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National Centre for Eating Disorders. Excellence in training for professionals. Experts subscribe to scholarship sketch one or other of plan template, two theories of weight increase, which are the Push or the Pull theories. The Pull Theory suggests that weight is regulated by scholarship essay sketch, internal factors which pulls food in – for example, there are lots of hungry fat cells waiting to be filled – or the Push Theory suggests there is something external in writing an essay about the family or the culture which pushes food in. There is a lot of scholarship essay, evidence for scholarship academic the Push Theory.
After all, we live in a culture which celebrates food. Holidays and many other social occasions are centered on eating. Sketch? If you want to celebrate something you don’t take your family to for dna research a salad bar. In our culture there are countless opportunities to eat, together with countless messages telling you that you will be lacking something important – happiness even – if you do not eat. This environment fosters fat. Exposing rats to what he described as a supermarket environment – plenty of biographical sketch, energy rich food with great variety – Kelly Brownell found that rats became 300% fatter than their natural weight. In addition, we are much more sedentary than we used to be. Researchers in Britain measured the effect of our sedentary lifestyle compared to that of 30 years ago, Despite the fact that we eat marginally fewer calories than we used to – energy saving appliances account for a potential gain of essay academic goals, 5-10 lbs each year if we were to eat as much as we used to.
There is an evolutionary benefit conferred on people who are able to store fat. In olden times when food was scarce, it was fatter people – those who were able to store fat – who would survive illness and shortages of food. Obesity was rare in those times, since periodic shortages plus a lack of energy saving devices made it impossible for biographical sketch weight to be gained progressively. It would seem that our bodies are still adapted to a hunger-gatherer environment; we cannot cope with an environment laden with food in research which we need expend little energy to obtain it. Weight gain must consequently be the result. Some families foster overeating, for emotional or cultural reasons, or simply from ignorance. Parents might teach bad habits, like forcing children to clear everything on their plate, eating quickly, or they provide food when everyone sits down to scholarship essay watch TV. Research indicates that eating in template front of the TV may foster overweight. Metabolism slows down when people are in a mild trance state and energy from the diet is less likely to scholarship essay sketch be converted to scholarship academic goals heat. is another factor in the external world which might lead to weight gain. Fatter people appear to scholarship sketch eat more than thin people in response to stress, loneliness or anger.
This suggests a personality-led vulnerability to Push factors in the environment. From a physiological perspective, it is now believed that stress leads to a heightened cortisol response, which in turn favours the deposition of central fat. Central fat is interfaccia usb lancia, a risk for the Metabolic Syndrome, which facilitates weight gain overall. This apart, it would be dangerous to assume that overeating is a symptom of emotional distress. The causes of obesity are complex; counselling for emotional distress does little to make people thinner. Essay Sketch? Obviously, something else is r.l.baker+phd, going on. Certain changes in biographical life circumstances can trigger weight gain (or loss) often due to changes in eating opportunities, emotional eating or changes in activity levels. R.l.baker+phd Thesis? These may include leaving home and having one’s own money to essay biographical sketch spend for the first time, use of alcohol, retirement, job change or redundancy, being in a relationship or breaking up. Even central heating is implicated in interfaccia the causes of people gaining weight.
Shivering, it would seem burns a lot of calories. Our society is obesogenic which means increased availability of food and less opportunity for moving around. Growth of scholarship biographical, eating areas in shopping malls provide largely calorie and fat laden choices for consumption on family outings. Very few works canteens, school meals, cafes and even sports centres; very few cinemas or other family entertainment venues such as football grounds or fairgrounds offer healthy alternatives to sweets, ice cream and r.l.baker+phd, other fast foods. The disappearance of the traditional family meal has introduced a culture of biographical sketch, snacking, and snack foods are often energy-dense and high in fat. There is a move to convenience foods as a consequence of a change in working practices, perceived occupational stress, single parent families and a change in women’s roles. Interfaccia? Fruit and vegetables are often not a part of these meals which makes the food more energy dense. Parents are no longer acting as the gatekeeper for foods, which promotes obesity in childhood.
Obesity in children heightens the risk of obesity in adult life. The growth in essay biographical sketch awareness of the importance of healthy eating is undermined by misleading food labeling, further provoking fattening food choices. An Essay About A Special Person? Consumers are seduced by labels such as “low fat” as in low fat crisps which contain 60% pure fat, while they are made anxious about drinking full fat milk which is scholarship essay sketch, 96% fat free. Labels such as lite or healthy or natural do not reflect the nutritional value of food. Consumers are misled into thinking that a consumable is low in fat when it is thesis, not. In a sandwich advertised as 10% fat (by weight), 30% of its calories are fat calories since fat by scholarship essay biographical sketch, weight is more calorie-dense (9 calories/gm) than proteins or carbohydrate (4 calories/gm.) The British diet is low in fruit and vegetables, and this is r.l.baker+phd, exacerbated by large subsidies given to farmers for producing dairy products and meat.
This results in fruit and vegetables being proportionately more expensive. In the Midlands and North of England, there is high consumption of pies, chips, fried food and cakes. This is not a problem when most of the family is scholarship essay sketch, occupied manually, and when children walk to school and play outside. Children are neophobic (suspicious of new tastes) and essay goals, do not traditionally like fruit and vegetables. They will avoid these when other more tasty choices are available or obtainable. Again, this was less of a problem when children moved more and fewer unhealthy choices were in their day-to-day environment. The motor car, television, selling off school playing fields, the scholarship biographical sketch growth of interfaccia thesis, sedentary activities such as home computing, one-stop shopping or shopping by telephone or internet, remote control devices for appliances – are making us move less. Subtle changes in energy expenditure have a great impact on weight. Sketch? One researcher in the States (LEARN 1998) calculated that by using a remote device for changing TV channels we conserve the scholarship equivalent of 7lbs weight in a single year.
A lot of work is being done on the biology of biographical sketch, fat cells. Researchers in Sweden recently discovered that people tend to drop out of weight loss programmes – not when they had attained their target weight – but when their fat cells had reached normal size. For two people of the same height, this could occur at greatly different weights. About A Special? One person may have more fat cells than the other. Some overweight children and morbidly obese adults are known to scholarship essay biographical have more fat cells than usual.
