, first served basis and popular events may fill early so arrive in essay on the self, good time. DPhils and research staff are very welcome to this talk and to stay for the Maths Careers Fair. Dr Rachel Bray, Careers Adviser, will be available for half an remembering babylon, hour after the talk to comparison essay, discuss any questions that arise. Further information on the fair can be found on our Fairs page. The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event.
Interview Presentation Skills for Research Staff and essay DPhils. New job or direction in virtues and vices, mind? Do you want to brush up on babylon the practicalities of preparing for interviews and epic presentations? This workshop, designed for University Research Staff and final year DPhils, is for you. A highly interactive session, it will equip you with the remembering babylon, skills to play the study, ‘recruitment game’ to best effect. We will discuss and practice the skills required for effective performance at interview; preparation, self-presentation and how to deal with typical interview questions. The workshop will cover the skills required for essay remembering babylon, both academic and non-academic interviews, with particular focus on the latter. Follow up one-to-one career discussions can then be used to review intended applications and to prepare for particular interviews. Insight into Academia Conversation: Gender, Age and Progression in Academia. This ‘conversation’ around gender, age and epic hero essay progression in academia will be an informal group discussion (facilitated by remembering a careers adviser), with two guest contributors (two early- to thesis, mid – career academics) who will share their experiences with you. We welcome individuals from across the university with a mutual interest in the topic.
The careers adviser present is an experienced group facilitator, who’ll support the babylon, discussion with advice, strategies and resources, as well as offering suggestions for topics of discussion. Meeting people is a really useful way to beowulf characteristics essay, learn more about your mutual goals: it’s the equivalent of attending a tutorial or class discussion, and often attendees choose to keep in touch with fellow participants for further mutual support. Too Late to Change Direction? Career Transitions for Researchers. In this workshop we will explore our understanding of the remembering babylon, pros and cons of outlay of an essay, staying in academic research, whether and how we can move to another sector (or combine aspects of academia with another role) and what we feel we might be risking in making this move. In small groups, we will then. become familiar with an evidence-informed framework for assessing a potential career move, think about how to babylon, use this in our current roles, develop some practical strategies to assist decision-making. This one day workshop, for DPhil students and research staff who identify themselves as female, is an statement, opportunity for you to explore your values, create tangible goals, practice presenting your achievements positively and build assertiveness and essay remembering networking strategies.
There will also be a guest speaker who will share their work / life story and answer any questions you have. Coffee and tea will be available from 9am and the workshop will start promptly at on writing college application essay 9.30am. Lunch will be included. This programme is just for women, but note that we plan to run a mixed programme in Trinity Term for essay babylon, a mixed group of men and women. Tier 1 Graduate Entrepreneur Visa Endorsement – apply now! If you have an idea for a business, have a venture currently in outlay of an essay, development, or are piloting a new concept, you may be eligible to apply for our endorsement under the Tier 1 (Graduate Entrepreneur) visa scheme, which allows non-EEA nationals who are graduates or post-doctoral researchers to reside in the UK in order to remembering, develop their business. Previously endorsed businesses have included: Social enterprises and not-for-profits Technology start-ups Funding generation and thesis essay investment organisations Digital education tools Energy research.
The University of Oxford can endorse up to thirty applicants per year. Calls for applications are held four times a year: once in each term, and once during the Long Vacation. The next deadline for applications is Thursday 30 November 2017 at essay remembering 12 noon . Applications are now open, and thesis essay you can apply by email to remembering babylon, email@example.com, or via Symplicity (for Said Business School students), or via CareerConnect (for all other students/alum) using the following vacancy IDs: for Students: CareerConnect opportunity ID dnk94 for Alumni: CareerConnect opportunity ID 3v86d. You can find more information and details of how to apply on self i our visa page or on CareerConnect. Alternatively you can email firstname.lastname@example.org.
All applications must be submitted through CareerConnect or emailed to email@example.com by Thursday 30 November 2017 at 12 noon. Win a $1000 scholarship for coming up with a morale-boosting idea. VelvetJobs, a US outsourcing and placement service, are offering a $1000 scholarship for students studying in the USA or overseas. The “Employee Morale Scholarship” aims to get students thinking about their own potential future management position and how their decisions can affect employee morale. The piece should include a headline of the morale boosting idea and at least 500 words on how to effectively deploy the strategy. Students of any nationality can enter, as long as they are enrolled in remembering, full time education and over who am i, the age of 18.
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Light and Darkness in Remembering Babylon by David Malouf
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REMEMBERING BABYLON ESSAY - Q Discuss the use of symbolism
English 245: Film Form and Culture. Sound in the Opening Montage. “This is the essay end…” Actually, just the critical essay beginning, of Apocalypse Now . In class, I showed the opening scene of the essay remembering babylon film but didn’t say much about outlay of an it. That’s because it’s a very well-known – and brilliant – use of sound in the film. It functions as an unconventional overture, as it introduces not only Captain Willard, the essay remembering main character, but also some of the major themes in the film. Let me focus on the song for a moment. Thesis Essay! The song you hear on the soundtrack during the opening montage is “The End” by The Doors. Why a song about the end at essay remembering babylon, the beginning of the film? Because it indicates the end of Captain Willard’s illusions about the war, and the end of beowulf hero characteristics essay America’s illusions as well.
The film was made in 1979, four years after the essay remembering Vietnam War ended, and it was a bitter, soul-searching time – what President Jimmy Carter infamously called a time of “malaise” in the country. Help On Writing Application Essay! The United States had lost a war for essay remembering, the first time in help college essay, its history; it’s technological prowess and babylon, superiority had been bested by a rag-tag communist liberation army. This opening scene is much more about 1979 than 1969 (around the time the film is set). If the director Francis Ford Coppola had chosen a different song, even a different song by The Doors, the effect and the message would have been quite different. Self I! I should note that the film came out babylon before popular music (rather than a composed score) became the essays norm for essay babylon, movie soundtracks. This innovation in Apocalypse Now suggests that Coppola chose the song for the way it helped communicate the deeper meaning of his film. In your textbook, the authors write about the “use of sound to indicate character subjectivity” (236). They also mention that “often diegetic music reveals character traits” (237). All this is true of the use of the song at the beginning of Apocalypse Now . It takes us inside the boozy head of Willard in the hotel room. It reveals to college application essay, us what Willard is thinking, in all it surreal contours.
We hear other sounds mediated through Willard’s subjectivity in this scene, such as the distorted sound of a ceiling fan, which turns into the distorted sound of helicopter blades – the ubiquitous sound we hear throughout the film, and throughout most Vietnam War films (Korean War films too, such as Robert Altman’s M.A.S.H. ). These are sounds that Willard is babylon, hearing. The fact that the sound is distorted tells us it’s coming from Willard’s subjective viewpoint. So, just as camera shots can be subjective (such as the shot of the reflection of the snow-globe at the beginning of Citizen Kane ), so too can sounds. One of the best ways to use sound to who am, get into the head of characters is the essay remembering babylon voice-over. As you know, there is plenty of that in Apocalypse Now . Virtues And Vices Essays! The very first line that Willard utters in voice-over signals the unconventional use of this device in the film: “Saigon. Shit. . Essay Babylon! . . Still in Saigon.” In this one line, heard alongside the music of a marching band outside the window, Willard not only swears, but shows his utter revulsion in regards to the war, while at virtues and other essays, the same time showing that he can’t wait to get back to the jungle.
Like a lot of soldiers in Vietnam, and elsewhere in other wars, Willard hates the war but is lost and unmotivated without it. It gives his life meaning. I think you would agree with me (and disagree with the script-writing guru Robert McKee [of Adaptation ]) that, in Apocalypse Now , the essay voice-over is vital, not only for presenting vital information about character and plot, but for taking us inside the head of the lead character, revealing to us his subjective take on the insanity of war. This is the famous scene where the essay who am cowboy-surfer Colonel Kilgore bombs a Vietnamese village “back to the Stone Age,” destroying a village in order to save it. He provides a soundtrack for essay babylon, his bombing raid: “The Ride of the Valkyries,” from a Richard Wagner opera. Your textbook authors explain: The choice of music is an intertextual reference to [D. W. Griffiths’s film] The Birth of a Nation , whose original score featured Wagner’s music accompanying the Ku Klux Klan’s triumphant charge.
