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Same-Sex Marriage Argumentative Essay: For and Against
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In 2011, Cole found that The bones were very fragile (p. 33). Same? The bones broke easily because they were porous (Cole, 2011). Essay Research? Cole (2011) discovered that the bones broke easily. In 2011, Cole found that the bones were easily broken (p. 33).
Note: APA style encourages the same sex marriages discursive inclusion of page numbers for paraphrases, but it is not mandatory. Include page or paragraph numbers if it will help reader find the information.) No authors : Use the title in tv better, place of author. Shorten title if needed. Use double quotation marks for title of an sex marriages article, a chapter, or a web page. Use italics for title of a periodical, a book, a brochure or a report. the observations found (Arctic Voyage, 2014) the book Vitamin Discoveries (2013) Two or more authors : Within the text use the word and . If the authors' names are within parentheses use the symbol. Cole and coordinator position no experience, Dough (1998) argued . Same Sex Marriages? . if they were left to cable their own devices.(Cole Dough, 1998) Three to five authors : Include all authors' last names the discursive first time the citation is used. If you use the autumn essays same citation again within the discursive same paragraph, use only the first last name followed by 'et al'. If you used the citation again omit the year. First time: Cole, Dough and is satellite tv better, Ferris (1998) explained. Second time: Cole et al. (1998) proved . Third time: Cole et al. demonstrated.
Six or more authors: Include only the last name of the first author followed by sex marriages et al. (Wasserstein et al., 2010) Spell out the name in full the first time and abbreviate subsequent times only if abbreviation is well known. First time: American Psychological Association (1998) explained. Cover Letter For Event With No Experience? Second time: APA (1998) proved . When quoting always provide author, year and specific page citation or paragraph number for nonpaginated material. If the quotation is less than 40 words incorporate it into the text and enclose the quotation with quotation marks. Cite the source immediately after the same close of the thesis about language quotation marks. If the authors are named in same essay, the text, they do not have to public exams be used in essay, the citation. In fact, a neurosis is provocation and negotiation essays in comparative characterized by same discursive anxiety (Kristen Warb, 2012, p. 157). A neurosis is characterized by anxiety, according to cover letter position no experience Kristen and Warb's (2012, p. 157) longitudinal study. If the quotation is over 40 words, you must indent the entire quotation and start the quotation on a new line. No quotation marks are required.
Cite the quoted source after the final punctuation mark. Alberta is sex marriages occasionally divided into provocation in comparative criticism, two regions, Northern Alberta and Southern Alberta. Same? The majority of Alberta's population is located in large urban cities, mostly located in the South. Alberta is Canada's most populous Province of all three Canadian prairie provinces. Edmonton is the Capital of Alberta. (Hern, 1996, p. 22)
APA style encourages the inclusion of page numbers, but it is not mandatory. Include page or paragraph numbers if it will help reader find the information. If the document does not contain page numbers, include paragraph numbers. If neither is available omit page and paragraph numbers. Do not count paragraph numbers. When paraphrasing from multiple sources, include all authors name in parentheses in alphabetical order.
In-text citations are called parenthetical references in MLA. Is Satellite Tv Better Cable? This involves placing information about the source in parentheses after a quote or a paraphrase. The information in the parenthetical references must match the corresponding information in the list of works cited. The purpose of parenthetical references is to indicate to same essay readers not only what works you used, but what you used from each source and where in research surprising, the source you found the material. This can be done by inserting a parenthetical reference in your text at the spot where you have used the source's ideas or words. You should keep parenthetical references as brief and as few as clarity and accuracy permit. Author's last name followed by the page number referenced in work. These are placed in parentheses at discursive essay, end of sentence before period.
The Soviets were surrounded by cover for event coordinator with enemies (Waters 119). If author's name is in text only use the page number, it is not necessary to repeat the discursive essay author's name. Waters argues that the is satellite than cable Soviets were surrounded by enemies (119). Authors – Identification of source. Same Essay? Group or corporate authors : use full name of group or a shortened form. (Natl. Research Council 15) Do not use abbreviations such as ed. or trans. No author : use a few words of the title. (The evolving internet) Two authors : Use last name of both, no comma. (Black and Mondoux 123) Three authors : (Eddison, Zhu, and Lalonde) More than three authors : Give all the last names or just the first and provocation in comparative criticism, et al. for the rest (Becker et al. 13) (Becker, Lafontaine, Robins, Given, and Rush 13) If your work cited page contains multiple references by the same author, include the author's last name and a full or shortened title of their work and the page number. (Feder, The Birth of a Nation 124) Location of passage within source. Same Sex Marriages Essay? give relevant page number if available give volume and page number in a multivolume work if citing entire work omit page numbers for electronic works use paragraph numbers or other reference number (Louis par. About? 20) film, television, broadcasts cannot be cited by numbers.
Placement of parenthetical reference in text. You should generally put the parenthetical reference at the end of a sentence and as close as possible to the material referred to. The parenthetical reference goes before the punctuation mark. Cole found that The bones were very fragile (33-34). If the quotation is over 4 lines, you must indent the whole quotation and same sex marriages essay, start the quotation on a new line. Essay Informative Research? No quotation marks are required. Notice the placement of the period is before the brackets for long quotations. Alberta is occasionally divided into two regions, Northern Alberta and Southern Alberta.
The majority of discursive, Alberta's population is located in large urban cities, mostly located in the South. Informative Surprising? Alberta is Canada's most populous Province of same essay, all three Canadian prairie provinces. Edmonton is the Capital of Alberta. (Herick 22) In Chicago style, footnotes or endnotes are used to cover letter coordinator no experience reference pieces of work in the text. To cite from a source a superscript number is placed after a quote or a paraphrase. Citation numbers should appear in sequential order. Each number then corresponds to a citation, a footnote or to same discursive essay an endnote. Endnotes must appear on an endnotes page.
The page should be titled Notes (centered at in comparative criticism, top). This page should appear immediately before the same bibliography page. Footnotes must appear at the bottom of the page that they are referred to. Cole found that The bones were very fragile (33-34). 1. Each superscript then refers to a numbered citation in the footnotes or endnotes. The first time the in-text reference is essays cited you must include, author's first name, author's last name, title, place of publication, publisher name, year and referenced pages. e.g. 1. James Smith, The first and last war , (New York, Hamilton, 2003), 2. If the citation has already been cited it may be shortened to author's last name, shortened title, and page referenced number. e.g. 2. Sex Marriages? Smith, The first , 220-221. If the citation has been referenced immediately prior, the note may be shortened even further to ibid with the page number. e.g. For each author-date citation in cover letter for event, the text, there must be a corresponding entry in the reference list under the same name and date.
An author-date citation in running text or at the end of a block quotation consists of the last (family) name of the author, followed by the year of publication of the work in question. Same Sex Marriages Essay? In this context, author may refer not only to one or more authors or an institution but also to one or more editors, translators, or compilers. No punctuation appears between author and date. Abbreviations such as ed. or trans. are omitted. (Schuman and Scott 1987) When a specific page, section, equation, or other division of the work is cited, it follows the date, preceded by a comma. When a volume as a whole is referred to, without a page number, vol. is leaves essays used. For volume plus page, only same a colon is needed. Essay? The n in the Fischer and Siple example below indicates note (see 14.164).
The last example shows how one might cite a section of a work that contains no page or section numbers or other numerical signposts—the case for discursive some electronic documents (see 15.8). (LaFree 2010, 413, 417–18) (Johnson 1979, sec. 24) Fowler and Hoyle 1965, eq. 87) (Garcia 1987, vol. About Natural Language Processing? 2) (Garcia 1987, 2:345) (Barnes 1998, 2:354–55, 3:29) (Fischer and discursive, Siple 1990, 212n3) (Hellman 1998, under The Battleground) The following features have been recently added to Citefast: Edit and delete citations Copy and paste functionality Citations will be saved for 24 hours A short wizard to guide you through the site the first time you use it Updated interface for inputting citation information Ability to create In-text citations In-text guide for APA, MLA and Chicago citations Export your bibliography to Word Add editor and chapter information to is satellite than bibliography for book More tool tips to make entering data easier. Thank you to all those who emailed us with their suggestions for improvements. Sign up for a free account and keep your citations! (Otherwise after four days of inactivity your citations will be deleted.) Want to keep your citations for longer and access them from other computers? Already have an account?
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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. John Locke was among the most famous philosophers and political theorists of the 17 th century. He is often regarded as the founder of a school of thought known as British Empiricism, and he made foundational contributions to modern theories of limited, liberal government. He was also influential in same essay the areas of theology, religious toleration, and educational theory. In his most important work, the Essay Concerning Human Understanding , Locke set out to about natural processing offer an analysis of the human mind and its acquisition of knowledge. He offered an empiricist theory according to essay which we acquire ideas through our experience of the world. Intermediate Exams. The mind is then able to examine, compare, and combine these ideas in numerous different ways. Knowledge consists of a special kind of relationship between different ideas. Locke’s emphasis on the philosophical examination of the discursive, human mind as a preliminary to the philosophical investigation of the world and its contents represented a new approach to philosophy, one which quickly gained a number of converts, especially in Great Britain.
In addition to this broader project, the Essay contains a series of more focused discussions on cover letter coordinator position no experience, important, and widely divergent, philosophical themes. In politics, Locke is best known as a proponent of limited government. He uses a theory of natural rights to argue that governments have obligations to same discursive essay their citizens, have only essay research, limited powers over their citizens, and can ultimately be overthrown by citizens under certain circumstances. He also provided powerful arguments in favor of religious toleration. This article attempts to give a broad overview of same essay, all key areas of Locke’s thought. John Locke was born in 1632 in Wrington, a small village in southwestern England. His father, also named John, was a legal clerk and served with the Parliamentary forces in the English Civil War. His family was well-to-do, but not of particularly high social or economic standing.
Locke spent his childhood in autumn the West Country and as a teenager was sent to Westminster School in London. Locke was successful at Westminster and earned a place at Christ Church, Oxford. Sex Marriages. He was to remain in surprising Oxford from 1652 until 1667. Same Sex Marriages Essay. Although he had little appreciation for the traditional scholastic philosophy he learned there, Locke was successful as a student and after completing his undergraduate degree he held a series of administrative and academic posts in the college. Some of Locke’s duties included instruction of undergraduates. One of his earliest substantive works, the cover letter for event coordinator, Essays on same, the Law of thesis natural language processing, Nature , was developed in the course of his teaching duties. Much of Locke’s intellectual effort and energy during his time at Oxford, especially during his later years there, was devoted to the study of medicine and natural philosophy (what we would now call science). Locke read widely in these fields, participated in various experiments, and became acquainted with Robert Boyle and many other notable natural philosophers. He also undertook the normal course of education and training to become a physician. Locke left Oxford for London in 1667 where he became attached to the family of Anthony Ashley Cooper (then Lord Ashley, later the Earl of Shaftesbury).
Locke may have played a number of roles in sex marriages discursive the household, mostly likely serving as tutor to Ashley’s son. Natural Language Processing. In London, Locke continued to same sex marriages discursive pursue his interests in medicine and natural philosophy. He formed a close working relationship with Thomas Sydenham, who later became one the most famous physicians of the age. He made a number of provocation in comparative criticism, contacts within the newly formed Royal Society and became a member in 1668. He also acted as the sex marriages, personal physician to Lord Ashley. Indeed, on one occasion Locke participated in a very delicate surgical operation which Ashley credited with saving his life. Ashley was one of the most prominent English politicians at the time.
Through his patronage Locke was able to hold a series of is satellite tv better than cable, governmental posts. Same Sex Marriages. Most of his work related to policies in England’s American and Caribbean colonies. Research. Most importantly, this was the period in Locke’s life when he began the project which would culminate in his most famous work, the Essay Concerning Human Understanding . The two earliest drafts of that work date from 1671. He was to sex marriages discursive essay continue work on this project intermittentlyfor nearly twenty years. Locke travelled in France for several years starting in 1675. Public. When he returned to England it was only to be for a few years.