This is called hyperplastic obesity. Fat cells are usually formed at two critical periods of a person’s life – in research early childhood and at puberty. We now know that new fat cells can be formed at any time of life if weight is essay biographical, gained rapidly or if fat cells grow to over 50% of their normal size. Similarly, if people try to reduce their weight to the point where their fat cells shrink below normal size, the organism starts to behave as if starving (even if they eat fairly well). People with fat cells below normal size display all the usual symptoms of people with eating disorders (craving food, being obsessional and r.l.baker+phd, ritualistic). So there is scholarship essay sketch, obviously some kind of biological pressure to keep fat cells at approximately their normal size, even if technically this means that a person may be culturally “overweight. Essay Academic? This provides evidence for the Set Point Theory which is described below.
Further support for the Pull Effect comes from Set Weight Theory. Question – do we all have a biological mechanism which determines our natural weight – and will this mechanism pull food into our mouths until we have attained that weight? There is a lot of scholarship biographical, evidence for a “set weight” which is personal to each of us: Rats given as much normal rat food as they can eat are good at keeping a stable weight. It is only in the “supermarket environment” where this ability to manage weight breaks down. 97% of all people who lose weight on a diet regain all the weight they have lost; magically settling to more or less what they were before the diet.
Note: we must be cautious interpreting this evidence. People can and do lose weight on diets and many people are thinner than their heaviest-ever weight. But people who lose weight generally have to work quite hard to plan template keep it off. It is essay biographical sketch, not really possible to lose weight and trust that weight will stay off by itself. People who gain weight in the short term, such as during festive events, generally lose weight naturally as they return to normal life and eating habits. This regulatory system breaks down at times – if it is put under constant pressure. Satiety signals are always weaker than the r.l.baker+phd thesis strong biological signals which drive us to eat, and to eat to surfeit when the food tastes good. Whilst the evidence for a biological set-weight is strong, experts now feel that it is not an exact level of essay sketch, weight but rather a broader range, within plus or minus 10 pounds either way of r.l.baker+phd thesis, a central point.
The theory is scholarship, that we will naturally fluctuate within this weight range; the position at any one time depending on our lifestyle, food choices, exercise levels, our age and gender. Overweight people often claim that they have a slow metabolism, which we could ascribe to dissertation template the Pull Theory. Food is pulled in but it cannot be burned. Metabolism is the rate at which we burn energy and it is affected by age, gender, body musculature and exercise levels. The components of scholarship essay, metabolism include our Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR); the thesis energy we need simply to stay alive and fulfil our vital processes. The second component of metabolism is influenced by the action of digesting and absorbing our dietary food, which we call the thermic effect of food. Scholarship Biographical? The third component of metabolism is the energy we expend by day to day activity and this will vary from one person to another in a number of important ways.
It is true that resting metabolism varies among individuals – by up to 500 calories daily. And there is evidence to dissertation the effect that overweight children burn energy at scholarship essay biographical, a slower level than slim children – although this could be because slim children run around more easily. Overweight adults do not generally have slow metabolism relative to people of normal weight. Indeed, metabolic rate is likely to be heightened because they have more weight to scholarship carry around, together with more muscle tissue to support the extra weight. Activity has a large effect on scholarship essay biographical, metabolism; this being mostly due to sensitisation of marner essays, cell membranes to insulin. In other words, cells in an exercised body take up glucose and burn it more readily. Dieting, conversely, reduces metabolic rate – at least while the scholarship essay biographical sketch individual is short of food. We now know that metabolism is influenced by our gut bacteria which play a role in determining how calories are used (or used up) in paper the gut. Gut bacterial profiles differ in overweight vs. Essay Biographical? non overweight individuals, which leads current researchers to thesis propose that altering the quality of scholarship essay sketch, our bacterial load offers promising avenues for obesity treatment. This is a complex subject since there are many influences on our personal biome including how we were born (normal vs. caesarean), use of medications and interfaccia thesis, the constitution of our diet. Another possible Pull factor is scholarship essay, our genes.
Is overweight hereditary? Well yes, it does run in families. Only 20% of children with no obese parent become overweight. 60% of children with one parent are likely to be overweight, rising to 80% of children who have two overweight parents. An Essay Person? Could it just be bad eating habits being passed on? In adoption studies in Denmark in the 1980s, the weight of adoptees was compared to scholarship essay sketch that of their natural and their adoptive parents. Children’s weight corresponded most closely to r.l.baker+phd the weight of their natural parents.
Even more interesting were the studies done with identical twins raised apart. Thin separated twins grew up identically thin. Overweight separated twins grew up overweight, but there was much more variability in their body size. This seems to prove that genes play a powerful role in obesity, by the manner in which they sensitise individuals to the environment. From these studies, we can estimate that genes account for up to 70% of the influence on the weight of essay biographical, any individual. Still, genes will not condemn a person to be overweight. It just gives some people a greater challenge with respect to interfaccia usb lancia weight control than others.
The question of genes vs. Biographical? environment has been highly debated in recent years and encompasses a wide variety of both physical and psychological characteristics. These characteristics include intelligence, athletic ability, heart disease and writing an essay, schizophrenia. Such traits are often examined within families for their genetic or environmental influences. For example, do you prefer certain foods because everyone in your family ate them as you were growing up (environment), or are the shared taste preferences in your family a result of heredity (genes)? As you might suspect, body weight is one trait that has attracted a considerable amount of attention. It is well known that obesity runs in families. For example, children with two obese parents have an 80% chance of being overweight, compared to essay sketch 60% for children with one obese parent and 20% when neither parent is writing an essay about a special person, obese. One scientist even went to the extreme of documenting that obese pets are almost twice as prevalent in obese households as non-obese households. These findings have been used to argue that environment is the key.
Because families share a common environment and common genes, it has been difficult to separate nature and nurture. However, studies in the last few years have greatly clarified the role of environmental and genetic factors. We will review what is known about genetics and what it means for weight control. An intriguing method for assessing the genetic influence on body weight is to study adoptees. They are ideal for scholarship two interesting reasons. First, studying this group who are not biologically related to their adoptive parents allows scientists to attribute any similarities between adoptive parents and plan, their children to essay sketch environmental factors.
On the other hand, similarities between adoptees and their biological parents can be attributed to genetic factors. Dr Albert Stunkard at the University of Pennsylvania, with other colleagues, has recently conducted several studies on silas marner theme, the role of heredity in determining body weight. In 1986, he and Dr Sorenson studied 504 adoptees and essay biographical, their biological and adoptive parents using the Adoption Register in Denmark. Marner Theme? Denmark was chosen for this study because its adoption records are unusually comprehensive and include information about weight and height for adoptees as well as for both sets of essay biographical sketch, parents. The adoptees were separated from their biological parents early in life, so they were not influenced by their biological parents’ eating or exercise habits. The results were striking. The weights of the adoptees more closely resembled the weights of their biological mothers.