Moreover, the choice of Wagner here is a historical reference to German fascism, as Adolf Hitler admired Wagner’s music and the composer’s anti-Semitic writing. (260). As the who am i textbook authors note, there is parallel sound editing in this scene, as the choppers blaring Wagner alternate with shots of a quiet village, where only the sound of essay children can be heard, and then a relatively soft alarm bell. Characteristics! The sound of the loud choppers and music slowly builds in remembering babylon, the shots of the quiet village, creating a sense of dread. The textbook authors explain that. The abrupt movement from comparison, loud to soft shifts the audience’s identification, so that the excitement audiences might otherwise share with the soldiers onscreen gives way to remembering babylon, empathy for the villagers. Sound editor Walter Murch’s manipulation of volume in this scene puts audiences in i, the position of the attacked, as well as the attacker. (260). This split identification not only defines the audience’s experience, but also the experience of the war on the “home-front,” with the American populace nearly split on the justness of the Vietnam War. The use of sound in this part of the film is essay remembering babylon, also part of a larger sound design in the film, in which periods of quiet alternate with bombastic noise. Beowulf Epic! Characters having to yell over babylon, the sound of shooting, bombing, and the cries of the wounded (and the virtues and vices sound of a priest saying mass during the raid, and the sound of a cow being lifted by remembering babylon, a helicopter, etc.) – or use radio or megaphones – is not bad sound design. The noise is an and other essays inescapable part of modern, mechanized war. Essay Remembering Babylon! In the first half of the beowulf epic characteristics film, the audience is remembering babylon, encouraged to identify the noise with modern American society, and thesis comparison essay, the quiet with rural Vietnam.
It illustrates this statement by your textbook authors: “Because dialogue tends to overwhelm sound effects, those rare moments when sound effects do compete with dialogue are particularly important” (251). Babylon! In regards to essay, sound in films, if it’s soft and hard to essay remembering babylon, hear, it’s important. The quieter it is on and vices essays, the soundtrack, the essay harder you should listen. Let me illustrate the sound vs. silence rhythm in Apocalypse Now by focusing on a quiet scene that comes between the loud and disturbing opening montage, and the much louder Air Cavalry scene. This is thesis comparison, a scene that I discussed in class, where Willard meets with three men in babylon, the private quarters of a general, and is given his mission to essay, kill Colonel Kurtz.
First, there’s the background music in the scene (which you really have to listen for). It’s what we would call “muzak,” or “easy-listening” music. It defines the general and the scene, in contradistinction to the way noise defines Kilgore and his Air Cavalry. It indicates that the general is genteel, and a little prissy – or, at the very least, old (at a time when hippies and activists in the counterculture were urging young people “not to trust anyone over 30”). To emphasize this, we see a number of essay close-ups of the general’s soft hands and on writing college application essay, fancy eating utensils, not to mention the essay remembering delicacies they are eating during the scene.
In this scene, we also hear Col. Kurtz for the first time, on audio-tape. Beowulf Epic Hero Characteristics! It’s significant that Kurtz is introduced in the film via sound. It’s even more significant that what we hear are the ramblings of essay a madman. The tape really represents what the general and his adjutants want to hear. We hear a very different Kurtz later, when he reads from Time Magazine to impress upon the captured Willard that the military establishment is lying to the American people (and suggesting that mainstream publications like Time Magazine have become vehicles of essay war propaganda). It was the “silent partner” that I concentrated on when we discussed this scene in essay, class. The “silent partner,” unlike the other two men, is wearing civilian clothes. He is most likely CIA. He does have one line, and it’s an important one: he says, “terminate with extreme prejudice.” What this basically means is: “do whatever you need to do to and vices and other, kill Kurtz.” With this one line, the CIA officer basically issues the babylon order to WIllard to kill Kurtz.
In this, he shows that he is the real one in charge, even in “mufti” (civilian clothes). On The Who Am! This is Coppola’s way of showing that the war was secretly run by the CIA and other clandestine outfits, undermining the traditional military command structure. Coppola does this by using soft sounds in the aural mise-en-scene. Kilgore is bombastic in his conduct of the war, but it is the secretive CIA – the “silent partner” – that really runs things behind the scenes. Silence in the Temple of Horror. Much more could be said about sound in Apocalypse Now , particularly the music on essay remembering, the soundtrack used to define different characters and different scenes . There are a lot of synthesizers on the soundtrack, but they are not used the same way in every scene. Thesis Statement! The music soundtrack, instead, varies the essay remembering music for different scenes. If you listen closely enough, you’ll hear one theme during battles, another theme when the boat crew is at the French plantation, another theme when the boat crew approaches Kurtz’s compound, etc. For instance, the Kurtz music is softer, more “Asian” in of an essay, tone, with flutes and gongs, as opposed to essay babylon, the more dissonant and industrial music heard when the boat crew is on the river.
I also have to point out the study essay brilliant and devastating use of essay remembering sound in and other, the scene where Clean dies. You’ll remember that when Clean was shot he was listening a recording tape sent to him by his mother, and it continues on the soundtrack as the crew on the boat deal with Clean’s death (with the remembering babylon exception of study essay Lance, who is more concerned with the missing puppy). We hear his mother say, basically, don’t get shot and come back to us in remembering, one piece, while the thesis comparison dead, shot Clean lies on babylon, the deck of the boat. For the rest of this entry I would like to focus on the use of silence in the second half of the film. The first half of Apocalypse Now is much louder than the second, since the first half is set in war-zones and much of the second half is set in Kurtz’s compound in the Buddhist temple. But I don’t want you to come to the conclusion that you, as a viewer, are meant to hate the outlay of an essay American military establishment and the war (because it’s noisy), and sympathize with Kurtz (because he, and his temple, are relatively quiet). Rather, as in the scene in essay remembering babylon, the general’s quarters, we should be suspicious of the on writing college quiet, because some people do terrible things under the cover of silence. Case in essay remembering, point, Colonel Kurtz. Kurtz is college, a soft-spoken man who is drawn to the contemplative quiet of the Buddhist temple where he resides. There he can read his poetry (mostly T. S. Remembering! Eliot) in peace.
He is also prone to self who am i, long rambling, one-sided philosophical discussions with Willard, who barely says a word while he is Kurtz’s “guest.” The nameless photojournalist, played by Dennis Hopper (“Jordy” Jr. in Giant ) constantly expresses his inability to articulate things the way Kurtz can. “I wish I had the words…” he says at essay remembering babylon, one point. But inarticulation is also one of Kurtz’s preoccupations. During one of his monologues, Kurtz says: “Words can’t describe what is ‘necessary’ to those who don’t know what horror is.” Kurtz knows what horror is, and he knows it can’t be suppressed by silence. In fact, the horror whispers in the shadows of the compound. For instance, often times on the soundtrack you can hear flies buzzing. These are the flies that are feeding on the many corpses littering Kurtz’s compound. The silence can’t block out the flies; instead, the silence makes the sound audible. You would never be able to hear the on writing college application flies during the remembering battle scenes in the film.
Nor would you notice them if, instead, the soundtrack played up the cries of the dead and dying in the compound. That would have been too obvious: it is the horror in the silence that Coppola wants us to hear. Eventually we come to realize that the quiet in the Buddhist temple is anything but peaceful. It is part of Kurtz’s insane tyranny: he commands it. That’s why the people are so quiet there.
It’s one of the first things the viewer (or rather hearer) notices when Willard, in the boat, arrives at Kurtz’s compound. There are lots of people there on the dock and the shore, but none of them utters a sound. Critical Study! In fact, they scatter when the quiet is disturbed by the boat’s siren. They’re inarticulate because they are not allowed to speak. Similarly, when Willard finally kills Kurtz, and exits the temple, he is essay babylon, greeted by a large, utterly silent, crowd.
Willard is the new chief, the new tyrant. Willard might be seduced by this deceptive silence, knowing that it’s a accoutrement of command and power, but instead he rejects it. He will instead return to the noisy, messy world. Apocalypse Now ends with Kurtz’s dying words: “the horror, the on writing college horror.” They are whispered, barely heard, which is essay remembering, appropriate since it is in the quiet that the of an horror manifests itself. That is, the film suggests that it’s the silence that brings out a person’s inner demons, not the bombast of war. War and its horrors are represented by more than bombs bursting and voices booming over remembering babylon, megaphones.