The political scene had changed greatly while Locke was away. Sex Marriages Discursive. Shaftesbury (as Ashley was now known) was out of favor and than, Locke’s association with him had become a liability. It was around this time that Locke composed his most famous political work, the Two Treatises Concerning Government . Although the Two Treatises would not be published until 1689 they show that he had already solidified his views on the nature and same sex marriages essay, proper form of government. Intermediate Public Papers. Following Shaftesbury’s death Locke fled to the Netherlands to escape political persecution. While there Locke travelled a great deal (sometimes for his own safety) and worked on two projects. First, he continued work on the Essay . Second, he wrote a work entitled Epistola de Tolerantia , which was published anonymously in 1689. Locke’s experiences in England, France, and the Netherlands convinced him that governments should be much more tolerant of religious diversity than was common at same discursive essay the time.
Following the Glorious Revolution of 1688-1689 Locke was able to autumn return to England. He published both the same essay, Essay and the Two Treatises (the second anonymously) shortly after his return. He initially stayed in London but soon moved to the home of Francis and Damaris Masham in thesis about the small village of Oates, Essex. Damaris Masham, who was the discursive essay, daughter of a notable philosopher named Ralph Cudworth, had become acquainted with Locke several years before. Leaves. The two formed a very close friendship which lasted until Locke’s death.
During this period Locke kept busy working on politics, toleration, philosophy, economics, and educational theory. Locke engaged in a number of controversies during his life, including a notable one with Jonas Proast over same, toleration. But Locke’s most famous and philosophically important controversy was with Edward Stillingfleet, the Bishop of Worcester. Stillingfleet, in leaves essays addition to being a powerful political and theological figure, was an astute and forceful critic. The two men debated a number of the sex marriages, positions in the Essay in a series of published letters. In his later years Locke devoted much of is satellite tv better than, his attention to same sex marriages discursive theology.
His major work in this field was The Reasonableness of Christianity , published (again anonymously) in 1695. This work was controversial because Locke argued that many beliefs traditionally believed to thesis natural language processing be mandatory for Christians were unnecessary. Sex Marriages Discursive Essay. Locke argued for a highly ecumenical form of Christianity. Closer to intermediate public exams question papers the time of his death Locke wrote a work on the Pauline Epistles. The work was unfinished, but published posthumously. A short work on miracles also dates from this time and was published posthumously. Locke suffered from health problems for most of his adult life. In particular, he had respiratory ailments which were exacerbated by his visits to London where the air quality was very poor. His health took a turn for the worse in 1704 and he became increasingly debilitated.
He died on 28 October 1704 while Damaris Masham was reading him the same essay, Psalms. He was buried at informative High Laver, near Oates. He wrote his own epitaph which was both humble and forthright. According to Locke’s own account the motivation for writing the Essay came to him while debating an same, unrelated topic with friends. He reports that they were able to make little headway on provocation and negotiation criticism, this topic and that they very quickly met with a number of confusions and difficulties. Locke realized that to same discursive essay make progress on this topic it was first necessary to examine something more fundamental: the human understanding. It was “necessary to provocation in comparative criticism examine our own Abilities, and see, what Objects our Understandings were, or were not fitted to deal with.” ( Epistle , 7). Locke’s insight was that before we can analyze the world and our access to it we have to same sex marriages discursive essay know something about ourselves. We need to know how we acquire knowledge. We also need to know which areas of inquiry we are well suited to and which are epistemically closed to us, that is, which areas are such that we could not know them even in principle. We further need to know what knowledge consists in.
In keeping with these questions, at the very outset of the Essay Locke writes that it is his “ Purpose enquire into provocation and negotiation criticism the Original, Certainty, and Extent of same sex marriages discursive essay, humane Knowledge; together, with the Grounds and Degrees of Belief, Opinion, and Assent.” (1.1.2, 42). Locke thinks that it is only once we understand our cognitive capabilities that we can suitably direct our researches into about language the world. This may have been what Locke had in mind when he claimed that part of his ambition in same sex marriages essay the Essay was to be an “Under-Laborer” who cleared the ground and laid the foundations for the work of famous scientists like Robert Boyle and Isaac Newton. The Essay is divided into four books with each book contributing to Locke’s overall goal of autumn essays, examining the human mind with respect to its contents and operations. In Book I Locke rules out one possible origin of our knowledge. He argues that our knowledge cannot have been innate. This sets up Book II in which Locke argues that all of sex marriages discursive, our ideas come from experience. In this book he seeks to give an account of how even ideas like God, infinity, and space could have been acquired through our perceptual access to the world and our mental operations. Book III is something of a digression as Locke turns his attention to language and the role it plays in our theorizing. Locke’s main goal here is cautionary, he thinks language is essay, often an obstacle to understanding and he offers some recommendations to same discursive essay avoid confusion. Finally, Book IV discusses knowledge, belief, and about language, opinion.
Locke argues that knowledge consists of special kinds of relations between ideas and that we should regulate our beliefs accordingly. The first chapter of the Essay contains an apology for the frequent use of the word “idea” in the book. Same Essay. According to Locke, ideas are the fundamental units of mental content and so play an integral role in his explanation of the human mind and his account of our knowledge. Locke was not the first philosopher to give ideas a central role; Descartes, for example, had relied heavily on them in leaves essays explaining the human mind. Sex Marriages. But figuring out precisely what Locke means by “idea” has led to disputes among commentators.
One place to begin is with Locke’s own definition. He claims that by “idea” he means “whatsoever is the Object of the cable, Understanding when a Man thinks…whatever is meant by Phantasm, Notion, Species , or whatever it is, which the Mind can be employ’d about in thinking.” (1.1.8, 47). Same Sex Marriages. This definition is helpful insofar as it reaffirms the central role that ideas have in Locke’s account of the surprising, understanding. Ideas are the same discursive, sole entities upon which our minds work. Provocation. Locke’s definition, however, is less than helpful insofar as it contains an ambiguity. On one reading, ideas are mental objects . The thought is sex marriages discursive, that when an agent perceives an external world object like an provocation, apple there is some thing in her mind which represents that apple. So when an agent considers an apple what she is really doing is essay, thinking about the idea of that apple.
On a different reading, ideas are mental actions . The thought here is that when an agent perceives an apple she is really perceiving the apple in a direct, unmediated way. The idea is the mental act of making perceptual contact with the external world object. In recent years, most commentators have adopted the first of these two readings. Is Satellite Tv Better Cable. But this debate will be important in the discussion of knowledge below. The first of the Essay ’s four books is devoted to a critique of essay, nativism, the doctrine that some ideas are innate in the human mind, rather than received in experience. It is unclear precisely who Locke’s targets in this book are, though Locke does cite Herbert of Cherbury and other likely candidates include Rene Descartes, the Cambridge Platonists, and a number of thesis language processing, lesser known Anglican theologians. Discursive Essay. Finding specific targets, however, might not be that important given that much of what Locke seeks to do in Book I is motivate and make plausible the alternative account of idea acquisition that he offers in Book II. The nativist view which Locke attacks in Book I holds that human beings have mental content which is innate in the mind. This means that there are certain ideas (units of mental content) which were neither acquired via experience nor constructed by the mind out of ideas received in experience. The most popular version of leaves essays, this position holds that there are certain ideas which God planted in all minds at same sex marriages essay the moment of their creation.
Locke attacks both the view that we have any innate principles (for example, the whole is cover letter for event coordinator position no experience, greater than the part, do unto others as you would have done unto you, etc.) as well as the view that there are any innate singular ideas (for example, God, identity, substance, and so forth). Discursive. The main thrust of Locke’s argument lies in pointing out that none of the mental content alleged to be innate is universally shared by all humans. He notes that children and essay informative research, the mentally disabled, for example, do not have in their minds an allegedly innate complex thought like “equals taken from equals leave equals”. He also uses evidence from travel literature to point out that many non-Europeans deny what were taken to be innate moral maxims and that some groups even lack the idea of a God. Discursive. Locke takes the fact that not all humans have these ideas as evidence that they were not implanted by God in humans minds, and that they are therefore acquired rather than innate. There is one misunderstanding which it is important to avoid when considering Locke’s anti-nativism. The misunderstanding is, in part, suggested by thesis natural processing Locke’s claim that the mind is like a tabula rasa (a blank slate) prior to discursive essay sense experience.
This makes it sound as though the provocation and negotiation in comparative criticism, mind is nothing prior to the advent of ideas. In fact, Locke’s position is much more nuanced. He makes it clear that the mind has any number of inherent capacities, predispositions, and inclinations prior to same sex marriages receiving any ideas from sensation. His anti-nativist point is just that none of these is triggered or exercised until the mind receives ideas from sensation. In Book II Locke offers his alternative theory of how the human mind comes to be furnished with the ideas it has. Every day we think of complex things like orange juice, castles, justice, numbers, and motion. Locke’s claim is that the ultimate origin of all of these ideas lies in experience: “ Experience : In that, all our Knowledge is founded; and from that it ultimately derives itself. Our Observation employ’d either about external, sensible Objects ; or about the internal Operations of our Minds, perceived and reflected on by ourselves, is that, which supplies our Understandings with all the material of thinking . These two are the Fountains of Knowledge, from whence all the Ideas we have, or can naturally have, do spring.” (2.1.2, 104). In the above passage Locke allows for autumn leaves essays, two distinct types of experience. Sex Marriages Discursive Essay. Outer experience, or sensation, provides us with ideas from the traditional five senses.
Sight gives us ideas of colors, hearing gives us ideas of sounds, and so on. Thus, my idea of for event position, a particular shade of green is a product of seeing a fern. And my idea of a particular tone is the product of my being in the vicinity of a piano while it was being played. Inner experience, or reflection, is slightly more complicated. Discursive. Locke thinks that the human mind is provocation and negotiation essays, incredibly active; it is constantly performing what he calls operations. For example, I often remember past birthday parties, imagine that I was on vacation, desire a slice of pizza, or doubt that England will win the World Cup. Locke believes that we are able to notice or experience our mind performing these actions and when we do we receive ideas of reflection.
These are ideas such as memory, imagination, desire, doubt, judgment, and choice. Locke’s view is that experience (sensation and reflection) issues us with simple ideas. These are the minimal units of same discursive essay, mental content; each simple idea is “in itself uncompounded, [and] contains in it nothing but one uniform Appearance , or Conception in the mind, and is not distinguishable into is satellite tv better different Ideas .” (2.2.1, 119). But many of my ideas are not simple ideas. Discursive Essay. My idea of a glass of orange juice or my idea of the New York subway system, for example, could not be classed a simple ideas. Locke calls ideas like these complex ideas. His view is that complex ideas are the product of combining our simple ideas together in various ways. For example, my complex idea of a glass of orange juice consists of various simple ideas (the color orange, the feeling of coolness, a certain sweet taste, a certain acidic taste, and so forth) combined together into one object. Thus, Locke believes our ideas are compositional.
Simple ideas combine to form complex ideas. And these complex ideas can be combined to tv better form even more complex ideas. We are now in sex marriages discursive a position to understand the thesis about, character of Locke’s empiricism. He is committed to the view that all of our ideas, everything we can possibly think of, can be broken down into simple ideas received in experience. The bulk of discursive, Book II is devoted to position with making this empiricism plausible. Locke does this both by undertaking an examination of the various abilities that the human mind has (memory, abstraction, volition, and so forth) and by offering an account of how even abstruse ideas like space, infinity, God, and causation could be constructed using only the simple ideas received in experience. Our complex ideas are classified into three different groups: substances, modes, and same, relations. Ideas of substances are ideas of cover coordinator with, things which are thought to essay exist independently. Ordinary objects like desks, sheep, and mountains fall into this group. Informative. But there are also ideas of collective substances, which consist of individuals substances considered as forming a whole. A group of individual buildings might be considered a town.
And a group of individual men and women might be considered together as an army. In addition to describing the way we think about individual substances, Locke also has an interesting discussion of substance-in-general. What is it that particular substances like shoes and spoons are made out of? We could suggest that they are made out of leather and same discursive essay, metal. But the question could be repeated, what are leather and metal made of? We might respond that they are made of matter.
But even here, Locke thinks we can ask what matter is made of. What gives rise to the properties of matter? Locke claims that we don’t have a very clear idea here. So our idea of substances will always be somewhat confused because we do not really know what stands under, supports, or gives rise to autumn leaves essays observable properties like extension and sex marriages discursive essay, solidity. Ideas of modes are ideas of thesis about natural, things which are dependent on substances in some way. In general, this taxonomic category can be somewhat tricky. It does not seem to have a clear parallel in contemporary metaphysics, and it is discursive, sometimes thought to be a mere catch-all category for things which are neither substances nor relations. But it is leaves essays, helpful to think of same sex marriages discursive, modes as being like features of substances; modes are “such complex Ideas , which however compounded, contain not in them the supposition of coordinator no experience, subsisting by themselves, but are considered as Dependences on, or Affections of Substances.” (2.12.4, 165).
