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Beth Karlin Ph.D. Thesis Defense


Beth Karlin Candidate for Ph.D. in Social Ecology Ph.D. Dissertation Defense Wednesday, April 23rd , 2014 Social Ecology I, ...

PhD Thesis Proposal | Okinawa Institute of Science and

Phd thesis science

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Submission of PhD Thesis – University of Copenhagen

API Business Models: 20 Models in 20 Minutes Like. Estimated reading time: 4 minutes Added to. reading list Add to. reading list View my. If the behaviour persists please contact us. NOTE: Qcon San Francisco - the 11th international software development conference - Nov 13-17, 2017. 100+ expert practitioner speakers, 1400+ attendees, 18 tracks to phd thesis science cover topics driving the evolution of software development today. Get more details or register now!

John Musser knows APIs. As the founder of Programmable Web, John has witnessed thousands of science paper format APIs and phd thesis, many business models. John recently shared his experience in a keynote address at the 2013 API Strategy Conference. The most frequent question asked of outline John is how do you make money from this? The answer depends on why. Phd Thesis Science! why do you want an API? There are many reasons to have an API and this leads to the first of John's five API secrets that he discloses in the keynote, an API strategy is not an API business model.

An API strategy is about why you want an API and a business model is about how you make money from it. Looking back to 2005, the beginning of APIs and the time when Google Maps took off, there were four core API business models: free, developer pays, developer gets paid and indirect. Today in how to style 2013 there are still the phd thesis same four core business models but each has expanded into a variety of different ways to provide and monetise APIs. John's second secret is that most APIs have more than one type of ROI. For the remainder of his address, John takes a deep dive into each of the core business models, starting with Free. Contrary to popular belief, free is not the predominant API business model. John cites Facebook as an example plus all the plan government and public sector APIs, but these free APIs are only a tiny fraction of phd thesis science all API business models. The next category John describes is developer pays where application developers pay for the services provided by the API. This comprises many sub-categories such as pay as you go where developers pay only for the services or resources they actually consume.

John's example here is argument Amazon Web Services which states in its pricing plan: Pay only for what you use. There is no minimum fee. A second sub-category, the tiered model offered by companies like Mailchimp provides lower cost per unit as you consume higher volumes of their services. Freemium is a well known model where basic features are provided free but for science, a fee you add services such as additional APIs, higher SLAs, an account representative etc. John cites Compete and Google Maps as examples of the freemium model. Unit-based pricing is another sub-category such as Sprint's offering where different features in the API attract different charges. The final example of sat essay help developer pays is the transaction fee familiar to users of payment APIs where a percentage of the science transaction is charged. Writing! John cites PayPayl, Stripe and Chargify as examples of phd thesis this model.

The converse of sat essay developer pays is the developer gets paid business model and that is the next category that John describes. Science! This category also has many sub-categories such as the affiliate revenue share model offered by how to, Amazon Affiliate Program where developers are paid for customer referrals. Another sub-category is science revenue share where developers are paid a share of the revenue from referring purchases. Sat Essay Help! John gives the example of mysimon.com and howstuffworks.com, comparison sites which use shopping.com APIs to support product comparisons and then gain revenue share from science, click-throughs. John notes that affiliate revenue share is paper format not a small business. Expedia derives 90% of phd thesis their revenue from an affiliate network using Expedia APIs which represents $2 billion per year. Finally there is the recurring revenue share model used by companies such as rdio.com where affiliates who refer new customers for subscription purchases are paid a revenue share for the life of that customer. John's API business model secret number three is you need to bake your business model into your API. This is the biggest secret that John wants his audience to go away and think about.

For example, the Amazon affiliate programme was a natural extension of how to improve creative writing their retail business model. Out of the original four core business models, John now discusses the Indirect category which he thinks contains some of the most interesting ways to monetize APIs. The first sub-category is content acquisition. Businesses like eBay and Twitter need to rapidly acquire content in order to grow, so they use APIs to facilitate content acquisition. eBay APIs allowed power users to create mass listings in the eBay marketplace. Phd Thesis Science! Twitter derives and distributes content almost exclusively through APIs and third-party applications.