War is also represented – or cloaked – by quiet, by whispered conversations in silent temples, even by poetry. In the end, that’s what the Vietnam War means to Coppola; it has infiltrated, even colonized, the silent interstices of the mind. Outlay Of An! Never again will war be known only by the sounds of explosions. It will also be known by the softer sounds of implosions, of minds going slowly mad. University of Maryland. The Male Gaze in Alfred Hitchcock’s Psycho. Last week in class I mentioned that I planned to write a blog entry comparing Hitchcock’s Psycho with Michael Powell’s Peeping Tom , which came out the same year (1960). Like Psycho , Peeping Tom is a story about a psychopathic serial killer. I also mentioned that the reception of the two films was radically different. Hitchcock’s had a huge commercial and critical success with his film, whereas Powell’s film was a commercial flop and remembering babylon, a critical disaster. Powell was practically “blacklisted” in i, movies for years afterward.
The purpose of my blog entry was to figure out why these two films did so differently in the movie theaters and in movie reviews. I have some ideas in this direction, but I decided that this was too much to take on right now. The Peeping Tom with his camera. I do want to write something on Psycho , by itself, in relation to what is called “the Male Gaze.” According to Glen Johnson, “the Male Gaze” (or “The Gaze”) is. a concept introduced by Laura Mulvey (“Visual Pleasure Narrative Cinema,” 1975) to characterize cinema as an instrument of male spectatorship. Essay Remembering! Classical cinema produces images of women reflecting male sexual fantasies. Mulvey went so far as to suggest that the cinematic apparatus (the camera, as well as darkened theaters and other viewing practices) is coded as male. Epic Hero! Feminist critics frequently consider filmic point of view (including reaction shots, showing who gets to look) as an babylon indication of power or control within the movie.
Bob Bednar adds that Mulvey’s. essay outlines an idea about the “male gaze” in thesis statement comparison essay, which men have the power to actively look upon passive female bodies. Women became objectified objects, symbols of essay babylon castration with no agency or power. Cinema functions within in this by allowing women to always be on display for the male viewer. Obviously, this idea is problematic, for not all viewers of film are male, and not all females are represented as simply something scopophilic. Still, Mulvey’s idea about the male gaze has some validity to it, which we find in Hitchcock’s films.
Simply put, the Male Gaze refers to the idea that the point of view in Hollywood films is male, and that women are usually presented on screen for the sexual pleasure of and vices and other essays men. Babylon! Mulvey builds a whole Freudian, psychoanalytic apparatus around this, but I will spare you the details (you can go ahead and read it here, if you like). In my online research, I found quite a few articles on Hitchcock and the Male Gaze (as well as a few student blogs!). This is not surprising, given that Hitchcock’s Rear Window is Mulvey’s textbook example of the essay Male Gaze at work. Other critics have examined the Male Gaze in other films by Hitchcock. This includes Psycho . Babylon! (Besides Rear Window and Psycho , other Hitchcock films that have been studied in terms of the on the self i Male Gaze are Vertigo and Notorious ). The gist of remembering many of these studies (including Mulvey’s) is that Hitchcock was a misogynist (someone who hates women) who exploited women for fun and profit. Scottie, with his camera, in Rear Window . For instance, in The Women Who Knew Too Much: Hitchcock and Feminist Theory , Tania Modleski describes how. in Film Studies, Hitchcock is often viewed as the archetypal misogynist, who invites his audience to indulge their most sadistic fantasies against the female. Some critics have even argued that Hitchcock’s work is beowulf epic hero characteristics essay, prototypical of the extremely violent assaults on women that make up so much of babylon our entertainment today. . . . As might be expected, such films are usually thought to appeal largely to males; women, it is claimed, can enjoy such films only by assuming the position of ‘masochists’. Rape and violence, it would appear, effectively silence and on writing, subdue not only the woman in the films – the one who would threaten patriarchal law and order through the force of essay remembering her anarchic desires – but also the women watching the films: female spectators and female critics. (17).
But some critics, including feminist critics, refuse to damn Hitchcock as an inveterate woman-hater. The iconoclastic feminist cultural critic Camille Paglia (who wrote about characteristics Hitchcock in her controversial book Sexual Personae , and essay, wrote a study of Hitchcock’s The Birds for the British Film Institute), said in a 1999 interview: From the moment feminism began to solidify its ideology in the early ’70s, Hitchcock became a whipping boy for feminist theory. I’ve been very vocal about my opposition to the simplistic theory of “the male gaze” that is associated with Laura Mulvey (and that she herself has moved somewhat away from) and that has taken over feminist film studies to a vampiric degree in the last 25 years. The idea that a man looking at or a director filming a beautiful woman makes her an object, makes her passive beneath the male gaze which seeks control over woman by turning her into mere matter, into “meat” – I think this was utter nonsense from the start. . . . It was an application a priori theory: First there was feminist ideology, asserting that history is nothing but male oppression and female victimization, and then came this theory – the “victim” model of feminism applied wholesale to works of culture. I agree with Paglia that Psycho is not the film of a misogynist; quite the contrary. But the basis of my defense is not feminist theory, but rather film theory. Remembering! Let’s call it the “Self-Awareness Defense” (Note: Self-reflexivity, a term you’ve been introduced to and which will be important in thesis comparison, the second half of the essay remembering babylon course, is a term quite similar to “self-awareness”). That is, Hitchcock knows what he is doing, and he makes sure the viewer knows what he’s doing.
Hitchcock doesn’t leer at women in his films, neither does he encourage other viewers to leer; he instead exposes the machinery of misogyny, the workings of the epic essay Male Gaze, to the viewer. We can test my “Self-Awareness” thesis by remembering, looking at Psycho . The partially-clothed Marion Crane is and vices and other essays, often on display in Psycho . And she is often watched by remembering, men. Travis Carr writes that. Before main character Marion Crane even reaches the Bates Motel she is essay, being watched; she is questioned and then followed all the way to Los Angeles by a far-too-diligent cop after spending the night in her car on the side of an remembering isolated desert road. The scenes involving the cop are fairly obvious in their voyeuristic qualities, with the cop intently watching Marion from across the street as she hurriedly buys a used car. But Marion was being watched even before that. In the opening scene, the help essay long pan/zoom shot, the essay remembering camera creeps into the window of a bedroom, the hotel room where Marion and Sam are having their tryst. Critical Study Essay! But making it seem so obvious, with the camera acting like a “peeping tom,” Hitchcock draws attention to it. He is self-aware about remembering it, which means he tries to make the viewer aware of it.
Evangeline Spachis also notices that. throughout the first half of the narrative, Marion Crane is the subject of on the self a number of gazes, from the babylon leering Mr. Cassidy in the office, to the suspicious Police Officer and ultimately by Norman Bates. These gazes are represented both technically (camera angles, point of shot) and by the script and the representation of the characters. A number of critics, Spachis included, dwell upon beowulf epic characteristics, the police officer: As a viewer who knows of essay remembering babylon Marion’s activities, we . Epic Hero Characteristics Essay! . Remembering Babylon! . feel he is essay i, being overly invasive and essay remembering, therefore implicates us in the crime also.
The dark, opaque sunglasses the officer wears seem intrusive, aggressive and block the viewer (and Marion) a chance to essay, interpret his character via his eyes. In large part because of the sunglasses, the film viewer never really takes on the point of view of the essay babylon police officer in this scene. The viewer doesn’t see what the police officer sees, but rather sees the police officer seeing. That is, Hitchcock shows us the officer leering – he exposes him – rather than let us share the officer’s leering point of view. This is virtues and vices, another example of how Hitchcock is self-aware in Psycho . The parlor scene is another example. There is a lot of essay remembering babylon looking and being watched in this scene. Spachis describes the scene: The parlor room in which they have lunch is filled with Norman’s stuffed birds, many frozen in full flight indicating perhaps the action of essay capture and the bird’s all-seeing point of essay view on its prey.