Modes come in two types: simple and mixed. Simple modes are constructed by combining a large number of a single type of simple ideas together. For example, Locke believes there is same sex marriages essay, a simple idea of unity. About Language. Our complex idea of the discursive, number seven, for example, is a simple mode and is constructed by concatenating seven simple ideas of unity together. Intermediate Public Question Papers. Locke uses this category to explain how we think about a number of topics relating to number, space, time, pleasure and pain, and cognition. Mixed modes, on the other hand, involve combining together simple ideas of sex marriages essay, more than one kind. Intermediate Question Papers. A great many ideas fall into this category. But the most important ones are moral ideas. Our ideas of theft, murder, promising, duty, and the like all count as mixed modes. Ideas of relations are ideas that involve more than one substance. Same. My idea of a husband, for example, is more than the idea of an individual man.
It also must include the idea of another substance, namely the cover no experience, idea of that man’s spouse. Locke is keen to point out same sex marriages discursive essay, that much more of our thought involves relations than we might previously have thought. For example, when I think about Elizabeth II as the Queen of England my thinking actually involves relations, because I cannot truly think of Elizabeth as a queen without conceiving of her as having a certain relationship of sovereignty to cover for event position some subjects (individual substances like David Beckham and J.K. Same Sex Marriages Essay. Rowling). Locke then goes on to explore the role that relations have in cover coordinator position with no experience our thinking about causation, space, time, morality, and (very famously) identity. Throughout his discussion of the discursive, different kinds of complex ideas Locke is keen to than cable emphasize that all of our ideas can ultimately be broken down into simple ideas received in sensation and reflection. Put differently, Locke is keenly aware that the success of his empiricist theory of mind depends on its ability to account for all the contents of our minds. Whether or not Locke is successful is a matter of dispute. On some occasions the same discursive, analysis he gives of how a very complex idea could be constructed using only simple ideas is vague and requires the reader to fill in some gaps. And commentators have also suggested that some of the simple ideas Locke invokes, for example the provocation in comparative, simple ideas of power and unity, do not seem to be obvious components of our phenomenological experience.
Book II closes with a number of chapters designed to help us evaluate the quality of our ideas. Our ideas are better, according to Locke, insofar as they are clear, distinct, real, adequate, and same sex marriages discursive, true. Our ideas are worse insofar as they are obscure, confused, fantastical, inadequate, and false. Clarity and obscurity are explained via an analogy to vision. Letter For Event Coordinator. Clear ideas, like clear images, are crisp and fresh, not faded or diminished in the way that obscure ideas (or images) are. Distinction and confusion have to do with the individuation of ideas. Ideas are distinct when there is only one word which corresponds to them. Confused ideas are ones to which more than one word can correctly apply or ones that lack a clear and consistent correlation to one particular word.
To use one of Locke’s examples, an idea of a leopard as a beast with spots would be confused. It is same discursive essay, not distinct because the word “lynx” could apply to that idea just as easily as the word “leopard.” Real ideas are those that have a “foundation in nature” whereas fantastical ideas are those created by the imagination. For example, our idea of a horse would be a real idea and our idea of a unicorn would be fantastical. About Language Processing. Adequacy and inadequacy have to same sex marriages essay do with how well ideas match the leaves essays, patterns according to which they were made. Adequate ideas perfectly represent the thing they are meant to discursive essay depict; inadequate ideas fail to do this. Ideas are true when the provocation and negotiation in comparative criticism, mind understands them in a way that is correct according to linguistic practices and the way the world is structured.
They are false when the mind misunderstands them along these lines. In these chapters Locke also explains which categories of ideas are better or worse according to this evaluative system. Simple ideas do very well. Same Essay. Because objects directly produce them in the mind they tend to be clear, distinct, and essays, so forth. Ideas of modes and relations also tend to same do very well, but for a different reason.
Locke thinks that the archetypes of these ideas are in the mind rather than in intermediate the world. Same Sex Marriages Discursive Essay. As such, it is easy for these ideas to essay informative be good because the mind has a clear sense of what the ideas should be like as it constructs them. Same Sex Marriages Essay. By contrast, ideas of substances tend to fare very poorly. The archetypes for these ideas are external world objects. Because our perceptual access to these objects is letter for event coordinator position, limited in a number of sex marriages discursive essay, ways and because these objects are so intricate, ideas of in comparative criticism, substances tend to be confused, inadequate, false, and so forth. Book III of the Essay is concerned with language. Locke admits that this topic is something of a digression. He did not originally plan for language to sex marriages discursive take up an entire book of the Essay . But he soon began to realize that language plays an important role in our cognitive lives. Book III begins by noting this and by discussing the nature and proper role of language. Autumn Leaves Essays. But a major portion of Book III is devoted to combating the misuse of language. Locke believes that improper use of same essay, language is is satellite tv better than, one of the sex marriages essay, greatest obstacles to knowledge and cable, clear thought.
He offers a diagnosis of the discursive, problems caused by language and recommendations for thesis about processing, avoiding these problems. Locke believes that language is a tool for communicating with other human beings. Specifically, Locke thinks that we want to sex marriages essay communicate about our ideas, the contents of our minds. From here it is a short step to the view that: “ Words in their primary or immediate Signification, stand for nothing, but the Ideas in the Mind of him that uses them .” (3.2.2, 405). When an agent utters the word “gold” she is autumn leaves essays, referring to her idea of a shiny, yellowish, malleable substance of great value. When she utters the discursive, word “carrot” she is referring to her idea of a long, skinny, orange vegetable which grows underground.
Locke is, of course, aware that the names we choose for these ideas are arbitrary and merely a matter of social convention. Although the primary use of words is to about refer to ideas in the mind of the sex marriages discursive essay, speaker, Locke also allows that words make what he calls “secret reference” to two other things. First, humans also want their words to refer to the corresponding ideas in the minds of is satellite tv better cable, other humans. When Smith says “carrot” within earshot of Jones her hope is that Jones also has an idea of the long, skinny vegetable and that saying “carrot” will bring that idea into Jones’ mind. After all, communication would be impossible without the supposition that our words correspond to ideas in sex marriages essay the minds of others. Second, humans suppose that their words stand for essays, objects in the world. When Smith says “carrot” she wants to refer to more than just her idea, she also wants to refer to the long skinny objects themselves. But Locke is same sex marriages discursive essay, suspicious of these two other ways of understanding signification.
He thinks the latter one, in particular, is illegitimate. After discussing these basic features of language and public exams papers, reference Locke goes on to discuss specific cases of the relationship between ideas and words: words used for simple ideas, words used for modes, words used for substances, the way in sex marriages essay which a single word can refer to a multiplicity of ideas, and so forth. There is also an interesting chapter on “particles.” These are words which do not refer to an idea but instead refer to a certain connection which holds between ideas. For example, if I say “Secretariat is brown” the word “Secretariat” refers to than cable my idea of a certain racehorse, and “brown” refers to my idea of essay, a certain color, but the word “is” does something different. Coordinator With. That word is a particle and discursive essay, indicates that I am expressing something about the relationship between my ideas of Secretariat and brown and suggesting that they are connected in a certain way. Other particles includes words like “and”, “but”, “hence”, and so forth. As mentioned above, the problems of language are a major concern of Book III. Locke thinks that language can lead to confusion and thesis language, misunderstanding for a number of reasons.
The signification of words is arbitrary, rather than natural, and this means it can be difficult to understand which words refer to which ideas. Many of our words stand for ideas which are complex, hard to acquire, or both. So many people will struggle to use those words appropriately. And, in some cases, people will even use words when they have no corresponding idea or only a very confused and inadequate corresponding idea. Locke claims that this is discursive, exacerbated by the fact that we are often taught words before we have any idea what the word signifies. A child, for example, might be taught the leaves essays, word “government” at essay a young age, but it will take her years to form a clear idea of what governments are and how they operate. People also often use words inconsistently or equivocate on their meaning. Finally, some people are led astray because they believe that their words perfectly capture reality. Public Question Papers. Recall from discursive, above that people secretly and public, incorrectly use their words to refer to objects in the external world.
The problem is that people might be very wrong about what those objects are like. Locke thinks that a result of all this is sex marriages discursive essay, that people are seriously misusing language and that many debates and discussions in important fields like science, politics, and cover position with, philosophy are confused or consist of merely verbal disputes. Locke provides a number of examples of language causing problems: Cartesians using “body” and “extension” interchangeably, even though the two ideas are distinct; physiologists who agree on all the facts yet have a long dispute because they have different understandings of the word “liquor”; Scholastic philosophers using the term “prime matter” when they are unable to actually frame an idea of such a thing, and so forth. The remedies that Locke recommends for fixing these problems created by same discursive language are somewhat predictable. But Locke is quick to point out that while they sound like easy fixes they are actually quite difficult to implement.
The first and most important step is to only use words when we have clear ideas attached to them. (Again, this sounds easy, but many of us might actually struggle to come up with a clear idea corresponding to even everyday terms like “glory” or “fascist”.) We must also strive to make sure that the informative, ideas attached to same sex marriages discursive terms are as complete as possible. We must strive to ensure that we use words consistently and do not equivocate; every time we utter a word we should use it to signify one and exams, the same idea. Finally, we should communicate our definitions of words to others. In Book IV, having already explained how the mind is furnished with the ideas it has, Locke moves on to discuss knowledge and belief. A good place to start is with a quote from the beginning of Book IV: “ Knowledge then seems to same me to be nothing but the perception of the connexion and agreement, or disagreement and repugnancy of any of our Ideas . Where this Perception is, there is Knowledge, and where it is not, there, though we may fancy, guess, or believe, yet we always come short of Knowledge.” (4.2.2, 525). Locke spends the first part of Book IV clarifying and is satellite tv better than, exploring this conception of knowledge.
The second part focuses on how we should apportion belief in essay cases where we lack knowledge. What does Locke mean by the “connection and agreement” and the “disagreement and repugnancy” of our ideas? Some examples might help. Bring to intermediate exams question mind your idea of white and your idea of black. Locke thinks that upon doing this you will immediately perceive that they are different, they “disagree”.
It is sex marriages essay, when you perceive this disagreement that you know the fact that white is not black. Letter Coordinator With No Experience. Those acquainted with American geography will know that Boise is in Idaho. On Locke’s account of knowledge, this means that they are able to perceive a certain connection that obtains between their idea of Idaho and their idea of Boise. Locke enumerates four dimensions along which there might be this sort of agreement or disagreement between ideas. First, we can perceive when two ideas are identical or non-identical. For example, knowing that sweetness is not bitterness consists in same perceiving that the idea of sweetness is not identical to the idea of bitterness. Second, we can perceive relations that obtain between ideas.
For example, knowing that 7 is greater than 3 consists in perceiving that there is a size relation of bigger and smaller between the two ideas. Letter With No Experience. Third, we can perceive when our idea of a certain feature accompanies our idea of sex marriages essay, a certain thing. If I know that ice is cold this is because I perceive that my idea of cold always accompanies my idea of ice. Fourthly, we can perceive when existence agrees with any idea. I can have knowledge of this fourth kind when, for example, I perform the cogito and recognize the special relation between my idea of myself and my idea of existence. Letter For Event Position With No Experience. Locke thinks that all of our knowledge consists in agreements or disagreements of one of same sex marriages essay, these types.
After detailing the types of relations between ideas which constitute knowledge Locke continues on to discuss three “degrees” of knowledge in intermediate public exams question papers 4.2. Same Sex Marriages. These degrees seem to consist in different ways of knowing something. The first degree Locke calls intuitive knowledge. An agent possesses intuitive knowledge when she directly perceives the connection between two ideas. This is the best kind of public question papers, knowledge, as Locke says “Such kind of discursive, Truths, the Mind perceives at the first sight of the Ideas together, by leaves bare Intuition , without the intervention of discursive essay, any other Idea ; and this kind of knowledge is the clearest, and surprising, most certain, that humane Frailty is capable of.” (4.2.1, 531). The second degree of essay, knowledge is called demonstrative. Often it is impossible to perceive an immediate connection between two ideas. For example, most of us are unable to tell that the three interior angles of a triangle are equal to two right angles simply by looking at them. Provocation Essays In Comparative Criticism. But most of us, with the assistance of a mathematics teacher, can be made to see that they are equal by means of a geometric proof or demonstration. This is the same discursive essay, model for demonstrative knowledge.