Content dissemination is the next sub-category, where the sat essay help New York Times has lots of content and utilises APIs to science syndicate that content to partners. Harvard! SaaS up-sell is another business model within the indirect category. Salesforce.com offers API access to science their platform, but only for companies that pay the enterprise licence. Salesforce.com knows that API integration is important and uses that to upsell customers into higher subscriptions. John characterises APIs as the science paper glue of any SaaS. Phd Thesis! Integration adds value to SaaS applications and provides a stickiness factor that dramatically reduces churn.

John's API business model secret number four is API business models are not one size fits all. Argument Writing! The final business model John presents is the internal use model where companies use APIs to phd thesis support their own business. NPR developed APIs to for content delivery to websites, iPad and mobile apps. Over 99% of Evernote's API traffic is from sat essay help, iPad apps, mobile apps and partner apps. And Netflix uses its APIs to support content delivery to over 800 different kinds of devices. Hence John's fifth and final API secret is that internal use may be the biggest API use-case of science them all.

Saul Caganoff Saul Caganoff is the CTO of Sixtree, an Australian system integration consultancy. He has extensive experience as an architect and engineer in major integration and software development projects in Australia, the United States and Asia. Bar Business! Saul's professional interests include architecture at all levels - enterprise, solution and applications - distributed systems, composite applications, cloud computing and cloud APIs. Fastly’s edge cloud platform powers secure, fast and reliable online experiences for the world’s most popular digital businesses. See for yourself. You need to phd thesis science Register an InfoQ account or login to small bar business post comments. But there's so much more behind being registered.

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Submission of PhD Thesis – University of Copenhagen

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To Our Service Providers. We may disclose information to third-party vendors and partners who complete transactions or perform services on our behalf (for example, credit/debit card processing, billing, customer service, auditing, and marketing). In a Business Transfer. We may sell, disclose, or transfer information about You as part of a corporate business transaction, such as a merger or acquisition, joint venture, corporate reorganization, financing, or sale of science, company assets, or in the unlikely event of science, insolvency, bankruptcy, or receivership, in which such information could be transferred to third-parties as a business asset in the transaction. For Legal Process Protection. We may disclose Personal Information, and other information about You, or Your communications, where we have a good faith belief that access, use, preservation or disclosure of such information is reasonably necessary: to satisfy any applicable law, regulation, legal process or enforceable governmental request; to enforce or apply agreements, or initiate, render, bill, and collect for services and products (including to collection agencies in order to obtain payment for our products and science services); to protect our rights or interests, or property or safety or that of others; in connection with claims, disputes, or litigation – in court or elsewhere; to facilitate or verify the appropriate calculation of taxes, fees, or other obligations; or. in an emergency situation. We may provide information that does not identify You personally to third-parties for marketing, advertising or other purposes.

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You should always take care with how You handle and disclose your Personal Information and should avoid sending Personal Information through insecure e-mail, social networks or other internet channels. Retention and small Disposal. We retain information only for phd thesis as long as we have a business or tax need or as applicable laws, regulations and/or government orders allow. When we dispose of Personal Information, we use reasonable procedures designed to erase or render it unreadable (for example, shredding documents and wiping electronic media). PRIVACY POLICY UPDATES. How We Communicate Changes to This Policy. We may update this Policy at harvard essay, any time to provide updates to or clarification of phd thesis, our practices. Bar Business Plan! If we make changes we may provide You with additional notice (such as adding a statement to the homepage of our Website or sending You a notification). You should refer to this Policy often for the latest information and the effective date of phd thesis, any changes.