The next strong resemblance was with the weight of the biological fathers. There was no relationship between the thesis weights of adoptees and their adoptive parents. Scholarship Essay? These findings were the first to document a strong genetic component in human obesity. Another method of separating genetic traits from environmental traits is the study of outline for dna paper, twins. In twin studies researchers study both identical and fraternal twins. Stunkard examined 1974 pairs of identical twins and 2097 pairs of non identical twins in Sweden. Most of the biographical variability in body weight was explained by genetic factors, which confirmed the an essay about a special heredity study of adoptees. An even more interesting way of studying twins is to scholarship compare identical twins who have been raised apart.
Twins raised together share the thesis same genes and the same environment. Making the distinction between genes and environment is difficult. Twins raised apart have only their genes in common. Stunkard and colleagues examined 673 pairs of twins, of essay, whom 93 were raised apart. The body weights of the twins was the same irrespective of marner essays, whether they had been raised together or apart, suggesting that environment plays almost no role in the development of weight! Dr Claude Bouchard in Canada has done much work on genes and weight gain.
They took 12 pairs of identical twins and essay biographical sketch, overfed them by 100 calories for 100 days. R.l.baker+phd? The results were remarkable. There was high variability of weight gain between different sets of twins but great similarity within each pair. One pair gained 9 lbs and one pair gained 29 lbs. Even though people vary in the way they gain weight (even when given the same calorie intake) these gains are largely under the influence of genes. The twins not only gained similar weight, they distributed the excess weight in the same places i.e. Biographical? some on the stomach and some on the thighs. The OB Gene, the DB Gene and scholarship academic goals, Leptin: Comuzzie AG and Allison DB: The search for essay sketch human obesity genes.
Science 280:1374, 1998. Farmers have known for centuries that they could selectively breed animals for fatness or leanness. An Essay About A Special? Scientists also know that selective breeding indicates a genetic influence in laboratory rats and essay sketch, mice. Recently, research has shown that certain strains of scholarship essay goals, lab animals become massively obese because of the effects of a single gene, i.e. Scholarship Sketch? there is dissertation plan, one gene among the many in animals that seems to account for its obesity. Although the leap from mice to man must be made cautiously, these observations suggest that some obese people are obese largely due to the effects of a single gene. The OB-gene encodes the hormone Leptin, which is produced by fat cells when they expand and which has the dual activity of decreasing food intake and increasing metabolic rate.
Faulty expression of scholarship biographical sketch, this gene leads to faulty encoding of Leptin and a grossly obese mouse. The DB-gene encodes the Leptin receptor in plan the brain. Insensitivity of the receptor means that Leptin fails to scholarship essay biographical sketch counter the outline for dna paper appetite hormone NPY and satiety is similarly impaired. DB mice are also overweight. These are chemicals which affect certain neurons in the hypothalamus and inhibit feeding behaviour. Genetic disruptions of the Melanocortin 4 receptor are associated with increased feeding and obesity, but this is thought to be rare in humans. Research is scholarship essay sketch, discovering other genes which are thought to be determinants of eating behaviour.
Some other genes are implicated in metabolism such as the Perilipin (FTO )gene. People who inherit one verson of the gene are 70% more likely to dissertation template be overweight. About 1 in 6 persons has the most vulnerable genetic make up with this variant. It is hard to separate the effects of genes on metabolism compared to behaviour. Scholarship Biographical? However Dr John Castro carefully monitored fraternal vs. identical twins’ eating habits, and found that identical twins were significantly more similar in what they chose and r.l.baker+phd thesis, how they ate, leading us to assume that eating habits and exercise patterns are influenced by genetic makeup. There is renewed interest in genetic influences on “brown fat” which is a metabolic engine. Essay Biographical Sketch? Beta-adrenergic receptors are present on brown fat and perhaps white fat. Binding of norepinephrine to this receptor on outline research paper, fat cells leads to increased transcription of the mitochondrial uncoupling protein, allowing increased heat production via hydrolysis of fatty acids. It was recently reported that mutations in this gene predispose people to become obese and biographical sketch, develop diabetes before middle age.
Genetic studies have taught us two important things about the effect of environment on obesity. First, most environmental influences on weight gain are unique rather than common environmental influences. Unique means circumstances each individual experiences in his own life. Common refers to dissertation factors shared by members of a group – like all living in the same house. Secondly, environmental influences are transient in nature. This means that growing up in a healthy eating home does not guarantee that these eating habits will be maintained as an adult. We now all agree that genes exert a strong effect within environment and this will be more prominent in some people and less so in others. You may be thinking what’s the point of fighting genes! Genes do influence body weight as well as the ability to essay sketch gain weight and store fat. It may seem unfair that some people have a genetic tendency to gain weight while others eat whatever they like without gaining an ounce. These facts however do not mean that weight is scholarship academic, completely out of scholarship essay biographical sketch, our control.
Obesity is not a trait like eye colour, which is determined at the moment of conception and silas marner essays, does not change. A tendency for obesity is biographical sketch, inherited. Academic Goals? This tendency needs to have an environment that will nurture its development before it becomes a reality. All of the studies above were conducted in western industrialised societies that consume a large percentage of scholarship essay biographical sketch, their calories as fat. These societies are also characterized by an increasing dependence on labour-saving and calorie-saving devices such as remote controls, garage door openers, electric can openers, computers, cordless telephones and so forth. R.l.baker+phd? It takes an biographical effort to oppose the an essay effects of the environment. However, changing eating and exercise habits can make a difference, even if an individual has been born with the genetic tendency to store energy. Modifying the environment to decrease high-fat food and to increase physical activity will lower the chance that a genetic tendency will become a reality.
Many medical disorders such as diabetes and high blood pressure are influenced by genetic factors but can be controlled by diet and exercise. These studies give us insight into why some people become heavier than others, and why some people have to struggle more in their attempts at weight control. Scholarship Sketch? We hope these findings also provide some relief. There is now scientific evidence for scholarship essay academic goals what you may have suspected for scholarship biographical sketch years. Overweight people are not weak-willed or lazy. Losing weight and usb lancia, keeping it off may not be as easy for some as it is for others, if a tendency to be overweight is inherited. As a society, the only way we can reduce obesity is through environmental changes, not just target specific families or persons. Scholarship Essay Biographical? These changes must be pervasive and enduring. Weight control may not be easy, particularly if a person has inherited the tendency to scholarship goals be overweight but it can be done. Scholarship Essay? Providing an environment of low fat foods and increased physical activity can stifle even the most stubborn genes.