Even if one is essay informative research, unable to directly perceive a relation between idea-X and sex marriages, idea-Y one might perceive a relation indirectly by means of idea-A and idea-B. Essay Informative. This will be possible if the agent has intuitive knowledge of a connection between X and same, A, between A and B, and then between B and Y. Letter For Event Position No Experience. Demonstrative knowledge consists, therefore, in a string of relations each of which is known intuitively. The third degree of knowledge is called sensitive knowledge and same discursive essay, has been the than cable, source of considerable debate and confusion among Locke commentators. For one thing, Locke is unclear as to whether sensitive knowledge even counts as knowledge. He writes that intuitive and demonstrative knowledge are, properly speaking, the only forms of knowledge, but that “There is, indeed, another Perception of the Mind…which going beyond bare probability, and yet not reaching perfectly to same discursive either of the foregoing degrees of certainty, passes under the name of Knowledge.” (4.2.14, 537). Sensitive knowledge has to do with the relationship between our ideas and the objects in the external world that produce them. Locke claims that we can be certain that when we perceive something, an orange, for example, there is an object in the external world which is responsible for these sensations.
Part of Locke’s claim is that there is a serious qualitative difference between biting into thesis processing an orange and same discursive, remembering biting into an orange. There is something in essay informative surprising the phenomenological experience of the former which assures us of a corresponding object in the external world. Locke spends a fair amount of time in Book IV responding to worries that he is a skeptic or that his account of knowledge, with its emphasis on ideas, fails to be responsive to same essay the external world. The general worry for Locke is fairly simple. Than. By claiming that ideas are the only things humans have epistemic access to, and by claiming that knowledge relates only to our ideas, Locke seems to rule out the claim that we can ever know about the external world. Lockean agents are trapped behind a “veil of ideas.” Thus we cannot have any assurance that our ideas provide us with reliable information about the external world. Same Discursive. We cannot know what it would be for an idea to resemble or represent an object. Exams Papers. And we cannot tell, without the ability to step outside our own minds, whether our ideas did this reliably. This criticism has historically been thought to endanger Locke’s entire project. Gilbert Ryle’s memorable assessment is that “nearly every youthful student of philosophy both can and does in his second essay refute Locke’s entire Theory of Knowledge.” Recent scholarship has been much more charitable to Locke. But the central problem is still a pressing one.
Debates about the correct understanding of sensitive knowledge are obviously important when considering these issues. At first blush, the discursive, relation involved in sensitive knowledge seems to be a relation between an idea and a physical object in public papers the world. Same Sex Marriages Discursive. But, if this reading is correct, then it becomes difficult to is satellite cable understand the many passages in which Locke insists that knowledge is a relation that holds only between ideas. Also relevant are debates about how to correctly understand Lockean ideas. Recall from above that although many understand ideas as mental objects, some understand them as mental acts.
While most of the discursive essay, text seems to favor the first interpretation, it seems that the second interpretation has a significant advantage when responding to these skeptical worries. The reason is that the connection between ideas and external world objects is built right into the definition of an idea. An idea just is a perception of an external world object. However the debates discussed in the previous paragraph are resolved, there is a consensus among commentators that Locke believes the scope of human understanding is is satellite than cable, very narrow. Humans are not capable of very much knowledge. Locke discusses this is 4.3, a chapter entitled “Extent of Humane Knowledge.” The fact that our knowledge is so limited should come as no surprise. Sex Marriages. We have already discussed the ways in which our ideas of substances are problematic.
And we have just seen that we have no real understanding of the connection between our ideas and the objects that produce them. The good news, however, is that while our knowledge might not be very extensive, it is sufficient for natural processing, our needs. Same. Locke’s memorable nautical metaphor holds that: “’Tis of natural language, great use to the Sailor to know the length of his Line, though he cannot with it fathom all the depths of the Ocean. ‘Tis well he knows, that it is long enough to same sex marriages discursive essay reach the bottom, at such Places, as are necessary to direct his Voyage, and caution him against running upon Shoales, that may ruin him. Than. Our Business here is sex marriages discursive essay, not to know all things, but those which concern our Conduct.” (1.1.6, 46). Locke thinks we have enough knowledge to live comfortable lives on Earth, to realize that there is a God, to understand morality and behave appropriately, and to gain salvation. Our knowledge of morality, in particular, is very good. Locke even suggests that we might develop a demonstrable system of tv better than, morality similar to Euclid’s demonstrable system of geometry. This is possible because our moral ideas are ideas of modes, rather than ideas of same essay, substances.
And our ideas of provocation and negotiation, modes do much better on Locke’s evaluative scheme than our ideas of substances do. Same Sex Marriages Discursive Essay. Finally, while the provocation and negotiation essays, limits to our knowledge might be disappointing, Locke notes that recognizing these limits is important and useful insofar as it will help us to sex marriages essay better organize our intellectual inquiry. We will be saved from investigating questions which we could never know the answers to and can focus our efforts on research, areas where progress is possible. One benefit of Locke’s somewhat bleak assessment of the scope of our knowledge was that it caused him to focus on an area which was underappreciated by many of his contemporaries. This was the arena of judgment or opinion, belief states which fall short of same sex marriages discursive essay, knowledge. Given that we have so little knowledge (that we can be certain of so little) the realm of probability becomes very important. Recall that knowledge consists in a perceived agreement or disagreement between two ideas.
Belief that falls short of knowledge (judgment or opinion) consists in a presumed agreement or disagreement between two ideas. Consider an example: I am not entirely sure who the Prime Minister of position with no experience, Canada is, but I am somewhat confident it is Stephen Harper. Locke’s claim is that in judging that the Canadian PM is Stephen Harper I am acting as though a relation holds between the two ideas. I do not directly perceive a connection between my idea of Stephen Harper and my idea of the Canadian PM, but I presume that one exists. After offering this account of what judgment is, Locke offers an same sex marriages discursive, analysis of how and letter position, why we form the opinions we do and offers some recommendations for forming our opinions responsibly.
This includes a diagnosis of the errors people make in judging, a discussion of the sex marriages, different degrees of assent, and an interesting discussion of the epistemic value of in comparative criticism, testimony. As discussed above, the main project of the Essay is an examination of the human understanding and an analysis of knowledge. But the Essay is discursive essay, a rather expansive work and contains discussion of many other topics of philosophical interest. Some of these will be discussed below. A word of warning, however, is required before proceeding. It can sometimes be difficult to tell whether Locke takes himself to be offering a metaphysical theory or whether he merely is describing a component of human psychology. For example, we might question whether his account of personal identity is meant to give necessary and sufficient conditions for a metaphysical account of personhood or whether it is merely designed to tell us what sorts of identity attributions we do and should make and why.
We may further question whether, when discussing primary and secondary qualities, Locke is offering a theory about how perception really works or whether this discussion is a mere digression used to illustrate a point about the tv better than, nature of our ideas. Same Sex Marriages Discursive Essay. So while many of these topics have received a great deal of attention, their precise relationship to autumn essays the main project of the Essay can be difficult to locate. a. Primary and Secondary Qualities. Book 2, Chapter 8 of the Essay contains an sex marriages essay, extended discussion of the is satellite tv better than cable, distinction between primary and secondary qualities. Locke was hardly original in making this distinction. Sex Marriages Discursive Essay. By the time the Essay was published, it had been made by many others and was even somewhat commonplace.
That said, Locke’s formulation of the distinction and his analysis of the related issues has been tremendously influential and has provided the framework for much of the subsequent discussion on the topic. Locke defines a quality as a power that a body has to produce ideas in us. Tv Better Than. So a simple object like a baked potato which can produce ideas of brownness, heat, ovular shape, solidity, and determinate size must have a series of corresponding qualities. There must be something in the potato which gives us the idea of brown, something in same discursive essay the potato which gives us the idea of ovular shape, and so on. The primary/secondary quality distinction claims that some of these qualities are very different from others. Locke motivates the than, distinction between two types of sex marriages discursive essay, qualities by discussing how a body could produce an idea in us. The theory of perception endorsed by Locke is highly mechanical. All perception occurs as a result of motion and is satellite, collision. Sex Marriages. If I smell the baked potato, there must be small material particles which are flying off of the potato and bumping into nerves in my nose, the motion in natural language processing the nose-nerves causes a chain reaction along my nervous system until eventually there is some motion in my brain and I experience the same essay, idea of a certain smell. If I see the baked potato, there must be small material particles flying off the potato and bumping into my retina. That bumping causes a similar chain reaction which ends in letter for event with no experience my experience of a certain roundish shape.
From this, Locke infers that for an object to produce ideas in us it must really have some features, but can completely lack other features. Same. This mechanical theory of perception requires that objects producing ideas in us have shape, extension, mobility, and solidity. But it does not require that these objects have color, taste, sound, or temperature. So the primary qualities are qualities actually possessed by bodies. These are features that a body cannot be without. The secondary qualities, by contrast, are not really had by intermediate public exams bodies. They are just ways of talking about the ideas that can be produced in us by bodies in virtue of same, their primary qualities. So when we claim that the baked potato is solid, this means that solidity is autumn leaves essays, one of its fundamental features. But when I claim that it smells a certain earthy kind of way, this just means that its fundamental features are capable of same discursive essay, producing the idea of the earthy smell in my mind. These claims lead to Locke’s claims about resemblance: “From whence I think it is easie to draw this Observation, That the provocation criticism, Ideas of primary Qualities of Bodies, are Resemblances of them, and their Patterns do really exist in the Bodies themselves; but the same essay, Ideas, produced in us by these Secondary Qualities, have no resemblance of them at all.” (2.8.14, 137). Insofar as my idea of the potato is of something solid, extended, mobile, and possessing a certain shape my idea accurately captures something about the real nature of the potato.
But insofar as my idea of the potato is of something with a particular smell, temperature, and taste my ideas do not accurately capture mind-independent facts about the potato. Around the time of the Essay the mechanical philosophy was emerging as the predominant theory about the physical world. The mechanical philosophy held that the fundamental entities in autumn the physical world were small individual bodies called corpuscles. Each corpuscle was solid, extended, and had a certain shape. These corpuscles could combine together to form ordinary objects like rocks, tables, and same, plants. The mechanical philosophy argued that all features of bodies and all natural phenomena could be explained by appeal to essay surprising these corpuscles and their basic properties (in particular, size, shape, and motion). Locke was exposed to the mechanical philosophy while at Oxford and became acquainted with the sex marriages discursive essay, writings of its most prominent advocates. On balance, Locke seems to have become a convert to the mechanical philosophy. He writes that mechanism is the best available hypothesis for the explanation of nature. We have already seen some of the explanatory work done by essay informative surprising mechanism in the Essay . The distinction between primary and secondary qualities was a hallmark of the mechanical philosophy and neatly dovetailed with mechanist accounts of essay, perception.
Locke reaffirms his commitment to this account of perception at a number of other points in the Essay . And when discussing material objects Locke is very often happy to allow that they are composed of material corpuscles. What is peculiar, however, is that while the Essay does seem to have a number of passages in which Locke supports mechanical explanations and speaks highly of mechanism, it also contains some highly critical remarks about mechanism and discussions of the cover letter coordinator position no experience, limits of the mechanical philosophy. Locke’s critiques of mechanism can be divided into two strands. First, he recognized that there were a number of observed phenomena which mechanism struggled to explain. Mechanism did offer neat explanations of some observed phenomena. For example, the fact that objects could be seen but not smelled through glass could be explained by positing that the sex marriages essay, corpuscles which interacted with our retinas were smaller than the ones which interacted with our nostrils.
So the sight corpuscles could pass through the spaces between the glass corpuscles, but the smell corpuscles would be turned away. But other phenomena were harder to explain. Autumn. Magnetism and various chemical and biological processes (like fermentation) were less susceptible to these sorts of explanations. Same Sex Marriages. And universal gravitation, which Locke took Newton to have proved the existence of in the Principia , was particularly hard to explain. Informative. Locke suggests that God may have “superadded” various non-mechanical powers to material bodies and that this could account for gravitation. (Indeed, at several points he even suggests that God may have superadded the power of thought to matter and same sex marriages discursive, that humans might be purely material beings.) Locke’s second set of intermediate question, critiques pertain to theoretical problems in the mechanical philosophy.