Norman’s declaration to Marion: “You, you eat like a bird” reinforces the virtues essays interpretation that Norman has an ‘eagle-eye’ view of Marion. Spachis reads the stuffed birds as extensions of Norman’s Male Gaze. But the Male Gaze becomes much more pertinent at the end of the scene, when Marion leaves and Norman peeks at her as she prepares to take her fateful shower. Remembering! Carr writes: After Marion leaves the and other parlor for her room, Norman watches her through a peep hole in the wall, the camera zooming in on his eye. This time, though, what Norman gazes upon is far more overtly sexual than anything previously; he watches Marion undress and prepare for a shower, and when the camera assumes the viewpoint of Norman the audience itself becomes an essay objectifying voyeur. The importance of this “peeping tom” moment is that we see that it is a “peeping tom” moment. Hitchcock makes sure we see it. Norman spies on Marion through a peep-hole hidden behind a painting. The light from Marion’s room illuminates Norman’s eye in profile nearing closer to the hole in the wall. The camera shifts to Norman’s point of view and instantly implicates the viewer in help college, the voyeurism.
We are both shocked at his invasion of her privacy and yet cannot turn away. Spying on Marion getting undressed invites us to witness the cause of Norman’s arousal and the manifestation of his desire from behind a wall – forever kept apart from any possible sexual gratification. Moments later, the famous shower scene occurs. For both Carr and essay, Spachis, the shot of Norman peeping at study, Marion implicates the viewer as voyeur. Hitchcock is saying: “Look, you’re a voyeur too!” When you watch this kind of scene, and find pleasure in it, you are participating in a patriarchal system that treats women like sex objects. Alan Vanneman suggests something similar: For the fourth time, with Norman’s assistance, we will spy on Marion in babylon, a bedroom.
We are complicit with Norman here, thankful that he lets us see Marion undressed once more (though angry when he blocks our view). Essay! The extraordinary close-up of Norman’s eye, filling the screen, reminds us of the watchful camera (the first entrance into Sam and Marion’s hotel room, the tracking shots of the envelope stuffed with cash and essay, the suitcase) and the relentless eyes of Mr. Cassidy and the state trooper. I would just like to re-iterate something that Vanneman mentions: the viewer has seen Marion in a bedroom, in various stages of dress, three times before Norman peeks at her through the wall. During those three other times, we just accepted that we were watching Marion in the bedroom. We didn’t notice we were watching. Virtues And Other Essays! But now, after we have briefly taken on Norman’s point of view as we peeped Marion, being in a bedroom is no longer innocent. We are aware of essay remembering what it means now.
Then there is the famous shower scene, when Norman in the guise of critical essay his mother attacks Marion with a knife. Some critics read this scene as the epitome of the Male Gaze, and see Norman’s attack as a pseudo-rape. Carr writes that this scene, all rapid cuts and screams, goes so far as to visualize the violent scopophilic rape that Laura Mulvey discussed in her article “Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema”. It is an onscreen manifestation of the male’s desire to “rape” the female, and Marion’s murder (in which the audience is remembering babylon, forced to, at help college essay, times, assume the role of the essay babylon murderer himself) is tantamount to that. On a side note, after her death, the camera zooms in on her lifeless eye, furthering the notion of the gaze. Modleski argues that the shower scene is “an opportunity for the presumed male audience to essay, see their deep-set sadistic desires played out on screen. This idea is emphasised in Laura Mulvey’s famous article ‘Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema’ (1975). . . . If this scene was in reverse (as in, the camera viewpoint was from Marion’s perspective) the effectiveness of the essay remembering babylon scene would be lost.” Spachis notes all the “allusions to the voyeuristic eye” in the scene: the shower-head, the drain, Marion’s dead eye. Vanneman claims that. the brilliance of the scene is essay, that it keeps us relentlessly in the very middle of a horrifying event – we feel as if we are seeing “everything,” far more than we want to see – without ever becoming merely sadistic or gruesome. To a very great extent the essay violence is and vices and other essays, implied, though we certainly have no sense of essay babylon censorship.
In part, we are caught between two desires, the desire to see the naked body of a beautiful woman (Hitchcock has been teasing us with this for the whole film), and self, the desire not to see a brutal murder. Essay Remembering! But Hitchcock won’t give us the one without the other. But it’s not just a matter of Hitchcock making the viewer pay for his or her desire by forcing the him or her to witness a murder. And Other Essays! It’s that he makes us witness a murder to show us the essay babylon end result of desire. Hitchcock is self-aware about watching in the shower scene, and critical, if the viewer follows his lead, the babylon viewer will become aware too.
He ruins our enjoyment for the sake of a greater awareness of the way men, in particular, objectify women when watching films. The basic premise of essay what I’m arguing is that if Hitchcock were a vehicle for the Male Gaze, he would not be so obvious about it, pointing it out to the viewing audience; he would make the babylon experience of outlay essay watching women for sexual pleasure seamless and invisible. Essay Remembering Babylon! But instead he keeps reminding the viewer of what they are watching, how they are watching, and, to virtues and vices essays, some extent, why they are watching. Hitchcock is self-aware so that we might be aware. If all this is still a little blurry, don’t worry. We’ll be talking much more about self-awareness in film in the second half of the course. University of Maryland. Bob Bednar, “Mulvey”, Alfred Hitchcock: A Visual Analysis (a website for COM 783: Visual Communication, a class at Southwestern University) Travis Carr, “Voyeurism the Male Gaze in essay babylon, Psycho (1960)”, Yahoo! Voices : Glen Johnson, “Feminist film theory,” MDIA-ENG 451: Hitchcock (course taught at on writing college, Catholic University of America, Spring 2013) Modleski, Tania, The Women Who Knew Too Much: Hitchcock and Feminist Theory (New York: Methuen, Inc., 1988).
Evangeline Spachis, “Drawing back the shower curtain: Voyeurism in essay remembering babylon, Hitchcock’s ‘Psycho’ (1960)”, Girl on Film (blog): Michael Sragow, “ The Savage Id” (Interview with Camille Paglia), Salon (website): Alan Vanneman, “‘Here’s Lookin’ at You, Kid!’: Alfred Hitchcock and Psycho ,” Bright Lights Film Journal. In your textbook, in the chapter on editing, there are a couple examples of on the editing in Psycho (there’s also an essay, at the end of the chapter, on editing in Alfred Hitchcock’s Notorious ). The first example analyzes the editing in the scene set in the parlor of the remembering Bates hotel where Marion Crane gets to know (perhaps a little too much) about the characteristics reclusive Norman Bates.
It is an example of how timing in the cuts, and alternating camera placement within the cuts, is significant. At the beginning of the scene, the timing and the camera angles, in the shot/reverse shot sequence, are fairly conventional. But as the conversation between Marion and Norman gets darker, the timing changes to show emotional responses by both Marion and Norman, and the camera angles become more distorted and disturbing. The second instance of editing in Psycho mentioned in the textbook is the short sequence that shows the murder of the private investigator, Arbogast, at the knife-wielding hands of Norman – or rather, Norman’s mother. This is an example of essay babylon collage – encouraging “the audience to compare and contrast the cinematographic qualities of characteristics each shot” ( Film: A Critical Introduction 193).
The scene begins with a shot from high above the action, in the stair landing on the second floor, and then cuts to a close up of Arbogast, as he is being stabbed, and falling backwards down the stairs. The textbook authors quote Hitchcock himself to explain the significance of the editing here: The main reason for raising the camera [to an overhead shot] was to get the contrast between the long shot and babylon, the close-up of the big head as the knife came down on him. It was like music, you see, the high shot with the violins and suddenly the big head with the brass instruments clashing. The textbook authors say, of this quote, that it “suggests how the director was acutely aware of the way abrupt changes in camera positioning can evoke an emotional response.” The juxtaposition of shots also shows how editing gives the audience an opportunity to compare/contrast the distinctive mise-en-scene, and cinematography, of single shots cut together. Like the essay other formal film elements we’ve discussed in class, editing usually works in conjunction with other formal film elements. The textbook authors don’t discuss Hitchcock’s use of the same overhead shot – though much more drawn out – a little later in the film when Norman carries his mother down-stairs. Since there isn’t a cut to something else, in this case, it would seem that Hitchcock was more than just trying to juxtapose two shots for aesthetic effect.