Even sleep deprivation and over-sufficiency are associated with weight gain in adults and in children. Poor sleep causes a decrease in circulating leptin and an increase in ghrelin which causes appetite to rise. This may hark back to our evolutionary past when food was scarce. Humans would forage more for food when there was more daylight and needed a high appetite to eat more and dissertation plan, store it as fat in the winter months. Are they a Pull factor? Glandular problems such as Hypothyroidism, account for less than 5% of biographical, obesity cases. Disordered eating creating weight gain may be directly caused by pressures to be thin and inducements to control body size by dissertation plan, dieting. According to the restraint model of essay sketch, binge eating, dieting will lead to reactive binge eating and this will affect some people more than others; depending on personal resources and other psychological or social factors.
We estimate that up to 1 in 2 people with weight problems suffer from compulsive eating which is clinically significant, accounting for the intake of thousands of unwanted calories. Some medical factors predispose to weight gain. For example, Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Hypothyroidism. Medication such as steroids for control of auto-immune conditions, and some antidepressants cause weight gain. Any demobilizing illness may lead to weight gain due to dissertation template inactivity. Myths About Why People Gain Weight. After looking at all these factors, while we cannot be specific about the causes of biographical, weight gain, we can at essay academic goals, least dismiss some of the myths about fat people, namely:- There is no evidence that fat people are greedy. Fat people need to eat more than thin people to support higher energy needs due to their additional weight.
What is scholarship essay biographical sketch, true is that fat people are more likely than normal weight people to turn to food in times of stress. It may be due to intrinsic personality differences but there is no evidence for this either. Obese binge eaters, however, are more likely to have a history of early personal trauma, lifetime incidence of psychiatric and for dna research, emotional problems, and a higher incidence of substance abuse. Twin studies and scholarship, recent gene studies propose 70% heritability of writing a special person, obesity in essay an obesogenic society; this might lead people to despair – what’s the use; I can’t do anything about it! It is unfair, but it doesn’t mean that weight cannot be controlled. Plan Template? All we inherit is a tendency to put on biographical, weight, although careful eating and exercise habits lower the probability of obesity.
Some people are born with an excess number of fat cells which will interfere with their ability to sustain normal weight. I gain weight just by looking at a packet of crisps. Some people blame their weight problem on a slow metabolism. Although generally, overweight people have a higher resting metabolism than their average weight counterparts, a low metabolism seems to contribute to weight gain and subsequent obesity. Resting metaboism (RMR) is extremely variable in the overweight, and r.l.baker+phd thesis, this variability will result in essay sketch different weight loss even when people consume the same diet.
There is theme essays, some evidence that dieting has no long term effects on RMR other than that predicted from weight loss. Essay Biographical Sketch? Although RMR may be under the influence of genetic factors and age, sex and height, choosing diets that minimise muscle loss and outline for dna research, choosing activities that increase muscle mass, may increase RMR. Many fat people do not exercise due to embarrassment or because they find it uncomfortable, but many people do not exercise for all sorts of different reasons. Fat people are responsible for their condition? This kind of thinking is unfair and misplaced. Effects of Dieting on Resting Metabolism: It is scholarship sketch, well documented that the body adapts to writing calorie restriction by decreasing RMR. This reduction in RMR concerns dieters, because if it persists after dieting, weight control will be more difficult.
In any event RMR will decrease after dieting because a person weighs less – there is less body weight to sustain. For example it should take approx. Biographical? 10% less calories to maintain weight after a 10% weight loss. The critical question is, whether the decrease in RMR is more than that expected from the decrease in weight? Recent studies have provided good news in this regard.
Although the scholarship academic short term drop in RMR in response to calorie restriction is dramatic, the long term change is what would be expected from the decreased weight. This seems to be true whether the diet is moderate or more severe. Thus, after weight loss, people need fewer calories to maintain their weight than before weight loss. Lighter bodies need less energy. Exercise combined with dieting may be more helpful in preserving RMR, although this is still a matter of controversy.
So who does need to scholarship essay sketch lose weight? Certainly not as many people as are concerned about it. Recent surveys show that almost 70% of people are concerned about their weight and outline research, half as many are trying to do something about it right now, including large numbers of children, and people who acknowledge that they are not strictly overweight. There is scholarship essay, a massive obesity phobia in the culture. 4 out of 10 women say that they are terrified about the scholarship academic goals prospect of essay biographical sketch, gaining weight and children as young as 6 choose as a potential playmate a child who is disabled rather than one who is fat. The amount of distress experienced by writing a special person, some women who are marginally over their ideal weight bears no relationship to scholarship the effect it has on their looks. Perhaps these biases arise from the importance we place in our culture on essay, self-denial and essay biographical sketch, self-control.
Experts generally agree that health risks set in at about 30lbs excess weight or a waist measurement over writing a special person 95 cms in males and 85 cms in scholarship essay sketch females. Marner Theme? The risks of overweight are as follows, and rise with degree of sketch, adiposity:- Hypertension risk, 6x normal Coronary artery disease, 3x normal Diabetes, 4x normal Cancer – obese men are significantly at risk with higher rates of colon prostate and rectal cancer. Women have higher risk of dissertation plan template, bowel gallbladder and breast cancer at 30% overweight. The health risks set in scholarship sketch sooner for people with upper body fat.
Experts favour a diet plan that will produce a weight loss of 1-2 lbs per week with modified calorie reduction, assuming a nutritional balance based on the food pyramid. If weight loss is faster than this, muscle tissue will be compromised and lean body mass – which burns energy – will shrink. Dieting has a short term effect on metabolism. Also, few people realise that by usb lancia thesis, the end of a weight less programme fewer calories are needed to maintain body weight. The BBC Diet Trials at scholarship sketch, the University in Surrey in 2004 went a long way to proving that there is no one diet that is superior to others. Despite short-term differences in success among different types of diet- e.g. Atkins versus Rosemary Conley – they were pretty much the same in the long run. Most of the thesis dieters regained all the biographical sketch weight that they had lost. These studies did show however, that some people are more suited to some diets than to template others, with variables being type of food plan, solo versus group approaches and even dieting milieu, (village hall versus health club). The problem of fitting programmes to individuals. Despite a long analysis by scholarship essay biographical sketch, NICE (Obesity Guideline 2006), it is still clear that health professionals are challenged to silas marner theme essays provide an holistic weight loss plan that best fits the individual, their lifestyle and values.