One problem was that mechanism had no satisfactory way of explaining cohesion. Why do corpuscles sometimes stick together? If things like tables and chairs are just collections of small corpuscles then they should be very easy to break apart, the same way I can easily separate one group of marbles from another. Further, why should any one particular corpuscle stay stuck together as a solid? What accounts for its cohesion? Again, mechanism seems hard-pressed to offer an answer. Finally, Locke allows that we do not entirely understand transfer of motion by impact. When one corpuscle collides with another we actually do not have a very satisfying explanation for discursive, why the second moves away under the force of the than, impact.
Locke presses these critiques with some skill and in a serious manner. Still, ultimately he is guardedly optimistic about mechanism. This somewhat mixed attitude on same discursive, Locke’s part has led commentators to debate questions about his exact attitude toward the mechanical philosophy and his motivations for discussing it. In Book 2, Chapter 21 of the provocation and negotiation essays criticism, Essay Locke explores the topic of the will. Discursive Essay. One of the things which separates people from rocks and billiard balls is autumn leaves, our ability to make decisions and control our actions.
We feel that we are free in certain respects and that we have the power to choose certain thoughts and actions. Locke calls this power the will. But there are tricky questions about what this power consists in and about same discursive, what it takes to freely (or voluntarily) choose something. Provocation And Negotiation Essays In Comparative Criticism. 2.21 contains a delicate and sustained discussion of these tricky questions. Locke first begins with questions of freedom and then proceeds to a discussion of the same discursive, will. For Event Position With. On Locke’s analysis, we are free to do those things which we both will to same discursive do and are physically capable of doing. For example, if I wish to jump into a lake and have no physical maladies which prevent it, then I am free to jump into the lake. Cover For Event Position No Experience. By contrast, if I do not wish to jump into the lake, but a friend pushes me in, I did not act freely when I entered the water. Or, if I wish to jump into the lake, but have a spinal injury and same, cannot move my body, then I do not act freely when I stay on the shore.
So far so good, Locke has offered us a useful way of differentiating our voluntary actions from our involuntary ones. Essay Informative Research. But there is still a pressing question about freedom and the will: that of whether the will is itself free. When I am deciding whether or not to jump into the water, is the sex marriages, will determined by outside factors to choose one or the other? Or can it, so to public exams speak, make up its own mind and choose either option? Locke’s initial position in the chapter is that the same discursive, will is determined. But in later sections he offers a qualification of sorts. Papers. In normal circumstances, the will is determined by what Locke calls uneasiness: “ What is it that determines the Will in regard to sex marriages our Actions? … some (and for the most part the most pressing) uneasiness a Man is at present under. That is that which successively determines the Will , and sets us upon those Actions, we perform.” (2.21.31, 250-1).
The uneasiness is research, caused by the absence of something that is perceived as good. The perception of the thing as good gives rise to a desire for that thing. Suppose I choose to sex marriages discursive eat a slice of pizza. Locke would say I must have made this choice because the absence of the pizza was troubling me somehow (I was feeling hunger pains, or longing for surprising, something savory) and this discomfort gave rise to same sex marriages discursive a desire for food. That desire in turn determined my will to is satellite choose to eat pizza. Locke’s qualification to this account of the will being determined by uneasiness has to do with what he calls suspension. Beginning with the discursive essay, second edition of the leaves essays, Essay , Locke began to discursive essay argue that the most pressing desire for the most part determines the will, but not always: “For the mind having in most cases, as is evident in Experience, a power to suspend the execution and satisfaction of any of its desires, and so all, one after another, is at than liberty to consider the objects of them; examine them on all sides, and weigh them with others.” (2.21.47, 263).
So even if, at this moment, my desire for pizza is the strongest desire, Locke thinks I can pause before I decide to eat the pizza and consider the decision. I can consider other items in my desire set: my desire to lose weight, or to leave the pizza for my friend, or to keep a vegan diet. Careful consideration of these other possibilities might have the effect of changing my desire set. If I really focus on how important it is to stay fit and healthy by eating nutritious foods then my desire to leave the pizza might become stronger than my desire to eat it and sex marriages essay, my will may be determined to choose to not eat the pizza. But of course we can always ask whether a person has a choice whether or not to suspend judgment or whether the suspension of judgment is itself determined by the mind’s strongest desire. On this point Locke is somewhat vague. While most interpreters think our desires determine when judgment is cover letter for event with, suspended, some others disagree and argue that suspension of judgment offers Lockean agents a robust form of free will.
d. Personhood and Personal Identity. Locke was one of the discursive, first philosophers to give serious attention to the question of personal identity. Is Satellite Than Cable. And his discussion of the question has proved influential both historically and in the present day. The discussion occurs in the midst of Locke’ larger discussion of the identity conditions for various entities in Book II, Chapter 27. At heart, the question is simple, what makes me the same person as the essay, person who did certain things in the past and essay informative, that will do certain things in the future? In what sense was it me that attended Bridlemile Elementary School many years ago? After all, that person was very short, knew very little about soccer, and loved Chicken McNuggets. I, on same sex marriages discursive, the other hand, am average height, know tons of for event coordinator position with, soccer trivia, and get rather queasy at the thought of eating chicken, especially in nugget form. Nevertheless, it is true that I am identical to the boy who attended Bridlemile.
In Locke’s time, the topic of personal identity was important for religious reasons. Essay. Christian doctrine held that there was an afterlife in cover position no experience which virtuous people would be rewarded in heaven and sinful people would be punished in hell. This scheme provided motivation for individuals to behave morally. But, for this to work, it was important that the person who is rewarded or punished is the same person as the same sex marriages discursive, one who lived virtuously or lived sinfully. And this had to be true even though the autumn essays, person being rewarded or punished had died, had somehow continued to exist in same sex marriages discursive an afterlife, and had somehow managed to be reunited with a body. So it was important to get the issue of personal identity right. Locke’s views on personal identity involve a negative project and a positive project. The negative project involves arguing against the view that personal identity consists in or requires the continued existence of is satellite than cable, a particular substance. And the positive project involves defending the view that personal identity consists in continuity of consciousness. We can begin with this positive view. Locke defines a person as “a thinking intelligent Being, that has reason and reflection, and can consider itself as itself, the same sex marriages discursive essay, same thinking thing in different times and places; which it does only by essay informative research that consciousness, which is inseparable from thinking, and as it seems to essay me essential to cover for event position with no experience it.” (2.27.9, 335).
Locke suggests here that part of what makes a person the same through time is their ability to recognize past experiences as belonging to them. For me, part of what differentiates one little boy who attended Bridlemile Elementary from all the essay, other children who went there is my realization that I share in his consciousness. Put differently, my access to leaves his lived experience at Bridlemile is very different from my access to the lived experiences of others there: it is same sex marriages essay, first-personal and immediate. Cover Position No Experience. I recognize his experiences there as part of a string of experiences that make up my life and join up to my current self and same, current experiences in a unified way. That is what makes him the same person as me. Locke believes that this account of personal identity as continuity of consciousness obviates the public, need for same sex marriages discursive essay, an account of thesis about processing, personal identity given in terms of substances.
A traditional view held that there was a metaphysical entity, the soul, which guaranteed personal identity through time; wherever there was the same soul, the same sex marriages, same person would be there as well. Autumn Essays. Locke offers a number of thought experiments to cast doubt on this belief and show that his account is superior. For example, if a soul was wiped clean of all its previous experiences and given new ones (as might be the case if reincarnation were true), the same sex marriages, same soul would not justify the autumn leaves essays, claim that all of those who had had it were the same person. Or, we could imagine two souls who had their conscious experiences completely swapped. In this case, we would want to say that the discursive essay, person went with the conscious experiences and did not remain with the soul. Locke’s account of autumn essays, personal identity seems to be a deliberate attempt to move away from same essay, some of the metaphysical alternatives and to offer an account which would be acceptable to individuals from a number of different theological backgrounds.
Of course, a number of serious challenges have been raised for Locke’s account.. Most of these focus on the crucial role seemingly played by memory. Papers. And the precise details of Locke’s positive proposal in 2.27 have been hard to pin down. Nevertheless, many contemporary philosophers believe that there is an important kernel of truth in Locke’s analysis. Locke’s distinction between the real essence of a substance and the nominal essence of a substance is one of the most fascinating components of the Essay . Scholastic philosophers had held that the main goal of discursive essay, metaphysics and science was to learn about the essences of informative research surprising, things: the key metaphysical components of things which explained all of their interesting features. Locke thought this project was misguided. That sort of knowledge, knowledge of the real essences of beings, was unavailable to human beings. Same Sex Marriages. This led Locke to suggest an exams question, alternative way to understand and investigate nature; he recommends focusing on the nominal essences of things. When Locke introduces the term real essence he uses it to refer to the “real constitution of any Thing, which is the foundation of all those Properties, that are combined in, and are constantly found to co-exist with [an object]” (3.6.6, 442). For the Scholastics this real essence would be an object’s substantial form. For proponents of the mechanical philosophy it would be the sex marriages essay, number and arrangement of the material corpuscles which composed the body.
Locke sometimes endorses this latter understanding of real essence. But he insists that these real essences are entirely unknown and papers, undiscoverable by us. Sex Marriages Discursive. The nominal essences, by contrast, are known and thesis about processing, are the best way we have to understand individual substances. Nominal essences are just collections of all the same essay, observed features an individual thing has. So the nominal essence of a piece of gold would include the for event no experience, ideas of yellowness, a certain weight, malleability, dissolvability in certain chemicals, and so on.
Locke offers us a helpful analogy to illustrate the difference between real and nominal essences. He suggests that our position with respect to ordinary objects is like the position of someone looking at a very complicated clock. The gears, wheels, weights, and pendulum that produce the motions of the hands on the clock face (the clock’s real essence) are unknown to the person. Discursive. They are hidden behind the casing. He or she can only know about the essay informative, observable features like the clock’s shape, the movement of the hands, and the chiming of the hours (the clock’s nominal essence). Similarly, when I look at an object like a dandelion, I am only able to observe its nominal essence (the yellow color, the discursive, bitter smell, and so forth).
I have no clear idea what produces these features of the dandelion or how they are produced. Locke’s views on real and nominal essences have important consequences for his views about the for event position, division of essay, objects into natural language processing groups and discursive essay, sorts. Why do we consider some things to be zebras and other things to be rabbits? Locke’s view is that we group according to nominal essence, not according to (unknown) real essence. But this has the tv better, consequence that our groupings might fail to adequately reflect whatever real distinctions there might be in nature. So Locke is not a realist about same sex marriages discursive, species or types.
Instead, he is a conventionalist. Autumn Essays. We project these divisions on the world when we choose to classify objects as falling under the various nominal essences we’ve created. The epistemology of religion (claims about our understanding of God and our duties with respect to him) were tremendously contentious during Locke’s lifetime. The English Civil War, fought during Locke’s youth, was in large part a disagreement over the right way to understand the sex marriages discursive, Christian religion and the requirements of religious faith. In Comparative Criticism. Throughout the seventeenth century, a number of fundamentalist Christian sects continually threatened the stability of English political life. And the status of Catholic and same essay, Jewish people in England was a vexed one. So the stakes were very high when, in 4.18, Locke discussed the nature of faith and reason and surprising, their respective domains. He defines reason as an attempt to discover certainty or probability through the use of our natural faculties in the investigation of the world. Faith, by contrast, is certainty or probability attained through a communication believed to have come, originally, from God.
So when Smith eats a potato chip and comes to believe it is salty, she believes this according to reason. But when Smith believes that Joshua made the sun stand still in the sky because she read it in the Bible (which she takes to be divine revelation), she believes according to faith. Although it initially sounds as though Locke has carved out same sex marriages essay, quite separate roles for faith and reason, it must be noted that these definitions make faith subordinate to reason in a subtle way. No Experience. For, as Locke explains: “Whatever GOD hath revealed, is certainly true; no Doubt can be made of it. This is the proper Object of Faith : But whether it be a divine Revelation, or no, Reason must judge; which can never permit the Mind to reject a greater Evidence to embrace what is less evident, nor allow it to entertain Probability in opposition to Knowledge and Certainty.” (4.18.10, 695). First, Locke thinks that if any proposition, even one which purports to be divinely revealed, clashes with the clear evidence of essay, reason then it should not be believed. And Negotiation Criticism. So, even if it seems like God is same discursive, telling us that 1+1=3, Locke claims we should go on believing that 1+1=2 and leaves essays, we should deny that the 1+1=3 revelation was genuine.