Hitchcock was also interested in babylon, distancing, and essay self who am, disorienting, the viewer, as he often does with his cinematography and editing. I should also mention that, in essay remembering, terms of cinematography, the shot of critical essay Arbogast falling down the stairs is babylon, distinctive. It is an example of the “trombone” shot that Hitchcock made famous in Vertigo . This unsettling shot involves focusing in on an object at hero characteristics, the same time that the camera is moved backwards, or vice versa. It is optically confusing and causes discomfort and misapprehension in the audience. (We see the essay remembering babylon same trombone shot, reversed, when Arbogast is walking up the stairs.) In class, I showed you a few other instances of editing in Psycho . I began with the establishing shot at the beginning of the film, which is actually a number of zoom shots edited together, transporting the viewer into the hotel room where Sam and on writing, Marion have just finished having sex (it is implied). The shot/reverse shot editing in the hotel room show the intimacy between the remembering two, before they begin discussing the difficult dilemma they are in (she has no money, and Sam has no money because of alimony payments, so they can’t get married), at critical study essay, which point the shot/reverse shot shows distance between them. I will have more to babylon, say about the intrusive camera in help on writing college application, this scene, in another post.
Then I showed you an example of an eye-line match cut, in the scene where Marion is deciding whether she will steal the money, or not. Throughout the scene, the editing shows Marion glancing nervously at the money, undecided but certainly tempted. Eventually, she decides to take the babylon money; and this sets up the critical study essay most prominent “McGuffin” in the film (a McGuffin is a plot element that forwards the plot, though often misleading the audience as to the true direction of the babylon plot, becoming a “red herring”). Then we looked at the sequence in which Marion flees Phoenix in her car, with the stolen money. Initially the virtues and other essays shot/reverse shot builds suspense by quick cutting between a distressed Marion and an obscured view of essay babylon a rain-drenched road.
Once Marion decides to stop her car at on the who am i, the side of the essay remembering babylon road to sleep, the editing slows significantly. Then we have the tense shot/reverse shot of Marion and the policeman in outlay, sun-glasses, in which camera angles are important: the policeman is seen in an extreme close up shot from a low angle, which, along with the fact that we can’t see his eyes, makes him an ominous figure. Meanwhile, we see Marion in medium close up from a high angle shot, which makes her look smaller compared to the policeman. This sequence is essay babylon, followed by another series of tense shot/reverse shots, as Marion drives down the road followed by the policeman. We see Marion, again distressed, with the self who am i police car behind her in the shot; and essay babylon, then, to emphasize Marion’s anxiety, the of an camera cuts to shots of the essay remembering police car in the rear-view mirror. I would have been deficient as a film professor if, in class, I hadn’t discussed the editing of the famous shower scene in Psycho . When we went over it in class, I demonstrated (by counting) how the thirty or so cuts we see, once Marion steps into outlay of an, the shower, creates a sense of frenetic action and a feeling of disorientation in the audience, due to essay babylon, the dizzying array of epic multiple camera angles and remembering, the variety of zooms (close-up, extreme close up). Let me add that, as the camera usually has a point of view, the outlay of an editing in this scene subtly forces the audience to take on Norman’s crazed point of view. The frenetically-paced and remembering, confusing editing in the shower scene is by now quite common in on writing college, horror and suspense films, but when Hitchcock did it, it was new and essay babylon, somewhat controversial. There are a couple other instances of editing in Psycho that I should mention. In the thesis scene where Norman is remembering, watching Marion’s car – with all of Marion’s effects, including, unbeknownst to Norman, the help on writing college money Marion stole – the pacing of the editing of the essay remembering babylon shot/reverse slows down. Instead of creating suspense by speeding up the outlay cuts (as in the scenes where Marion is fleeing with the money, and in the shower scene), the longer shots in essay babylon, this scene, along with the of an essay more leisurely pacing of essay babylon cuts, give us ample opportunity to see Norman’s anxiety, coupled with relatively long shots of a car that refuses to outlay, sink.
In this case, speeding up the cuts would undermine rather than enhance the suspense in the scene. One reason Hitchcock is so methodical and essay, careful in this sequence is outlay essay, that the babylon sinking of the thesis statement comparison essay car represents Norman’s psychological repression of the heinous deed that he, not his mother, perpetrated. According to this reading, the swamp represents Norman’s unconscious. While the final shot of the remembering film, showing the essay self i car being dragged from the swamp (reversing the remembering shot that shows it sinking), represents Norman’s crime coming to light. Finally, Hitchcock provides us with a good example of parallel editing (cross-cutting) in the scene where Sam and essay, Lila (Marion’s sister) go to the Bates motel to investigate. We have shots of Sam talking with Norman, stalling for time, and cross-cuts to Lila seeking Mrs.
Bates in essay remembering, the house. This, like much of the editing in critical essay, the film (and like most instances of essay remembering babylon parallel editing), is done to create suspense. One of the interesting things about the cross-cutting here is thesis essay, that while Sam rather aggressively interrogates Norman, accusing him of killing Marion to steal the $40,000, Lila – by way of essay remembering babylon many eyeline-match cuts – finds ample evidence in the mise-en-scene of Norman’s arrested development and insanity. That is, Sam is dead wrong in his approach, while Lila inadvertently gets to the bottom of things, just by closely observing the details in critical study essay, Norman’s home. Happy Halloween from Norman’s mom, three weeks early. Don’t eat too much candy so you can have pearly white teeth like mine!
Citizen Kane and Cinematography: Highlights. With it’s use of deep focus, strange shot angles, and remembering babylon, impossible crane shots, the cinematography of Citizen Kane is justly famous and has been hugely influential. The irony is beowulf hero, that cinematographer Gregg Toland’s unsettling and idiosyncratic use of the camera may have been part of the reason why Citizen Kane was not a commercial or critical success when the film was first released. I’ve already posted the notes I took when I was watching the film only for the cinematography. Here I will elaborate upon essay remembering, some of the more innovative uses of cinematography in Citizen Kane . 1. Snow globe reflection shot (2:40 – 2:46). Coming near the beginning of the film, this is one of the more striking shots in the film. Using the broken snow globe that the dying Kane held in his hand, Toland shot the reflection of a nurse entering the room.
It is a bizarre and yet artistic shot that reflects the epic essay distorted, subjective POV (point-of-view) of Kane at the moment of his death. 2. Mock newsreel cinematography (3:12 – 12:27). This montage, done in remembering babylon, the style of film newsreels (which were shown before most feature presentations at the time Citizen Kane was released), has a lot of inventive camera and film work. We see many low angle shots of the buildings at Xanadu, Kane’s “pleasure palace.” We also see a couple extreme high-angle plane shots from far above Xanadu. Often, when the human figure is featured in the shot, low angles denote the POV of a powerful figure in the frame and, conversely, high angles typically show a dominated figure. But sometimes, as is the case in the mock newsreel, both low and high angle shots are used to highlight something unusually large or extensive (Xanadu and the many things owned by Kane).
Both are used to communicate power. Note also the help on writing college application essay grainy look of the older film excerpts. This was done intentionally to give these excerpts the look of very old movies, by way of film processing, choice of film stock, and/or scratching the film itself. 3. Crane shot introducing Susan Alexander (14:25 – 14:58). I discussed this shot in class. Though it is made to look like one long crane shot, it is really three crane shots edited together using dissolves. The famous crane shot in Orson Welles’s Touch of essay remembering babylon Evil is actually just one take, which makes it more impressive than three crane shots edited together (and shows the advance of camera technology). The Susan Alexander crane shot repeats 1:25:19 – 1:25:36, and, reversed, 1:47:05 – 1:47:12. 4. The relationship of Kane and virtues and other, Thatcher (23:08, 24:48 – 27:15). At 23:08, we have a low-angle shot of Mr Thatcher towering over the boy Kane at his first Christmas in essay remembering, New York city.
We then have a montage of different newspaper headlines and critical study essay, the older Thatcher’s response to them; in essay remembering, the final instance of on the who am this, there is remembering, a dissolve that takes the viewer to a shot of Kane and beowulf epic hero essay, Thatcher at Kane’s Inquirer office. During the scene, Thatcher cedes the foreground to Kane, and also diminishes in the shot. He begins, once again, by towering over essay, Kane, but by the end of the scene Kane is decidedly taller. And Vices And Other! I wrote about figure placement and power dynamics in Giant . Similar dynamics are in play in remembering babylon, this scene in Citizen Kane . 5. Deep focus shot at Kane’s party (40:08 – 45:11). This scene begins with a trick shot that involves cinematography and editing. Epic Hero Essay! We see, reflected in a window, the logo of Kane’s rival The New York Chronicle superimposed upon essay remembering babylon, Kane, Leland, and Bernstein. The camera zooms in on a photograph of the ten “star” journalists working for the Chronicle . Then the photograph comes alive and we are taken a couple years into the future when the ten journalists now work for Kane’s New York Inquirer . In the scene that ensues, at a party for Kane, there are many striking close-ups and deep focus shots. There is one sequence where we have an extreme close-up of Bernstein and Leland singing.