There is however much less variability among people when it comes to the strategies which best maintain weight loss (such as planning, increasing activity, keeping a nutritionally sound diet, targeting weak spots, and being vigilant in responding to small changes in weight). Liquid diets (Very Low Calorie Diets-VLCDs) are a recent development in weight control, and are heavily marketed in the form of scholarship sketch, meal supplements that are taken by many thousands of writing an essay about person, people. VLCDs were associated in the early days with a few deaths, attributed to poor quality protein. People are asked to take their meals in the form of specially prepared drinks which provide 300 to scholarship essay 500 calories daily in theme the form of protein with nutritional supplements. Weight loss is rapid; but in the early days this consists of water and sodium because the scholarship body experiences shock. There are side effects, weakness and sickness. Long-term outcomes are very poor, and VLCDs are associated with rapid post-diet weight gain. Although VLCDs are on scholarship academic, open sale, experts agree that they are unsuitable for biographical people with only moderate amounts of dissertation plan template, weight to lose, or for people with disordered eating habits. NICE have approved their use under clinical supervision for morbidly obese individuals. This is recommended for scholarship sketch dieters and scholarship, is strongly associated with maintenance of weight loss.
Among people who succeed in keeping their weight down over a 5 year period, over 70% exercise regularly, compared to only 20% of people who have regained their weight. (National Weight Control Study, USA, ongoing) Some individuals use exercise as a compensatory behaviour for overeating, which may be counter-productive because it may not achieve very much. Scholarship Essay Biographical? While it takes only 5 minutes to eat a Mars Bar, one would have to run eleven miles to about burn it off. Different forms of exercise have differing effects on calorie output, strength, fitness and stamina. The weight loss counsellor must be selective in guiding people to do the right kind of activity for their age and physical status. Activity is helpful in many ways; it does change our physiology; it helps reduce appetite in the long run, it aids in relaxation and well-being, boosts motivation and it has a profound effect on essay, glucose transfer; i.e. cells burn glucose more readily. There was a period in the 1970s when appetite suppressants, especially amphetamine- based drugs, were very popular. They came to be associated with serious side effects, including emotional changes, tolerance, addiction and very poor outcome rates.
It was usual for weight to pile back on outline research, when drugs were ceased. Amphetamines are not now prescribed for weight loss. Neurological targets of weight loss drugs have historically included the scholarship biographical adrenergic system and the serotonin system. There are also chemicals which block the absorption of dietary fat. In some private slimming clinics, pills are dispensed irrespective of body weight and dissertation, without proper medical evaluation. Drugs are often given out for essay biographical sketch cosmetic rather than medical reasons.
Scientists are interested now in the hedonic opioidergic brain, which is academic, involved in essay liking rather than wanting food. There is also interest in a compound named Hoodia, a cactus plant which is widely used in Africa by writing an essay about a special, natives who wish to control their appetite during hunting expeditions. At the essay time of marner, writing, and as scientists become more familiar with the mechanisms affecting appetite, hunger, satiety and set weight mechanisms, there are many attempts to find a universal drug for weight control. But at present there is nothing that is right for all of the people, all of the time. The NICE Bariatric Surgery Guideline 2002 recommended surgery for essay biographical sketch obesity where it is writing about person, a serious threat to life. Jaw wiring and gastric balloons have gone out of favour, but there is scholarship essay sketch, increasing competency among surgeons in writing an essay about a special person a range of surgical procedures which restrict food intake, affect absorption of calories, or both.
The gold standard variants of bariatric operations include : Restrictive Surgery, with gastric banding to reduce the scholarship essay effective size of the stomach. Restrictive Malabsorptive Surgery such as the Roux En Y operation. Food intake is reduced by reducing the size of the stomach through a combination of stapling and resection. The digestive circuit can then be anastomosed further down the intestinal tract.There is also the Gastric Sleeve which radically reduces the size of the stomach and which seems to have negative fewer side effects than procedures invovling the bowel. Malabsorptive-Restrictive Surgery, as in Bilio Pancreatic Diversion. The size of the stomach is for dna research, radically reduced by resection and the digestive circuit is joined almost at the level of the colon, so that very little food will be absorbed.
In more radical surgeries, weight loss is dramatic and guaranteed. Gastric banding has more variable outcomes; it is safer and reversible, but it is also associated with excessive hunger in some people, who may out-eat the band and fail to lose weight. Liposuction is increasingly popular. It involves the mechanical removal of fat which is liquefied and then sucked out through a pipette. But this method is only useful for selected areas of the body where fat has accumulated. It is possible that fat may return to the area. Most diets contain simple behavioural advice such as keep naughty foods out of the house or pin a photo of yourself when fat to the fridge door. Scholarship Sketch? The value of silas marner theme essays, these motivators is scholarship essay sketch, unproven. A true behavioural modification programme employs a variety of techniques which are designed to: Reward positive behaviour. Help people become their own problem solvers through record keeping so that they can identify the attitudes, emotions, situations and outline for dna, habits which encourage overeating.
Help people apply stimulus control – the way they cook food, store it, buy it or expose themselves to essay sketch it generally. Help control relapses. Change the essay goals automatic thinking processes which influence behaviour, which is a deeper influence on day to day eating choices. Behaviour therapy aims for gradual but permanent changes in essay sketch behaviour and can be successful when used in conjunction with a sensible eating plan. There are many weight loss techniques and lots of different approaches, ranging from Weight Watchers to Homeopathy and Hypnosis. No doubt there are some people who are helped by any of outline paper, these approaches. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy is scholarship, viewed as the gold standard for obesity management, but even this approach offers success in less than 1 in 3 people, maintaining an writing an essay person average loss of 10% of their pre-morbid weight. Scholarship Biographical Sketch? This is not enough for people who are seriously overweight, although even small weight losses may lead to significant benefits to health. Behavioural approaches work best when psychological readiness is built into an essay person the programme.
In other words, people need to essay sketch be emotionally prepared and appropriately motivated, not have other major life issues to wrestle with, (including an r.l.baker+phd thesis active eating disorder), know how to elicit support from scholarship essay biographical significant others; be trained in the methods of maintaining commitment, and have skills for dealing with lapses. Fitting the individual to the best personalised weight-loss approach is a challenge for which we currently have no answers. People tend to blame themselves when they fail to lose weight and serious emotional harm can be done by giving an essay academic overweight person an unsuitable regime. Also, there is scholarship essay, evidence that repeated cycles of weight gain and weight loss can make it progressively harder for theme essays weight to be lost at all. In general, moderate obesity responds best to a behavioural programme. Severe obesity responds better to scholarship essay biographical more aggressive approaches such as drugs, VLCDs or surgery, always under medical and psychological supervision. Obesity is a complex issue. Outline Research? There are different types of obesity with different causes. It has different physiological and psychological manifestations and cannot be explained by a single label such as laziness or gluttony. Essay Biographical? The regulation of body weight is at least as complex as any other biological regulatory system. It involves neurochemical, gastrointestinal and hepatic signals, mechanical and humoral processes, genetic factors and plan, a autonomic nervous system.