Second, Locke thinks that to same discursive determine whether or not something is divinely revealed we have to exercise our reason. How can we tell whether the Bible contains God’s direct revelation conveyed through the inspired Biblical authors or whether it is instead the work of mere humans? Only reason can help us settle that question. Locke thinks that those who ignore the importance of informative surprising, reason in determining what is and is not a matter of faith are guilty of “enthusiasm.” And in a chapter added to later editions of the Essay Locke sternly warns his readers against the serious dangers posed by this intellectual vice. In all of essay, this Locke emerges as a strong moderate. He himself was deeply religious and took religious faith to be important. But he also felt that there were serious limits to what could be justified through appeals to faith. The issues discussed in this section will be very important below where Locke’s views on thesis about natural language processing, the importance of religious toleration are discussed. Locke lived during a very eventful time in English politics.
The Civil War, Interregnum, Restoration, Exclusion Crisis, and sex marriages essay, Glorious Revolution all happened during his lifetime. For much of his life Locke held administrative positions in government and paid very careful attention to letter position no experience contemporary debates in political theory. So it is perhaps unsurprising that he wrote a number of works on political issues. In this field, Locke is best known for his arguments in favor of religious toleration and limited government. Discursive Essay. Today these ideas are commonplace and widely accepted. But in Locke’s time they were highly innovative, even radical. Locke’s Two Treatises of Government were published in 1689. It was originally thought that they were intended to defend the provocation and negotiation essays, Glorious Revolution and William’s seizure of the throne. We now know, however, that they were in fact composed much earlier. Nonetheless, they do lay out a view of government amenable to many of same discursive, William’s supporters. The First Treatise is now of thesis processing, primarily historical interest.
It takes the form of sex marriages essay, a detailed critique of a work called Patriacha by Robert Filmer. Filmer had argued, in a rather unsophisticated way, in favor of leaves, divine right monarchy. Sex Marriages Discursive. On his view, the power of kings ultimately originated in the dominion which God gave to Adam and which had passed down in is satellite tv better than an unbroken chain through the ages. Same Sex Marriages Essay. Locke disputes this picture on a number of historical grounds. Perhaps more importantly, Locke also distinguishes between a number of different types of intermediate question, dominion or governing power which Filmer had run together. After clearing some ground in the First Treatise , Locke offers a positive view of the nature of government in the much better known Second Treatise . Part of Locke’s strategy in this work was to offer a different account of the origins of government. Essay. While Filmer had suggested that humans had always been subject to political power, Locke argues for thesis, the opposite.
According to him, humans were initially in a state of nature. The state of nature was apolitical in the sense that there were no governments and each individual retained all of his or her natural rights. People possessed these natural rights (including the right to attempt to preserve one’s life, to seize unclaimed valuables, and so forth) because they were given by God to all of his people. The state of nature was inherently unstable. Individuals would be under contrast threat of physical harm. And they would be unable to pursue any goals that required stability and same sex marriages, widespread cooperation with other humans. Locke’s claim is language processing, that government arose in this context. Individuals, seeing the benefits which could be gained, decided to relinquish some of their rights to a central authority while retaining other rights. This took the form of a contract.
In agreement for relinquishing certain rights, individuals would receive protection from physical harm, security for their possessions, and the ability to interact and cooperate with other humans in a stable environment. So, according to this view, governments were instituted by the citizens of essay, those governments. This has a number of essay surprising, very important consequences. On this view, rulers have an sex marriages essay, obligation to be responsive to the needs and desires of these citizens. Further, in establishing a government the citizens had relinquished some, but not all of their original rights. Intermediate Public Exams Question Papers. So no ruler could claim absolute power over all elements of same discursive, a citizen’s life. This carved out important room for certain individual rights or liberties. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, a government which failed to adequately protect the rights and interests of essay, its citizens or a government which attempted to overstep its authority would be failing to perform the task for which it was created. As such, the citizens would be entitled to revolt and replace the existing government with one which would suitably carry out the duties of ensuring peace and civil order while respecting individual rights. So Locke was able to use the account of natural rights and a government created through contract to accomplish a number of sex marriages essay, important tasks. He could use it to show why individuals retain certain rights even when they are subject to a government.
He could use it to show why despotic governments which attempted to unduly infringe on the rights of and negotiation essays criticism, their citizens were bad. And he could use it to show that citizens had a right to revolt in instances where governments failed in certain ways. These are powerful ideas which remain important even today. Locke’s Second Treatise on government contains an influential account of the nature of private property. According to Locke, God gave humans the world and its contents to have in common. The world was to provide humans with what was necessary for the continuation and sex marriages essay, enjoyment of life.
But Locke also believed it was possible for individuals to appropriate individual parts of the world and justly hold them for their own exclusive use. Intermediate Public. Put differently, Locke believed that we have a right to acquire private property. Locke’s claim is that we acquire property by mixing our labor with some natural resource. For example, if I discover some grapes growing on a vine, through my labor in picking and same sex marriages essay, collecting these grapes I acquire an ownership right over them. If I find an and negotiation essays in comparative, empty field and sex marriages, then use my labor to is satellite tv better plow the field then plant and raise crops, I will be the proper owner of essay, those crops. If I chop down trees in an unclaimed forest and use the wood to is satellite cable fashion a table, then that table will be mine.
Locke places two important limitations on the way in which property can be acquired by mixing one’s labor with natural resources. First, there is what has come to be known as the Waste Proviso. One must not take so much property that some of it goes to waste. I should not appropriate gallons and gallons of grapes if I am only able to eat a few and the rest end up rotting. If the goods of the Earth were given to us by God, it would be inappropriate to allow some of this gift to go to waste.
Second, there is the Enough-And-As-Good Proviso. This says that in appropriating resources I am required to leave enough and as good for others to appropriate. If the world was left to us in common by God, it would be wrong of me to appropriate more than my fair share and fail to leave sufficient resources for same essay, others. After currency is introduced and after governments are established the nature of property obviously changes a great deal. Using metal, which can be made into coins and informative research, which does not perish the sex marriages essay, way foodstuffs and other goods do, individuals are able to accumulate much more wealth than would be possible otherwise. So the proviso concerning waste seems to provocation in comparative drop away.
And particular governments might institute rules governing property acquisition and distribution. Locke was aware of this and devoted a great deal of thought to the nature of property and sex marriages, the proper distribution of property within a commonwealth. His writings on essay informative research, economics, monetary policy, charity, and same sex marriages discursive, social welfare systems are evidence of this. But Locke’s views on property inside of and negotiation in comparative criticism, a commonwealth have received far less attention than his views on the original acquisition of property in the state of nature. Locke had been systematically thinking about same essay, issues relating to religious toleration since his early years in London and even though he only published his Epistola de Tolerantia ( A Letter Concerning Toleration ) in 1689 he had finished writing it several years before. The question of whether or not a state should attempt to prescribe one particular religion within the state, what means states might use to do so, and what the correct attitude should be toward those who resist conversion to exams question papers the official state religion had been central to sex marriages essay European politics ever since the Protestant Reformation. Locke’s time in England, France, and the Netherlands had given him experiences of three very different approaches to these questions. These experiences had convinced him that, for the most part, individuals should be allowed to practice their religion without interference from the state. Indeed, part of the about natural language, impetus for the publication of Locke’s Letter Concerning Toleration came from Louis XIV’s revocation of the Edict of discursive essay, Nantes, which took away the already limited rights of Protestants in France and exposed them to state persecution.
It is possible to see Locke’s arguments in favor of toleration as relating both to the epistemological views of the Essay and the political views of the about processing, Two Treatises . Relating to Locke’s epistemological views, recall from discursive essay, above that Locke thought the scope of human knowledge was extremely restricted. We might not be particularly good at determining what the correct religion is. There is autumn leaves essays, no reason to think that those holding political power will be any better at sex marriages discursive discovering the true religion than anyone else, so they should not attempt to enforce their views on others. Instead, each individual should be allowed to pursue true beliefs as best as they are able. Little harm results from allowing others to have their own religious beliefs.
Indeed, it might be beneficial to informative allow a plurality of beliefs because one group might end up with the correct beliefs and win others over to their side. Relating to Locke’s political views, as expressed in the Two Treatises , Locke endorses toleration on the grounds that the enforcement of religious conformity is outside the proper scope of government. People consent to governments for sex marriages, the purpose of establishing social order and the rule of law. Governments should refrain from enforcing religious conformity because doing so is unnecessary and irrelevant for these ends. Indeed, attempting to enforce conformity may positively harm these ends as it will likely lead to resistance from members of cover letter coordinator position, prohibited religions. Locke also suggests that governments should tolerate the religious beliefs of individual citizens because enforcing religious belief is actually impossible. Acceptance of a certain religion is an inward act, a function of one’s beliefs.
But governments are designed to control people’s actions . So governments are, in many ways, ill-equipped to enforce the adoption of a particular religion because individual people have an sex marriages, almost perfect control of their own thoughts. While Locke’s views on toleration were very progressive for the time and while his views do have an affinity with our contemporary consensus on the value of religious toleration it is important to recognize that Locke did place some severe limits on toleration. He did not think that we should tolerate the intolerant, those who would seek to forcibly impose their religious views on others. Similarly, any religious group who posed a threat to intermediate public question political stability or public safety should not be tolerated. Importantly, Locke included Roman Catholics in this group. On his view, Catholics had a fundamental allegiance to the Pope, a foreign prince who did not recognize the sovereignty of English law. This made Catholics a threat to civil government and peace. Finally, Locke also believed that atheists should not be tolerated. Because they did not believe they would be rewarded or punished for their actions in an afterlife, Locke did not think they could be trusted to sex marriages discursive essay behave morally or maintain their contractual obligations.
We have already seen that in the Essay Locke developed an account of for event, belief according to faith and belief according to same discursive essay reason. Recall that an agent believes according to reason when she discovers something through the use of her natural faculties and she believes according to faith when she takes something as truth because she understands it to be a message from God. Recall as well that reason must decide when something is or is not a message from God. Intermediate Public Papers. The goal of Locke’s The Reasonableness of Christianity is to show that it is reasonable to same discursive essay be a Christian. Locke argues that we do have sufficient reason to think that the central truths of Christianity were communicated to us by God through his messenger, Jesus of Nazareth. For Locke’s project to leaves succeed he needed to show that Jesus provided his original followers with sufficient evidence that he was a legitimate messenger from God.
Given that numerous individuals in history had purported to be the recipients of divine revelation, there must be something special which set Jesus apart. Locke offers two considerations in this regard. The first is that Jesus fulfilled a number of historical predictions concerning the coming of a Messiah. The second is that Jesus performed a number of miracles which attest that he had a special relationship to same sex marriages discursive essay God. Position With. Locke also claims that we have sufficient reason to believe that these miracles actually occurred on sex marriages essay, the basis of testimony from those who witnessed them first-hand and is satellite tv better, a reliable chain of reporting from Jesus’ time into our own. This argument leads Locke into same a discussion of the types and value of testimony which many philosophers have found to tv better cable be interesting in same sex marriages its own right. One striking feature of The Reasonableness of Christianity is the requirement for salvation that Locke endorses. Disputes about which precise beliefs were necessary for salvation and eternal life in Heaven were at the core of is satellite tv better than, much religious disagreement in discursive essay Locke’s time.
Different denominations and sects claimed that they, and often only they, had the is satellite cable, correct beliefs. Locke, by discursive essay contrast, argued that to be a true Christian and worthy of salvation an intermediate question, individual only same sex marriages, need to believe one simple truth: that Jesus is the Messiah. Of course, Locke believed there were many other important truths in the Bible. Provocation In Comparative. But he thought these other truths, especially those contained in the Epistles rather than the Gospels, could be difficult to sex marriages discursive interpret and could lead to is satellite than disputes and disagreement. Same Sex Marriages. The core tenet of Christianity, however, that Jesus is the Messiah, was a mandatory belief. In making the requirements for Christian faith and cable, salvation so minimal Locke was part of a growing faction in the Church of England. These individuals, often known as latitudinarians, were deliberately attempting to sex marriages essay construct a more irenic Christianity with the exams question, goal of avoiding the conflict and controversy that previous internecine fights had produced.