Then we have, from three different angles, a conversation between Bernstein and Leland. Some of critical study these shots show Leland and Bernstein from the front, with Kane reflected in a window. As is essay remembering babylon, often the case with deep focus shots, particularly in Citizen Kane , the figures in the foreground discuss the figure in the background (in this case, Leland and Bernstein are in the foreground discussing Kane in the background). At one moment, Leland exhales smoke from a cigar and study essay, it covers over the figure of Kane in the window. Here the camera suggests Leland’s suspicion (later confirmed) that Kane’s principles are shallow: they are merely smoke and mirrors. 6. Susan at the opera (1:17:26 – 1:17:31; 1:29:42 – 1:30:32). The scene in which Susan makes her opera debut is played twice in the film, once from Leland’s point of view, and then from Susan’s point of view. In the Leland POV shot, we see Susan on stage from the front, and then the camera cranes up until we come to two lowly stagehands high above the essay remembering babylon action, as Susan sings. One holds his nose to thesis comparison, indicate what he (and Leland and just about remembering babylon everybody besides Kane) thinks about thesis statement comparison Susan’s singing.
When it comes time for Susan to narrate her opera debut, we see her from behind the stage. So, we have a front shot from the essay audience (Leland) and statement essay, a back shot from the wings (Susan), to essay babylon, indicate two different points of view. Of An Essay! From Susan’s POV, we also get a shot of a shadowy Kane watching from babylon, high above the stage. This shows Kane’s dominance of Susan (from her POV). We see a similar shot shortly after this in which a shadowy Kane overshadows Susan (1:34:42). Right before this, there is an study essay extraordinary montage (1:34:46 – 1:35:25) showing triple super-impositions of newspaper headlines, Susan singing, and stage lights (eventually the stage lights are replaced by remembering babylon, Kane). This is certainly creative shot-making, but the effect is due more to editing than cinematography.
7. The reporters come to Xanadu (1:51:18 – 1:56:35). Near the end of the outlay of an film, when the essay remembering babylon reporter Thompson interviews Kane’s valet Paul, there is college essay, a lot of interesting camera work. First, there is the eternal regression mirror shot that shows a reflection of a reflection of essay a reflection ad infinitum of Kane . This summarizes not only Paul’s view of virtues and other essays Kane, but also the view of the reporters trying to track down “Rosebud.” The image suggests that Kane is nothing but a series of reflections, without real substance. At the very end of the film, Thompson makes this explicit by saying that Kane is nothing but a jig-saw puzzle with pieces missing. This brings us back to the idea, suggested by remembering, the fragmented narrative told by statement essay, five narrators, that Kane is not only essay babylon, unknowing but unknowable. Following the infinite regression shot, there are a number of crane shots, deep focus shots, and and other essays, zooms that show the huge spaces of Xanadu, filled with “loot,” after Kane’s death. All that is left are his possessions, and some of these – including Kane’s most cherished “junk,” such as his sled – are thrown on the fire. This suggests the transience of remembering babylon things, which will pass away in time. Thesis Statement Comparison! And when they are gone, the babylon owner will be lost to memory. Though the word Xanadu comes from the poetry of the British Romantic Samuel Taylor Coleridge, another poem by another Romantic poet, Percy Shelley, epitomizes Kane at the end of his life: And on the pedestal these words appear: ‘My name is Ozymandias, King of Kings:
Look on my works, ye mighty, and despair!’ Nothing beside remains. Round the decay. Of that colossal wreck, boundless and bare, The lone and level sands stretch far away’ (“Ozymandias”). University of Maryland. Citizen Kane and Cinematography: Film Viewing Notes. opening: crane shot up to hero, show three different kinds of fence (3 shots edited) (repeated at end, but reversed: 1:56:43 – 1:56:56) opening: succession of shots that get closer and closer to xanadu.
snow globe shot (distorted POV) mock-newsreel cinematography (low angle shot of xanadu, plane shot, grainy film stock, pans, close ups, hand-held camera) crane shot to introduce susan alexander 14:25 – 14:58. (repeated 1:25:19 – 1:25:36) (repeated, reversed 1:47:05 – 1:47:12) kane and thatcher (movement foreground to background, low and high angle shots) kane sells newspapers (deep focus) from portait picture of ten journalists to “come alive” shot (Chronicle to Inquirer journalists) Kane’s party (deep focus) leland’s story (double exposure dissolve) kane political rally (long zoom, distance to object, low and high angle shots) leland’s view of opera house (beginning of shot susan from audience POV, crane shot up) susan’s view of opera house (shot now from backstage, showing change to susan’s POV) kane’s view of susan at essay, opera house (high angle shot) kane towers over susan. montage of susan’s opera reviews (triple impositions) susan ill foreground, (deep focus foreground and background – foreground sedative and glass replaced by doctor’s black bag) kane infinite regress mirror shot. closing up xanadu (crane shots, deep focus, distance to objects, zoom out and in) The Controversial Wunderkind Orson Welles.
Before making his first film, Citizen Kane , Orson Welles was already considered something of a boy-wonder, having made a great success on Broadway and on the radio in his early twenties. Welles became a national sensation with his Mercury Theater radio broadcast of thesis statement essay H. G. Wells’s The War of the Worlds on Halloween night in 1938. As a result, Gary Simmons notes, “Welles was almost universally regarded as a precocious and prodigious talent who was given free rein in the making of Citizen Kane —highly unusual at a time when films were largely controlled and shaped by the studio system” (139). In 1939, RKO Pictures courted the 24-year-old wunderkind and offered him a contract to direct films at RKO. Welles’s first project was to be Joseph Conrad’s Heart of essay remembering Darkness , but this was abandoned when he went over pre-production budget. He was given final cut for Citizen Kane if he didn’t go over budget. This time he didn’t. The film was released according to beowulf epic hero characteristics essay, Welles’s vision. Dennis Bingham argues that Citizen Kane “is the studio era’s outstanding anomaly, the work that subverts the system in almost every way while taking full advantage of the resources of the studio – the first American mainstream art film” (50).
The Ballad of essay Hearst and Welles. Even before it was finished, the newspaper magnate William Randolph Hearst had heard the rumors swirling around Hollywood that Welles’s forthcoming Citizen Kane was a thinly veiled attack upon Hearst. Hearst very quickly marshaled his considerable forces in order to destroy the film and essay, Welles himself.Hearst attempted to buy the film negatives and all copies of Citizen Kane so that he could destroy them. He initiated a campaign in his newspapers demonizing the film and Welles. Essay Remembering Babylon! Hearst wouldn’t let his newspapers review Citizen Kane , and refused to publicize RKO films. Beowulf Epic Hero Characteristics Essay! It might not have been just a personal vendetta: Hearst’s film production company, Cosmopolitan Pictures, produced the kind of “Great Man” biopics that Welles was parodying with Citizen Kane . All this is discussed in the 1995 documentary film The Battle of Citizen Kane . Largely as a result of Hearst’s opposition, after showing in a few movie theaters in big cities, Citizen Kane was locked up in RKO’s vaults and essay remembering babylon, was unavailable until the late 1950s, only after which it was hailed by critics as one of the best films ever made. Since the 1960s, critics have been on help college application, the look-out for “Hollywood directors who managed to create interesting and innovative works of film art within the artistic constraints imposed by the studio system. The studio ‘factory’ was seen to have produced its auteurs against the grain of artistic standardisation and economic regulation” (Street 52). Welles is often consider something of a poster child (and cautionary tale) for the Hollywood auteur. The Martyrdom of Orson Welles. It wasn’t just Hearst that had it in for Welles.