Some of the time, the control can be overridden by deliberate behaviour in the context of psychological, social and situational factors, emotions and stress, the sketch person’s thoughts about what they have eaten and their anticipation of the consequences. These forces are orchestrated to sustain a symphony in silas marner theme normal weight people and often chaotic dissonance in people with weight problems. There are no single, guaranteed treatment programmes for scholarship sketch obesity. Individuals must be matched to treatments and any programme undertaken must be sensitive to motivation and to scholarship essay personal factors which affect long-term commitment. The search is still on for a psychological treatment, safe drug therapy or even a surgery which will reduce body fat; while we acknowledge that adjustments will continue for life.
Feel your fear and do it anyway. Watch the BBC Three Vlogging Drama about essay biographical Imo, a young girl who is befriended by outline paper, the Anorexic Voice. Scholarship Sketch? I teach our. Template? https://t.co/B87U1qoHDw. If eating rules your life, whether you are fat or thin, you can have an eating disorder and you deserve to sketch get. https://t.co/KLLRa5JMwt. Has anyone seen this movie yet about anorexia? I posted about it a month ago, so here is what I wrote.
Is it. https://t.co/zKHDvUvNht. Copyright © 2012 The National Centre for Eating Disorders | Terms Conditions | Privacy.
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Foreign aid vs. Scholarship Biographical! International trade Essay. Foreign aid vs. international trade is a long lasting debate as to which strategy leads to the greatest level of economic development. Foreign Aid is defined as any assistance that is given to a country not provided through normal market forces. There are numerous forms of aid, from humanitarian emergency assistance, to food aid, military assistance, etc. Essay! Development aid has long been recognized as crucial to essay, help poor developing nations grow out of poverty. International trade is the exchange of goods or services across international borders. Economic development as defined by AmartyaSen, 1998 Nobel prize laureate, “requires the removal of outline, major sources of unfreedom: poverty as well as tyranny, poor economic opportunities as well as systematic social deprivation.” (1)
In 1970, the world’s affluent countries agreed to give 0.7% of their GNI (Gross National Income) as official international development aid, annually. Since then, these rich nations have rarely met their actual promised targets. Essay Biographical Sketch! “The US is often the largest donor in dollar terms, but ranks amongst the lowest in terms of meeting the stated 0.7% target.” The two charts below, reproduced from the OECD publications (2012) shows aid granted in constant dollars and as a percentage of GNI. Both support the conclusion regarding the failure to meet agreed upon aid commitments and the level of decreasing donations. (2)Billions have been donated, but it appears that Africa which has received the most aid remains a continent impoverished. As Dambisa Moyo in the Wall Street Journal writes “money from rich countries has trapped many African nations in a cycle of corruption, slower economic growth and poverty. Cutting off the flow would be far more beneficial…….the insidious aid culture has left African countries more debt-laden, more inflation-prone, more vulnerable to the vagaries of the currency markets and more unattractive to higher-quality investment. It’s increased the risk of interfaccia thesis, civil conflict and unrest ….. Biographical Sketch! Aid is an unmitigated political, economic and humanitarian disaster”. (3) Wall Street Journal, March 21st, 2009. Over the past 60 years at least $1 trillion of development aid has been granted to Africa.
And unfortunately real per-capita income in 2014 is less than it was in interfaccia usb lancia thesis, the 1970s. “More than 50% of the population — over 350 million people — live on less than a dollar a day, a figure that has nearly doubled in scholarship biographical, two decades” (4) Wall Street Journal, March 21st, 2009. In 2005, the International Monetary Fund’s report “Aid Will Not Lift Growth in Africa.” concluded that governments, donors and r.l.baker+phd campaigners should be more modest in their claims that increased aid will solve Africa’s problems. (5) Historically Asia was underdeveloped too. Yet various policies by governments to essay biographical sketch, enhance international trade have resulted in many Asian countries i.e. Korea, Taiwan, Malaysia, and dissertation plan template Singapore achieving spectacular economic growth and along with it, higher standard of living for biographical its citizens. Dato Kim Tan, the writing an essay about person, co-founder and trustee for the Transformational Business Network (TBN) wrote “growing up din Asia, I saw the Asian tiger economies that 30-40 years ago had a lower GDP than Uganda or Kenya, transform themselves through enterprise, not through aid and biographical philanthropy.” (3)Paul Kagame, President of the Republic of Rwanda and writing an essay a special that country’s first democratically elected president wrote: “There is bad aid and there is scholarship sketch, good aid. Outline For Dna Research Paper! The bad aid is scholarship, that one which creates dependencies, as we’ve known for dissertation template a long time now.
But good aid is that which is targeted to create capacities in people so that they are able to scholarship biographical, live on their own activities.… In the long-term they have to outline for dna research, depend on themselves rather than depend on aid.”(4) The issue to be addressed is whetherforeign aid achieveslong-term growth and development – is it a positive or negative catalyst to economic well being. And the corollary to scholarship essay, this statement is whether international trade is a better alternative to economic achievement. The historical basis for concluding that there is gain from trade originates from David Ricardo’s work: Principals in Political Economy and thesis Taxation. Biographical Sketch! The historical context of the time was the protectionist English corn laws, restricting wheat imports. Ricardo’s conclusion, arrived at writing an essay a special, by his theory of scholarship essay biographical sketch, comparative advantage, showed that countries could benefit if they specialized and promoted free trade. Figure 1: Comparative Advantage. Country A has an marner essays, absolute production advantage of both goods A and sketch B because it can produce more of these goods. Since the PPC is not parallel we can presume that the opportunity cost are both different. As a consequence specialization and mutually beneficial trade can occur. Country A has a comparative advantage in the production of good B and Country B has a comparative advantage in scholarship essay academic goals, the production of good A. Biographical Sketch! Country B PPF curve has a lower slope therefore its comparative advantage of production is the good on the horizontal axis.
To establish a policy of international trade, governments need to develop programmes that require important changes in the society. For example, states must develop competitive market economies based on environmental sustainability, infrastructure, establish a stable currency, a transparent political framework and legal system, security, and educated populace as prerequisites. Good A= Capital Goods. Good B= Consumer Goods. Figure 2: PPF curve with improved production via exports.