So Locke was hardly alone in attempting to same sex marriages discursive essay find a set of core Christian commitments which were free of sectarian theological baggage. But Locke was still somewhat radical; few theologians had made the requirements for Christian faith quite so minimal. Locke was regarded by many in his time as an autumn, expert on educational matters. He taught many students at same discursive essay Oxford and also served as a private tutor. Locke’s correspondence shows that he was constantly asked to intermediate public question recommend tutors and offer pedagogical advice. Locke’s expertise led to his most important work on the subject: Some Thoughts Concerning Education . The work had its origins in sex marriages discursive a series of letters Locke wrote to Edward Clarke offering advice on the education of Clarke’s children and was first published in 1693. Locke’s views on education were, for the time, quite forward-looking. Classical languages, usually learned through tedious exercises involving rote memorization, and is satellite tv better than, corporeal punishment were two predominant features of the seventeenth century English educational system. Locke saw little use for either. Instead, he emphasized the importance of teaching practical knowledge. He recognized that children learn best when they are engaged with the same essay, subject matter.
Locke also foreshadowed some contemporary pedagogical views by suggesting that children should be allowed some self-direction in their course of thesis about processing, study and should have the ability to pursue their interests. Locke believed it was important to take great care in same sex marriages essay educating the young. He recognized that habits and prejudices formed in youth could be very hard to break in later life. Thus, much of intermediate exams papers, Some Thoughts Concerning Education focuses on morality and the best ways to inculcate virtue and same sex marriages discursive essay, industry. Locke rejected authoritarian approaches. Instead, he favored methods that would help children to understand the difference between right and wrong and to cultivate a moral sense of their own. The Essay was quickly recognized as an important philosophical contribution both by its admirers and by its critics. Tv Better Cable. Before long it had been incorporated into the curriculum at Oxford and Cambridge and its translation into both Latin and French garnered it an sex marriages discursive essay, audience on the Continent as well. The Two Treatises were also recognized as important contributions to informative surprising political thought. Same. While the work had some success in England among those favorably disposed to the Glorious Revolution, its primary impact was abroad. During the American Revolution (and to a lesser extent, during the French Revolution) Locke’s views were often appealed to by those seeking to establish more representative forms of government.
Related to this last point, Locke came to be seen, alongside his friend Newton, as an question papers, embodiment of Enlightenment values and ideals. Newtonian science would lay bare the workings of same sex marriages, nature and cover for event coordinator, lead to important technological advances. Lockean philosophy would lay bare the workings of men’s minds and lead to important reforms in law and government. Voltaire played an instrumental role in shaping this legacy for Locke and same sex marriages, worked hard to publicize Locke’s views on reason, toleration, and limited government. Is Satellite Tv Better Cable. Locke also came to be seen as an essay, inspiration for the Deist movement. Figures like Anthony Collins and John Toland were deeply influenced by Locke’s work. Locke is often recognized as the founder of tv better, British Empiricism and it is true that Locke laid the foundation for much of English-language philosophy in the 18 th and early 19 th centuries.
But those who followed in his footsteps were not unquestioning followers. Same Sex Marriages Discursive. George Berkeley, David Hume, Thomas Reid, and others all offered serious critiques. In recent decades, readers have attempted to offer more charitable reconstructions of autumn leaves essays, Locke’s philosophy. Given all this, he has retained an important place in the canon of Anglophone philosophy. Laslett, P. [ed.] 1988. Two Treatises of Government . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Same Sex Marriages Discursive. Locke, J. 1823. The Works of John Locke . London: Printed for T. Tegg (10 volumes). Locke, J. The Clarendon Edition of the Works of John Locke , Oxford University Press, 2015. This edition includes the following volumes: Nidditch, P. [ed.] 1975.
An Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Essay Surprising. Nidditch, P. and G.A.J. Rogers [eds.] 1990. Drafts for the Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Yolton, J.W. and J.S. Yolton. [eds.] 1989. Some Thoughts Concerning Education . Higgins-Biddle, J.C. Sex Marriages Discursive. [ed.] 1999. The Reasonableness of Christianity . Milton, J.R. and P. Milton. [eds.] 2006. An Essay Concerning Toleration . de Beer, E.S. [ed.] 1976-1989. The Correspondence of John Locke . Research Surprising. (8 volumes). von Leyden, W. [ed.] 1954. Essays on same discursive essay, the Law of intermediate public exams papers, Nature . Oxford: Clarendon Press. The following are recommendations for further reading on Locke.
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Foundation of the American Legal System. The US Constitution divides the federal government into same discursive, three branches - legislative, executive, and judicial. The legislative branch, consisting of the about language processing House of Representative and same the Senate, make laws, the executive branch, consisting of the essay surprising President, Vice President, and his cabinet, carry out the laws, and the judicial branch, consisting of the Supreme Court and other courts, evaluates the laws. Same Essay. Additionally, each branch has the power to change acts of the other branches. The President has the power to veto laws passed by congress, Congress can confirm or reject the president’s appointments and can remove the letter coordinator no experience president from office, and the justices of the Supreme Court can overturn unconstitutional laws. The State government is modeled after the federal government and contains the same three branches; however, each state has their own constitution, which is often more detailed than the federal constitution. All powers not allotted to the federal government are reserved for the state governments. In the state government, the executive branch is lead by a governor. State representatives make up the legislative branch, while the state Supreme Court makes up the judicial branch.
States have the authority to create laws that apply within their own borders; however, these laws cannot conflict with federal laws. . Its legal, ethical and global environment, one way that the U.S. legal system affects this country, particularly businesses, is the fact that it maintains order. Import laws limit how much of certain products (if any) from a given country can come into the US, regulates who/what/where can receive US goods via export, and sex marriages essay even controls the ability to process payments and collect debts. Beyond that, laws such as the Foreign Corrupt Practice Act (FCPA) and anti-boycott laws limit the way in which US companies can do business abroad, even through agents subsidiaries. The overarching aspect about the US legal system that influences business is accountability. if you enter into a contract with a US company and they breach it, they can be held legally accountable to you, and you can effectively assert your rights in court - whether you are a US citizen or a foreign company. While there are numerous examples of large companies abusing the legal system at the expense of smaller ones. In addition to getting your day in court, and being treated fairly, accountability means that any court decision in your favor should be enforceable. Unenforceable judgments are impotent and unjust. Knowledge of this accountability gives companies, both US and foreign, a degree of comfort that allows them to more freely enter into agreements with US companies.
Absent the accountability that is afforded by a fair, accessible, and effective court system, companies may be more hesitant to. Words: 254 - Pages: 2. . The U.S Legal System 1. Which Article of the U.S. Constitution creates the: a. Letter With No Experience. Executive Branch? Article II. The president is responsible for carrying out and enforcing the laws written by same congress. b. Legislative Branch? Article I. The Legislative Branch is made up of 2 houses, the House of Representatives and the Senate. These together form the United States Congress. The Legislative Branch writes the laws. c. Natural Language Processing. Judicial Branch? Article III. The Judicial Branch interprets the laws.
The Supreme Court has been given the power to rule when something is discursive, constitutional or unconstitutional. 2. What Article of the U.S. Constitution describes the procedure for amending the Constitution? Article V. In article V the congress or the states can propose an amendment and the legislation or by the convention in at least three-fourths of the states has to ratify the amendment. 3. Which Amendment in the Bill of Rights: a. Guarantees freedom of speech? The 1st Amendment. The first amendment lists five freedoms; religion, speech, presses, assembly, and petition. Than Cable. These five freedoms are referred to same sex marriages, as the Freedom of Expression. Public Exams Papers. b. Guarantees that a citizen accused of same sex marriages discursive, a crime receives a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury? The Sixth Amendment. The 6th Amendment states that anyone accused of provocation in comparative, a crime have the right to a speedy and fair trial.
This is done by sex marriages discursive an impartial jury in the state and district where the crime was. Words: 612 - Pages: 3. . Legal system in is satellite than France France uses a civil law system; that is, law arises primarily from written statutes; judges are not to make law, but merely to same, interpret it (though the amount of essay, judge interpretation in certain areas makes it equivalent to case law). The Conseil d'Etat sits in the Palais Royal Many fundamental principles of French Law were laid in the Napoleonic Codes. Same Essay. Basic principles of the rule of law were laid in the Napoleonic Code: laws can only address the future and not the cover for event past (ex post facto laws are prohibited); to be applicable, laws must have been officially published. Same Sex Marriages Essay. In agreement with the principles of the Declaration of the informative surprising Rights of Man and of the Citizen, the general rule is that of freedom, and law should only prohibit actions detrimental to society.
As Guy Canivet, first president of the Court of Cassation, said about what should be the rule in French law: “Freedom is the rule, and its restriction is the exception; any restriction of Freedom must be provided for by Law and must follow the principles of necessity and proportionality”. Same Discursive Essay. That is, law may lay out prohibitions only if they are needed, and if the inconveniences caused by thesis language this restriction do not exceed the inconveniences that the prohibition is supposed to remedy. France does not recognize religious law, nor does it recognize religious beliefs as a motivation for the enactment of prohibitions. As a consequence, France has long had neither blasphemy laws nor sodomy laws (the latter. Words: 1788 - Pages: 8. . from the postgraduate School of Magistrature; they are high-ranking judges . In other words, a French Magistrat is not at all the same as a Magistrate in the English legal system. In court, the same sex marriages discursive essay judge or judges arbirate between the the prosecution and the defence, both of which are generally represented by provocation essays in comparative their lawyers, or avocats. The French judicial system does not have recourse to juries except in assize courts. If the case goes to same sex marriages discursive, appeal, the arguments of the prosecution and the defence are taken over by appeals specialists known as Avoues.
Ongoing reforms: In 2008, President Sarkozy announced plans to in comparative, further reform and streamline the French judiciary. Among the reforms are plans to reduce the number of courts, move court procedures towards a more adversarial system, and to discursive essay, get rid of the system of avoues in autumn the courts of sex marriages discursive essay, appeal. Getting a lawyer in France: If you wish to take legal action against someone or against essay informative surprising, an institution, if someone is taking legal action against you (civil litigation), or if criminal charges have been brought against you (for example for reckless driving), you may need to same sex marriages discursive, find a lawyer. The consular services can often point you in tv better cable the direction of an English-speaking lawyer. There are a number of English-speaking lawyers practicing in France, including British and American lawyers, qualified to practise as lawyers in France; though they are not to be found in every town or city, far from it. For companies, the situation is. Words: 758 - Pages: 4. . In our legal system, the lawyers are using all kinds of defenses to repsent their clients. And there are many types of sex marriages discursive essay, them.
Sometimes they are used to cover letter for event coordinator with no experience, help with a client the defense lawyer knows is guilty, and is trying to get a lesser sentence. Same. We all see the television shows where the essays defense attorney and his client meet with the DA and work out a deal, and we say wow what an easy job that is. If we look at it more in the real light it is same sex marriages essay, not so easy. First the defense must find any potential violations to his defendants legal rights. He must also, “ determine the best stratery for arguring on essays criticism the defendants behalf”. (Meyer and same essay Grant 2003) When the defense looks at the charges agenst their client they then need to look at many factors such as, is there any evidence that can prove the mental state of the defenant. If there is then they might be able to go with a defense of either temperary insaniey or even insaniey.
There needs to be an tv better, guily act that was voluntary which is actus reus. If there was no voluntay act then it could fit in this defense of insaniey. Same Sex Marriages Discursive. The next defense could be selfdefense. Was this a crime where the person need to protect themselves, from harm. The defense lawyer needs to look at all the circumstances in the case. The next one is along the same lines as selfdefense, but it is was the defendant provocated by either being abused for letter for event coordinator position with no experience, a long period of discursive, time in there life. Was the defendant being abused at that point and lost control. Words: 491 - Pages: 2. . Afghanistan- a state in turmoil: This part will deal with the detailed analysis of the Russian legal system and also a critical analysis of the textual and contextual part of laws of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan According to the Constitution, Afghanistan is an Islamic Republic, independent, unitary and indivisible state. It aims at consolidating national unity, safeguarding independence, national sovereignty, and territorial integrity of the country, for establishing a government based on people's will and democracy. Also for the first time, any constitution of this state has recognized and given place to is satellite cable, human rights and fundamental rights. The government comprises of a Council of Ministers and a National Assembly.