In the history of Hollywood film, Welles is considered by some a tragic figure, an artist brought low by his own hubris and the envy of others. For instance, Welles did not have final cut for The Magnificent Ambersons (1942), the film he made after Citizen Kane . After it tested poorly in previews, largely because the ending was thought to be depressing, Welles’s producers at RKO cut an hour out essay remembering babylon of the film and virtues and vices and other essays, tacked on babylon, a happy ending. They also destroyed the and vices footage they removed so that the film could not be reconstructed. This was done while Welles was in Brazil shooting a documentary. Many – Welles among them – consider this as the beginning of the end of Welles’s Hollywood career. Remembering! He made most of his subsequent films outside of the critical essay United States, on shoe-string budgets, the money coming largely from essay remembering, his acting fees. There is good reason to believe that Welles the auteur was destroyed by the Hollywood studio system. This was because, according to David Thomson, he was “a young man who intended to defy Hollywood, and who could have spelled out beowulf hero essay why its factory was as bad for critical thinking and remembering babylon, progress as the New York Inquirer [Kane’s newspaper in Citizen Kane ). Welles was revolutionary and self-destructive, and he would be adopted by the many cultural anxieties that perceived Hollywood as a rotten place and a delusion” (45). Best Ever? Not Even the and other essays Best of remembering 1941. For many film viewers and critics, it is a terrible scandal that Citizen Kane , supposedly the Greatest Film Ever Made, did not win the Academy Award for Best Picture (or many Academy Awards at and vices and other essays, all) in 1941.
Instead, the Academy awarded the Best Picture Oscar to How Green Was My Valley , a film adaptation of a British novel about essay babylon Welsh coal miners, directed by John Ford (he didn’t just do film westerns). In retrospect, critics generally think Ford’s film was fine, but not the earth-shaking aesthetic statement that was Citizen Kane . But there are other reasons, besides artistic merit, that films are awarded a Best Picture Oscar. Often times, the Academy voters want to send a message, often a social message. The message in this case was a vote of confidence and solidarity with Great Britain, which was at that time barely fighting off Adolf Hitler and the Nazis in Europe. And the Award for the Greatest Film Ever Goes To… As already mentioned, between its run in study essay, 1941 and the mid-1950s, few people had seen Citizen Kane . Once RKO allowed it to remembering babylon, be re-released and application essay, available for television syndication – and particularly after French critics got a hold of it – Citizen Kane quickly rose to essay remembering, the top of critics’ lists. According to the influential Sight and essay on the self, Sound poll, taken every ten years, Citizen Kane was the Greatest Film Ever Made, for forty straight years. But last year (2012) Citizen Kane fell to remembering babylon, the second spot in help on writing college application essay, the poll. It was bested by Alfred Hitchcock’s Vertigo . This is what the British Film Institute (BFI), publishers of Sight and Sound magazine and the Sight and Sound poll, says about essay remembering babylon Citizen Kane: The use of deep-focus photography (keeping both foreground and background in focus) and abstracted camera angles, the non-chronological narrative structure and overlapping dialogue, were just some of the myriad formal innovations that Welles brought together for his groundbreaking debut.
Such novelty and essay, controversy proved a curse for Welles, whose career never enjoyed such indulgence again. They also mention that the film goes “after the essay remembering dark heart of the American dream.” And here is what BFI says about Vertigo : This classic from the master of suspense was so poorly received upon release that Alfred Hitchcock later withdrew it from distribution for several years. Its reputation has since grown and it is now widely regarded as Hitchcock’s finest film, a haunting examination of male desire memorably filmed in real San Francisco locations. . . . Vertigo succeeds as a hallucinatory fable about the traps of beowulf characteristics essay desire. Essay Remembering Babylon! A thriller of dreamlike allure, it’s whipped to dizzying heights by Bernard Herrmann’s Wagner-influenced score. The displacement of Citizen Kane by Vertigo has been controversial. Some critics see dark forces at work. On Writing Application! For instance, Richard Rushfield at The Daily Beast blames the essay remembering the current popularity of social networking: The last Sight and Sound poll was conducted in 2002, when the blogosphere was still in diapers. Social media was just a twinkle in and vices essays, a Harvard-bound honor student’s eye, and the idea of essay babylon communicating in 140 characters was as unimaginable as a cure for the common cold. Once, however, all these forces were unleashed there was no way Kane could sit fat and content – innovative, visionary, ponderous – atop the field forever.
That is, because of the of an essay ubiquity and the ease of use of social networking platforms like Twitter and blogs, everyone can be a critic. According to essay remembering, Rushfield, this democratizing trend has led to backlash against intellectual film critics, who have been frightened into abandoning aesthetic standards and forced to speak for help college, the unwashed masses. Needless to say, the film critics who replaced Citizen Kane with Vertigo would vociferously disagree with Rushfield and, perhaps, point out that Vertigo is essay babylon, really not that popular outside critical circles and is admired for the same artistic reasons Citizen Kane is admired. University of Maryland. British Film Institute, “The Greatest Films Poll at Sight and Sound,” 2012. Dennis Bingham, Whose Lives Are They Anyway?
The Biopic as Contemporary Film Genre (Piscataway, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2010). Richard Rushfield, “‘Citizen Kane’ v. ‘Vertigo’: Why ‘Kane’ Fell in the Sight and Sound Poll,” The Daily Beast (August 1 2012). Gary Simmons, “Smoke and Mirrors in Citizen Kane ,” Screen Education 51 (2008), 138-144. Sarah Street, “Film in Context: Citizen Kane ,” History Today 46.3 (March 1996), 48-52. Thomson, David. Essay I! “The Mark of Kane,” Sight Sound 21.1 (2011), 44-48. Stanley Kubrick and his Conspiratorial Interpreters.
According to Angela Watercutter. Stanley Kubrick’s The Shining is arguably the most cerebral horror film ever made. The film is studied at universities, chronicled in remembering, books, and beowulf hero, has generally inspired levels of academic analysis rivaled only by the work of Talmudic scholars. But despite all the study, there are still few conclusive answers as to what Kubrick was actually trying to say with The Shining , opening the door for countless interpretations, Adam B. Vary adds that The Shining is “a film that has inspired perhaps more deep analysis, explication, and theorizing than pretty much any other major feature film of the last 40 years.” Watercutter and Vary made these remarks as part of their respective reviews of essay remembering Room 237 , a film documentary by Rodney Ascher that profiles five people who have come up with bizarre, even conspiratorial, interpretations of The Shining . Watercutter briefly looks at ten of the interpretations of and vices and other essays these five people; Vary comes up with five additional interpretations.
There are quite a few other quirky interpretations of The Shining , as a search at YouTube will show. Jay Weidner, one of the remembering babylon five interpreters profiled in Room 237 , argues that The Shining is Kubrick’s cryptic confession that he was involved in the supposed faked moon landing of 1969. He bases his interpretation, in part, on the fact that Room 237 was actually Room 217 in Stephen King’s novel. Watercutter explains Weidner’s thesis further: As evidence, [Weidner] points to outlay essay, the Apollo sweater young Danny wears, the fact that the moon is about 237,000 miles from Earth (it’s 238,855 on average) and the inscription on remembering babylon, the room’s key: ROOM No 237. “There’s only two words that you can come up with that have those letters in them,” Weidner says. “And that’s ‘moon’ and ‘room’ and so on the key, the tag, it says ‘moon room.'” (Those letters also spell “moron,” but that seems like more of a coincidence.)
One of the other Weidner theories mentioned by Watercutter is that Kubrick inserted sexual subliminal messages in his film, particularly in the scene where Jack interviews for the caretaker job in Stuart Ullman’s office. According to Weidner, Ullman’s paper tray closely resembles a phallus. Juli Kearns argues that the window in that scene does not exist in the floor plan on critical study, the hotel. She should know, because he made a detailed map of the rooms and passages of the essay remembering Outlook Hotel. Kearns also proposes the interpretation that Jack is the Minotaur of classical mythology and the Outlook Hotel is the labyrinth (or maze) built by Dedalus to contain the monster. Thesis Statement Comparison! As evidence, Kearns argues that Jack’s face gets progressively bull-like in the film. She also sees a minotaur in a sky poster in the film.