Country A allocates its resources to mostly consumption. Interfaccia Thesis! Country C allocates its resources towards investment/capital goods. Countries that allocate their resources mainly in investment/capital goods are greater to have long-term growth than those countries who are more focused on essay biographical sketch consumption who are using up more current resources. With respect to Aid, money that is allocated to current consumption will not improve future conditions where as aid money allocated for such production of infrastructure, health, etc. Goals! will in the long run exhibit economic growth. Interestingly,South Korea’s economic growth from the early 1960s to the late 1990s was one of the world’s fastest, and South Korea remains one of the fastest growing developed countries in the 2000s.This experience is known as the Miracle on the Han River. Like many underdeveloped society’s, S. Korea possessesno natural resources and suffers from overpopulation.In addition, the Korean War destroyed much of its infrastructure. The solution was South Korea adapting an biographical, export-oriented economic strategy.Remarkably in 1980, the South Korean GDP per capita was $2,300, about one-third of nearby developed Asian economies such as Singapore and Japan. Scholarship Essay Academic Goals! In 2010 South Korean GDP per capita advanced to $30,000 – almost thirteen times since 1980. (See two charts below on Korean Economic Growth and South Korean Economic Recovery after 1997.) It is biographical, acknowledged that the Korean GDP per capita in 1960 was lower than some sub-Saharan African countries.
The growth of the Koreanindustrial sector was the principal stimulus to economic development. It is r.l.baker+phd, true that initially some foreign aid was granted by the U.S. given the contentious communist threat, nevertheless, it was from essay sketch strong domestic government support and a move toward competitive markets and marner theme essays international trade that resulted in the investment of modern technology and biographical newly built facilities at a rapid pace. The export to foreign markets and the plowing of the foreign currency back into further industrial expansion was the strategy for growth. In addition, this economic strategy suited South Korea given its poor natural resource endowment, low savings rate, and small domestic market. Labour-intensive manufactured exports, permitted South Korea to develop a competitive advantage. No doubt government initiatives were essential to this process. “The inflow of foreign capital was greatly encouraged to supplement the shortage of domestic savings. Thesis! These efforts enabled South Korea to achieve rapid growth in scholarship biographical, exports and subsequent increases in income.”(5) Finally, the later development of a unique multinational firm known as the silas, chaebol – family-controlled firms owning numerous international enterprises,enhanced Korean economic growth. There is strong cooperation with government receiving financial support and guidance i.e. innovation and research.
Today of these multinationals are Samsung, Hyundai, and LG. Thus, it is evident that South Korean expansion and wealth for its citizenry has derived from the adoption of a competitive market manufacturing economy, and the development of scholarship essay sketch, a high-tech commercethat emphasizes international trade. Foreign loans, supportive government policies, and not aid have been the critical catalyst to such a Han miracle. Aid assists, mostly economic which is normally provided to distressed communities or underdeveloped countries for the enhancement of their socioeconomic condition. Aid is linked to marner, need, is often not linked to the ability to enhance trade. Scholarship Biographical Sketch! Trade can result in inefficient distribution of income while if aid is interfaccia usb lancia thesis, mishandled the distribution of aid will be unfair, with people being deprived of the benefits of aid and scholarship biographical effect economic growth of the country. Does Aid lead to the establishment of essay, good infrastructure?
Development aid is given by governments, i.e. the US being the largest aid donor in the world (As of 2010) and other organizations such as the essay sketch, World Bank. “Aid to silas marner, all countries in scholarship essay biographical sketch, the world declined” (2007, World Bank) An overview of a number of African countries that have been recipients of interfaccia usb lancia thesis, aid will consider the use and allocation of the foreign aid, and assess the outcome of these donations upon the populace of the continent. One would note initially that there is a need for humanitarian aid to assist in emergencies and alleviate suffering but long term growth and development requires a different approach. Besides charity aid is a minimal portion of the over-all aid from governments. In the Democratic Republic of Congo, according to a report by Transparency International, the Zairian president Mobutu Sese Seko (1965-1977) is listed as having embezzled at least $5 billion form the nation. (6) Transparency International In 2009, the former president of Malawi – Bakili Muluzi was prosecuted for stealing $12 million allocated for aid. And Zambia’s former president, Frederick Chiluba is under investigation for taking millions from money that was set aside for scholarship essay biographical sketch health, infrastructure, and education. Thus, these examples of corruption pervert the opportunity for aid to assist the average African improve their conditions. Economic theory will emphasize that inefficiency will result from government intervention and in an essay about a special, particular ‘free’ funds. Bad government worsens the situation as they are often bureaucratic in addition to corrupt.
The civil service is inefficient and vulnerable to cronyism which has consequence for responsible governance. Economic incentives are nullified and essay governments need not respond to citizen needs. Investors require transparency in government and an essay about a special person business but such a prerequisite is not required when donations are the source of scholarship essay, funds. Policies such as taxation can be deferred since donations flow in to the country. The priority is to remain in power. Africa continues to outline for dna research paper, be the most unstable region.
There are numerous examples of civil strife as exemplified by the current war in Southern Sudan and The Congo. According to scholarship essay sketch, the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, Africa had a greater number of wars than elsewhere in the world. Scholarship! Obviously, such strife has immense impact upon daily life and thwarts any possibility of private investment. Aid thus fills the scholarship biographical, vacuum. As stated in his book, Dead Aid: Why Aid Is Not Working and How There is a Better Way for Africa, by D. Usb Lancia! Moyo, “…aid-financed efforts to force-feed democracy to economies facing poverty and difficult economic prospects remain, at best, precariously vulnerable.” (7) Further evidence of biographical, endemic problems is observed in scholarship essay, Nigeria. This government is one of the most mismanaged in Africa. For example, during the World Economic Forum of 2005 in Davos Switzerland, four state governors were being investigated in the U.K. for money laundering. Large amounts of aid are looted. “Speaking at the New Partnership for African Development (NEPAD) meeting in Abuja, Nigeria, in December 2003, the former British secretary of state for international development, Lynda Chalker, noted that 40 percent of the wealth created in scholarship sketch, Africa is invested outside the continent.” (8) Advantages and plan Disadvantages to Trade: Trade provides development countries with an important base for scholarship essay sketch their own improvement. Countries can develop their own strategies and outcomes to achieve their development objectives i.e. focusing on agriculture of manufacturing services.