The President is the head of the state and the Commander-in-chief of the army. The country has been through many political upheavals and the current constitution was adopted post withdrawal of American NATO forces and an executive president was elected. The National Assembly is composed of the House of People(Woleshi Jirga) and the House of Elders (Meshrana Jirga). The first legislature was elected in 2005 and sex marriages essay then re-elected in 2010. The current parliamentary members mostly comprise of former mujahedeen, Islamic fundamentalists, reformists, communists and several Taliban members. The current Afghanistan government system consists of provocation and negotiation criticism, three branches of power- executive, legislature and judiciary overseen by a system of sex marriages discursive, checks and balances.
The. Words: 5584 - Pages: 23. . The legal system of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) is based on the rule of law and the independence of the judiciary. Provocation And Negotiation. The constitutional framework for the legal system is provided by the Basic Law sanctioned by the National People’s Congress of the PRC. Under the principle of ‘one country, two systems’, the HKSAR legal system, which is different from same that of Mainland China, is based on the common law, supplemented by local legislation. All legislation in force in the HKSAR is accessible on the internet at www.legislation.gov.hk. Law in the HKSAR: The laws in force in the HKSAR include: (1) the Basic Law; (2) national laws listed in Annex III to language, the Basic Law; (3) the laws, including the sex marriages common law and the rules of equity, in force before July 1, 1997, apart from a small number of statutory provisions which were declared by the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress to contravene the Basic Law; and (4) laws enacted by the legislature of the HKSAR. National laws relating to essay informative research, defence, foreign affairs and other matters outside the limits of the autonomy of the HKSAR may be listed in Annex III to the Basic Law for sex marriages essay, application in the HKSAR by way of promulgation or legislation by the HKSAR. Letter For Event Position No Experience. Currently, 12 national laws are included in discursive Annex III to the Basic Law.
The Judiciary: It is fundamental to Hong Kong’s legal system that members of the judiciary are independent of the executive and legislative branches of. Words: 2594 - Pages: 11. . the Front and Back of the cards, enter FALSE if not. On iPhone or iPod touch only, enter TRUE if you would like to use HTML formatting in your cardset to control bold, italics, font size, etc. The default is cover for event coordinator no experience, FALSE and gFlash+ will automatically format the text for same, the device screen.
On iPhone or iPod touch only, enter TRUE if your flashcard set contains a language that reads left to right (e.g., Arabic, Hebrew). Default is FALSE or Blank Enter TRUE to language processing, disable the auto-shuffle feature on your first pass through the cardset. This is helpful for learning ordered lists. Same Sex Marriages. If set to intermediate public question papers, FALSE (the default) cards will be displayed in random order. Currently only supported on gFlashPro for the iPhone and iPod touch. Note: If you use any of these tags, make sure the title for the first and second sheet are the same, with the discursive second sheet including the essays in comparative -info extension. For example: vocabulary and sex marriages vocabulary-info. This allows gFlash to distinguish between cardset data and descriptive/control information. 'Copyright (c) 2009 gWhiz LLC. Autumn Essays. All Flashcard content is sex marriages, available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. Processing. Please see the gWhiz Terms and essay Conditions for details. For more information on GNU Free Documentation, please see www.gnu.org. tags description author copyright testonlymode welcomemessage multiplechoice reversable usewebview overrideR2L American Legal History American Legal History gWhiz gWhiz LLC FALSE American Legal History TRUE TRUE FALSE.
Words: 2207 - Pages: 9. The Structure of the American Legal System. . The Structure of the tv better American Legal System I. The purpose of this paper is to describe the organization and structure of the American legal system by defining the roles of the sex marriages essay federal and state governments as follows; The role of the federal government, the role of the state government, the shared roles of the federal and state government, the Supremacy Clause, and what happens when there is a direct conflict between federal and leaves state laws. II. Same Sex Marriages Discursive Essay. Role of the autumn Federal Government Over two hundred years ago, our founders designed the United States to be governed under a system of federalism. The Cornell University Law School defines federalism is a system of same sex marriages discursive, government in which the same territory is controlled by two levels of government (2014). Specifically, in the U.S. the two levels of government are the federal or national level, and the individual state level. The creation of this system was deliberate as to provocation essays criticism, eliminate the same sex marriages discursive essay opportunity for any one person, and or branch of government, from having too much power over informative research, the country; consequently undermining the system of democracy as a whole. a. The national level of authority is known as the federal government, and same discursive has powers over the nation as a whole. The federal government is given express powers, of specific design, from the constitution itself.
However, the autumn leaves essays branches of the federal government are also afforded the opportunity to interpret those powers in each circumstance that may arise, these are. Words: 1436 - Pages: 6. . systems is sex marriages essay, that they use codes with brief text that tend to avoid factually specific scenerios. Leaves Essays. The purpose of codes is to provide all citizens with manners and written collection of the laws which apply to them and which judges must follow. Where codes exist, the primary source of essay, law is law code arranged by subject matter in same pre-specified order and language processing that explain the principles of law, rights to entitlements and how basic legal mechanisms work. In Balla v. Gambo Inc Ill.2d 492 (Ill.1991), an attorney represented his employer that he would do what is necessary to stop the sale of certain misbranded adulterated dialyzers.
The employer fired the sex marriages attorney and the attorney filed an action for retaliatory discharge. The court found that the attorney has an ethical obligation pursuant to Model Rule 1.6 to reveal information necessary to prevent a client from committing a crime. In comparison, an accused is cover for event coordinator position no experience, not compelled to give evidence in a criminal adversarial proceeding, he may not be questioned by sex marriages prosecutor or judge unless he chooses to do so. While defendants in most civil law systems can be compelled to give a statement, this statement is not subject to cross examination by criticism the prosecutor and not given under oath, civil law courts generally decide cases using codal provisions on a case by discursive essay case basis without reference to other judicial decisions. In my opinion the adversary system is more effective because in this system the parties to a controversy develop and. Words: 514 - Pages: 3. Foundation of the American Legal System.
. Unit 3 assignment Name Kaplan University LS100 Describe the organization and is satellite cable foundation of the American legal system. Explain the different roles of the federal and state government. The American legal system consists of sex marriages essay, two separate levels of court, defined as federalism, which together administer and enforce the laws in the United States. Federalism distributes the government powers between both the federal governments and the state governments, which ensures that the power of the national government is decentralized. Tv Better Than. The US Constitution divides the federal government into three branches - legislative, executive, and judicial. Same Sex Marriages. The legislative branch, consisting of the House of Representative and the Senate, make laws, the executive branch, consisting of the President, Vice President, and his cabinet, carry out the laws, and the judicial branch, consisting of the Supreme Court and other courts, evaluates the laws. Additionally, each branch has the power to change acts of the other branches. The President has the power to leaves, veto laws passed by congress, Congress can confirm or reject the president’s appointments and can remove the president from office, and the justices of the Supreme Court can overturn unconstitutional laws. The State government is modeled after the federal government and contains the same sex marriages same three branches; however, each state has their own constitution, which is often more detailed than the essay federal constitution. All powers not allotted.
Words: 738 - Pages: 3. . Same. Outline the autumn essays provision of Charter of Justice 1807 Royal Charter of same sex marriages essay, Justice refers to the permission granted by British crown for a statutoryreception which gives power to the East India Co. to operate a competent English legal system andestablish reception of English common law. Provocation And Negotiation Criticism. There are 3 charters of justice granted in history and thefirst is in 1807 in Penang and this charter established that all civil and criminal matters to be exercised byPenang. The second charter is in 1826 and the third charter was granted in 1855. The law that shallapply is English law as administered in England on March 1807 and the application of law subject to localcircumstances. The charter also created the Court of Judicature of Prince of same, Wales. A Recorder wasappointed to act as judge to the court established. This statutory reception introduced and affirmed thestatus of English law and undoubtedly the tool of the colonial advancing through the Penang. In the and negotiation essays in comparative criticism case of Fatimah v Logan 1871, the sex marriages discursive essay court describe Penang as a desert and uninhabitedisland and letter coordinator position with without any fixed legal institution and since the Sultan of Kedah never exercise his power onPenang, therefore the territory is considered as terra nullius and without a Lex Loci. Same Sex Marriages Essay. It was ruled that thelaw of Penang is common law.Outline the provision of essay, Charter of Justice 1826 Royal Charter of Justice refers to the permission granted by British crown for a statutoryreception which gives power to the East India Co. to operate a competent English. Words: 885 - Pages: 4. . important role as they are handling various procedural aspects of the case such as gathering evidence and discovering documents.
Solicitors mostly work in partnerships. Same Sex Marriages Essay. In recent years’ firms have merged together in to larger partnerships, which increases specialisation. In the English Legal System there is currently over 15,000 barristers practicing. To continue their professional training barristers must become a member of one of the thesis about language processing four inns; Lincoln’s Inn, Grey’s Inn, Inner Temple and Middle Temple. They must complete a Bar Vocational Course (BVC) which comprises the skills of advocacy and drafting pleadings and negotiations. They must also dine at the Inn 12 times before being called to the bar. After this they must gain a 1-year pupillage at a set of same discursive, chambers with an experienced barrister, who will be the pupil master. Essay Research. Half way through the year, barristers can appear in court by themselves on minor cases. Same Sex Marriages Discursive Essay. At the end of the pupillage they must acquire a tenancy at a set of chambers. It can be very hard to find a pupillage and a tenancy as the demand is high. A barrister is referral profession.
This means that the public can’t go directly to thesis natural language processing, them to get help they have to seek advice from a solicitor first, who will refer them to barrister if required. Barristers can be directly engaged by certain professions for sex marriages discursive essay, example accountants. Barristers a ‘cab-rank’ rule which requires them to take on any case referred to them unless it isn’t within their expertise, they’ve not. Words: 4592 - Pages: 19. . About Language. 1. Introduction Maldives is an island nation in the Indian Ocean neighboring countries are India and Sri Lanka. Previously, the country was sultanate under Portuguese and then was British protectorate and obtained independence in 1965. Islam is the state religion and Dhivehi is a local language.
English is widely spoken and same sex marriages discursive considered as business language. Informative Research. The country is same, made up of 1,190 islands in 20 atolls which are spread over roughly 90,000 square kilometer. Only 192 of the islands are inhabited, and 70 percent of those have a population of less than 1,000 people. The Maldives legal system is based on an admixture of Islamic Law and English common law. English common law greatly influences the civil and commercial laws of the country. To know more about the country, please visit Commonwealth country profile on Maldives and Commonwealth Governance.
A very informative paper on the history of the intermediate public question country, legal history, court system, and criminal justice system can be found here. Observation of the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Judiciary and sex marriages Legal System of Maldives can be found here. Provocation And Negotiation In Comparative Criticism. 2. Legal History of Maldives When the British came to control most of the areas of the Indian Ocean by the late nineteenth century, the Maldivian Sultan entered into an agreement with the Governor of Ceylon in 1887, which allowed the country to enjoy the status of a protected state without actually becoming a protectorate. The British could control external affairs only and. Words: 6245 - Pages: 25. . whose are not involved. Can you believe that this is what it boils down to? So, how big is the same essay problem? Many youth who join a gang develop and increased liking for violence, and, in turn, their more likely to commit criminalities. Because of it the outcome of their lives start to decrease significantly.
Gang involvement brings disorder to communities and because of it children are more likely to become school drop outs, teen parents, and have unstable employment. The impact of gangs hurt the communities as well because when gangs emerge in different cities the value of these cities decline. There are several factors as to why our youth are so attracted to gang activity today. For many young people they join gangs because of the feeling of being accepted. Is Satellite Than Cable. The economic opportunities for them are more appealing to them then a low-wage job. Youth who feel rejected in their families, school or even at church join gangs to fill the need for a support system, for a sense of belonging. For some, the appeal is that a friend or family member are already a part of a gang.
Because of sex marriages essay, such an thesis about natural processing, increase in gang activity today amongst our youth something has to be done. I truly believe, that each point of contact, in our children’s lives have to play their roles whether it be as parents, school teachers, family members, law enforcement, etc. As adults in the lives of discursive essay, our youth we need to be able to reach out to them and let them know they have a great.