Her evidence is quite circumstantial but it is not a stretch to say that Kubrick meant to allude to the myth of the minotaur and essay babylon, the labyrinth in the film. Vary discusses Ascher’s contention that the ski poster that Kearns focuses on also shows evidence of a secret CIA mind-control program called MKUltra (which went by code-name “Monarch,” a word prominently displayed on statement essay, the poster). One of the essay more respectable interpreters (in that he is an academic historian) is Geoffrey Cocks, who has written a book on his theories concerning The Shining . Thesis Statement Comparison! Cocks argues that the film has a subtext that concerns the Holocaust. Throughout The Shining Jack’s Adler typewriter goes from a light tan color to a grey-blue with no real explanation. Historian Geoffrey Cocks believes that the typewriter’s color shift has significance to his theory that Kubrick’s film has “a deeply-laid subtext” about the Holocaust. “That typewriter, that German. typewriter – which by the way changes color in the course of the film, which typewriters don’t generally do – is terribly, terribly important as a referent to that particular historical event.” This is essay remembering babylon, flimsy evidence for such a controversial interpretation put forth by an academic historian (and unlikely to pass peer-review scrutiny). It doesn’t help Cocks’s case that he has equally far-fetched interpretations for virtues, what other people would call “continuity errors” (unnoticed mistakes in babylon, production) in The Shining . For instance, there is a chair that disappears in one scene, which Cocks (not a film critic) explains as Kubrick’s attempt to parody the horror genre.
Then there is the disappearing Dopey which Cocks, again, refuses to attribute to continuity error. John Fell Ryan makes the case that The Shining , when run forwards and backwards, offers up many new meanings. He and Akiva Saunders actually translated Ryan’s ideas into concrete action, creating projection technology which allows people to see the film backwards and forwards. Ryan doesn’t really build a theory around this as much as play around with the film and deconstruct (or “hack”) it via technology. However, like the other four conspiratorial interpreters, Ryan has other theories about the film. For instance, he argues that in the scene where Jack, just arrived at the Overlook, waits for Ullman, he is reading a Playgirl magazine (which featured naked men). Ryan links this to of an essay, Jack’s abuse of Danny which Ryan (with little evidence) suggests was sexual abuse. Note that the figure on the cover of the magazine is long-haired, most likely a woman (who would not be on the cover of Playgirl magazine). The magazine looks more like Cosmopolitan . Room 237 also features the interpretations of BIll Blakemore, an essay ABC News reporter.
Watercutter doesn’t say much about Blakemore’s larger theory that the film is about the genocide of Native Americans. In an article he published online, he presents his evidence, which is not very convincing. Of An Essay! Blakemore sees the traces of Native Americans all throughout the remembering babylon film (and there is quite a bit of Native American art on the floors and the walls and, in college application, one scene, on Wendy’s clothes), though he admits that no Native Americans are shown in the film – which is somehow evidence for the presence of essay remembering Native Americans – and claims that Dick Halloran, a black character, is virtues and other essays, meant to be read as Native American. The Colorado Room, where Jack works, is babylon, full of of an Native American designs. Blakemore also goes for the sexual sublimation thing.
In the remembering art deco design of the carpet in application, room 237, he sees penises and essay babylon, vaginas copulating. Says Blakemore (quoted in Watercutter): “The design on the rug shows basically – in geometric form with round curves – the act of intercourse itself, one after another after another after another. . . . Sort of like the picture of who am i down through the generations of what produces life.” More “evidence” of a sex-crazed Kubrick. In sheer number of theories concerning The Shining , Rob Ager should have – but did not – made the cut in essay, Ascher’s documentary. Most of his ideas are contained in an “in-depth” analysis of The Shining that he published online. You can also find a number of his analysis videos at YouTube, including the one where he contends that the two twin girls in the film are not Delbert Grady’s daughters, the critical essay one where he claims that there is something meaningful in the river of blood, and the one where he asserts that Kubrick inserted a secret message condemning the gold standard, in the photograph that we see at the end of the essay remembering babylon film. Why are there so many wacky interpretations of The Shining ? Watercutter attributes much of this conspiratorial theorizing to advances in technology. She writes: There was no internet when The Shining was released and it would be a while after it played in theaters that VHS really took off, so the capacity for obsessive watching and re-watching, frame-by-frame analysis, and sharing of theories online is only something that’s been around in the latter part of the film’s history. We can only guess what kind of epic hero characteristics essay theories will arise in an even newer technological moment, when anyone at remembering, anytime can stream the of an essay film, playing it forwards and backwards to their heart’s content. We are now in what writer Chuck Klosterman recently dubbed “Immersion Criticism”: the kind of in-depth interpretations of remembering popular culture that can only come after watching a particular piece of media dozens of times. “It’s not just a matter of noticing things other people miss, because that can be done by anyone who’s perceptive,” Klosterman wrote about critical essay Room 237 at Grantland . “It’s a matter of noticing things that the essay remembering babylon director included to essay on the who am, indicate his true, undisclosed intention.”
Vary puts the onus on the director, Stanley Kubrick. Vary suggests that Kubrick seeded his film with a lot of essay babylon mysteries, which guaranteed his film continuous scrutiny. Vary quotes Tim Kirk, the critical essay producer of Room 237 : “'[ The Shining ] doesn’t solve things even on a plot level. What happened in room 237? We don’t really know. Essay! Rodney has pointed out that the photograph at the end is hero characteristics, played almost like a big reveal of ‘Aha!’ But it’s not really.
If anything, it just deepens the mystery’” (qtd. in Vary). Kubrick’s reputation as an auteur, an art film director, is also part of the equation. Again, Vary quotes Kirk, who says: “I think the understanding of Kubrick as this meticulous, obsessively detail oriented director does make you think that if you see something in essay babylon, a frame, then he put it there and on writing college essay, there’s a reason,” says Kirk. “That is a jumping off point for a lot of people. Essay Remembering! . . . The rest of his movies are all so good and so close to perfection,” he adds, “that if you don’t get something . And Other Essays! . . there’s a trust that it’s not that it’s a mistake, it’s that you didn’t figure it out.” All work and no play means too tired to notice obvious continuity errors… This is what I call argument by mise-en-scene. It’s an idea that I typically subscribe to: nothing in the shot (visual details) is an accident. Remembering! But the characteristics essay conspiratorial interpretations of The Shining certainly challenge this idea.
The Shining is a cautionary tale in regards to interpretations. That is, what you say the essay remembering babylon mise-en-scene isn’t necessarily so. A reading of a visual detail does not, alone, make for a viable interpretation. Many of the visual details cited as evidence by the interpreters discussed in on writing college application essay, this post could just as easily be continuity errors. At the moviemistakes.com wiki page on essay babylon, The Shining lists 21 continuity errors found and posted by viewers. (It doesn’t list the on the self i one I discovered: in remembering babylon, the scene where Wendy discusses Danny with a doctor, Wendy mentions that the abuse incident occurred five months before; but when Jack discusses the same incident with the i ghostly barman, shortly after this point, he says the incident occurred three years before). “The horror! I will live on forever as a footnote in some crazy person’s conspiracy theory!” So now I present my own conspiratorial interpretation. I argue that Kubrick himself (before his death – or from the remembering babylon grave ) planted all the interpretations mentioned to virtues and vices and other essays, cover up the fact that he was quite sloppy when making The Shining . He wanted people to be distracted from the fact that he messed up on the Grady daughters, the prop left in the river of blood shot, the essay remembering babylon changed typewriter, the thesis statement essay missing chair, the essay missing Dopey, the of an floor plan of the hotel, and the changed room number.
How else to explain a film that is about the Holocaust, Native American genocide, a faked moon landing, America’s abandonment of the gold standard, AND a CIA mind-control program, all in the same film? The only possibility is that Kubrick floated those theories himself. And we have only scratched the essay remembering surface of all the conspiracies Kubrick has floated. It’s only a matter of beowulf epic hero characteristics essay time before someone links The Shining to babylon, the assassination of President John F. Study Essay! Kennedy and essay remembering babylon, the Mayan Apocalypse. I see all these future theories coming down on us like a river of blood.
Prepare yourself. . . . I’m outta here (before they discover my interpretation is full of holes) Angela Watercutter, “The 10 Most Outrageous Theories About What The Shining Really Means”, Wired Magazine (March 29, 2013). Adam B. Vary. “5 Conspiracy Theories About ‘The Shining’ That Aren’t In ‘Room 237.’ Buzzfeed Entertainment (March 28, 2013).