Countries are the determinants of their own economic destiny. One difficulty of trade is the international economic system imposes impediments i.e. Marner! trade barriers. Sketch! The global market is not an international free trade market i.e. tariffs, taxes and subsidies, regulations and such restrictions operate to the disadvantage of the developing countries. Marner! The donor country puts restrictions on scholarship biographical sketch the recipient country i.e. the requirement for government transparency, human rights, political support at the UN or Ideological support. Japan gains support from small countries on whale killing/harvesting using trade.
Developing countries have weak economic power to challenge economic injustices i.e. Thesis! EU and USA have large program of subsidies and economical protectionism.One argument states that trade is a foundation for international cooperationi.e. Scholarship! one country is the resources base and r.l.baker+phd thesis the other importing country is the manufacturing base. Trade would benefits those countries who are engaged in trade (based on the market). Trade relationships would result in a more equitable partnership and thus might be a catalyst for investment and growth. Developing country could receive direct foreign investments and scholarship essay biographical the benefits that would sue from that, technology, employment etc. The result of dissertation template, this would lead to lower prices, greater choice, more efficient allocation of resources, foreign exchange and idea flowing between countries. Scholarship Essay! Once getting passed trade impediments it can seen as long-term development strategy for interfaccia a developing country.
A summary of the advantages and disadvantages: A country may import things which it cannot produce. Maximum utilization of resources. Benefit to consumer. Reduces trade fluctuations. Utilization of surplus produce. Fosters international trade. Import of scholarship essay sketch, harmful goods. It may exhaust resources.
Danger of starvation. One country may gain at the expensive of another. It may lead to war. Advantages and Disadvantages to Aid: Aid has been said to decrease the marner, development for countries with their own improvement. Aid has many advantages but as it can be seen using examples such as African countries it can be seen that aid has decreased the development for countries. Countries can be giving aid for ethical reasons, if there was a natural disaster and were in need of assistance. Aid is based on need, aid permits to countries to scholarship, retain their dignity because aid if often perceived as condescending. There are different types of aid, tied and untied.
Tied aid is foreign aid that must be spent in the country providing the aid or in a group of selected countries. Untied aid is assistance given to developing countries, which can be used to purchase goods, and services in virtually all countries. Jeffery Sachs (UN advisor) argued that aid is important, it is essential to writing an essay about a special person, break the essay, poverty cycle and a determinant of long term growth. His argument stated that poor countries are not wealthy because of diseases such as malaria, they need to r.l.baker+phd thesis, remove problems such as disease because the free market will not due this. Giving of aid is perceived as an inducement to behave or support certain policies. Aid can be used as blackmailing or getting the essay sketch, upper hand on another country in person, order to gain their vote in the UN. William Easterly (Professor of scholarship biographical, economics, NY university), aid does more harm than good, its often wasted, it inhibits peoples inventiveness, devising their old solutions. Aid is corrupt because its given to corrupt officials and often its fragmented that there is many donors and outline for dna research misallocations of the funds. Aid often comes with a lot of scholarship essay, preconditions.
Furthermore, aid has often come with a price of its own for the developing nations. Aid is often wasted on conditions that the recipient must use overpriced goods and services from donor countries. Scholarship Academic Goals! Most aid does not actually go to the poorest who would need it the most. Aid amounts are dwarfed by rich country protectionism that denies market access for poor country products, while rich nations use aid as a lever to open poor country markets to their products. Large projects or massive grand strategies often fail to help the essay biographical, vulnerable as money can often be embezzled away. In conclusion, it appears that generally trade is more beneficial to long-term growth and development than aid. African examples discussed are proof that aid is counterproductive and the road to economic failure. Outline! The opposite appears true. Those countries able to divorce themselves from aid dependency are more likely to succeed as evidenced by China, India, and even South Africa. A strategy of transparent government, efficient civil service to essay biographical sketch, meet social needs i.e. education, incentives, entrepreneurship, the rule of law, patent protection, institutions to attract foreign direct investment by creating attractive tax structures and reducing the writing an essay about person, red tape and complex regulations for businesses. Private capital investment into sustainable companies, with aid directly to community based non-profitable organizations is recommended.
African nations should also focus on increasing trade, but there have been cases where rapid growth in international trade has led to scholarship essay, bottlenecks and impediments to growth and dissertation development. There appears to scholarship, be no panacea but one does conclude that in order to achieve economic, social, and political progress there are essential non-economic and economic prerequisites – cultural (i.e. individualism, attitudes of personal achievement, hard work, etc.) political (i.e. An Essay Person! transparent governments, stability, the rule of law,) and economic (i.e. Scholarship Biographical Sketch! infrastructure, communications network, merit goods i.e. education and health etc.). Each nation is unique with regard to trade and aid. The answer is not either or – aid or trade .but accountable and transparent aid in conjunction with sustainable trade and honest and efficient government. Bibliography: (Complete bibliography after check by Ms. Kerr) 1. Amartya Sen.
1999. Development as Freedom. Oxford university press 2. http://www.globalissues.org/article/35/foreign-aid-development-assistance 3. Plan Template! wall street journal. 4. Biographical! wall street journal. n+capital+was+greatly+encouraged+to+supplement+the+shortage+of+domestic+savings.+These+efforts+enabled+South+Korea+to+achieve+rapid+growth+in+exports+and+subsequent+increases+in+income.%E2%80%9Dhl=ensa=Xei=iZ7NUq7AIMTd2QWmyIHABwved=0CDAQ6AEwAA#v=onepageq=The%20inflow%20of%20foreign%20capital%20was%20greatly%20encouraged%20to%20supplement%20the%20shortage%20of%20domestic%20savings.%20These%20efforts%20enabled%20South%20Korea%20to%20achieve%20rapid%20growth%20in%20exports%20and%20subsequent%20increases%20in%20income.%E2%80%9Df=false 8. OECD Development Statistics Online, last accessed April 7, 2012 9. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-20405140.
10. http://www.guesspapers.net/1593/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-international-trade/ 11. http://www.moeasmea.gov.tw/ct.asp?xItem=72CtNode=263mp=2 12. http://www.globalissues.org/article/35/foreign-aid-development-assistance 13. http://www.ryanallis.com/sustainable-capitalism-and-the-role-of-aid-vs-trade-in-prosperity-creation/ 14. http://www.cato.org/publications/economic-development-bulletin/african-perspectives-aid-foreign-assistance-will-not-pull-africa-out-poverty. University/College: University of California. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 6 May 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Foreign aid vs. International trade. for only $16.38 $13.9/page.
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