This web site is owned and operated by Viatta Business Ltd . A Partner is an improve style, individual who refers customers. A Referral is an science, individual who requests a service via the plan referral link given by a Partner. With the first order, a Referral acquires a 15% discount on phd thesis science the order, while a Partner receives $50 to plan the Referral Balance. With further purchases, a Partner earns 5% of the Referral’s total order price. All money earned with the Referral Program is stored on science your Referral Balance.

A Partner can transfer the format essay money to the Bonus Balance and use it to phd thesis science purchase a service. It is writing, possible to phd thesis science transfer the science outline sum to the Partner’s PayPal account (no less than $20).

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Rubber Mill Operator Job Description Samples. Lathe Operator Rubber Roll Grinding And Polishing. Candidate must be able to operate a lathe. Some mathematical skills helpful. Rubber Injection Operator Tracking Code S178174-846 Job Description. Operates multiple rubber injection molding presses and phd thesis, other machines in cell. Cure rubber or rubber/metal bushings under pressure and heat per work instructions. Keeps the press operating within the required average rate by format writing, servicing the mold as required during the cycle. Assists in mold changing, changing of Teflon inserts, and cleaning of molds using dry ice mold cleaner.

As a mold separates during the science, change cycle, remove all excess flash, clean and improve style, spray all necessary parts of the mold, remove bushings, either by hand or with mechanical assistance, inspect bushings for visual defects, and place bushings into container. Load mold with metal inserts, if required, activate the press for the next cycle, take mold temperature measurements as required, and trim finished bushings as required. Maintain records per phd thesis science, work instructions and other production related documents. Performs process checks such as bond push-out test, mold temperature checks and paper format, other process verifications related to phd thesis, quality assurance. Notify foreman immediately of lack of science paper format, material, equipment malfunction or failure, or quality problems. Assist other injection press operators as required. Phd Thesis! Maintain press, work area, and essay, other equipment in the area in a neat, clean, safe, and orderly condition. Performs own material handling with various types of equipment such as walkies and phd thesis science, forklifts. Must apply all environmental and safety procedures as outlined in work instructions. Physical effort, continuous standing and walking, occasional stairs are required.

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Full time, temp to hire positions available on their 2nd and 3rd shifts. Pay starts at 12.00 an hour. Rubber Press Operator duties: Read/understand prints and information provided Operate molding press to meet company standards Remove parts with air gun, trim parts by hand using special tools and clippers run parts efficiently be able to complete the phd thesis science, job keep area clean, machines and harvard, tooling clean and organized Rubber Press Operators should have the following skills: read and phd thesis, comprehend standard operating procedures have a mechanical aptitude able to lift 50# repetitively able to read tape measure and calipers, while checking own work as well. To be a consideration for this position, you must apply with us, either online at www.flexteaminc.com or in person at our Canton office. 3990 Fulton Dr. Nw Canton, Oh. 44718. Bring with you, your 2 forms of ID and a resume is helpful. Job Description SummaryLoad, operate, and unload press to writing, produce rubber products consistent with product specifications, while maintaining production and quality standards and controlling waste. # Job Description.

ESSENTIAL FUNCTIONS Load raw material into science, press in harvard format writing a prescribed manner paying attention to weight and distribution of material for phd thesis science an even spread throughout the argument writing, mold. Phd Thesis Science! Monitor press operation to make certain lubrication, temperature, tonnage and cycle times meet operating specifications for each product. Action Oriented Customer Focus Drive for Results Teamwork We accept personal responsibility We do what is right. Job Qualificiations 1. Education H.S Diploma/G.E.D 2. Training Requirements: On-the-job Training Period: Upon being placed into the position, associate can expect to receive the following amount of training provided by formal letter for job, a qualified trainer for 6 weeks. Gloves Goggles Safety Glasses. Working Conditions: 12 hour shifts, heat, smoke, minor eye irritants, noise, working in phd thesis congested areas. # Primary Work LocationUSA SC - Sumter # Additional Locations # Work ShiftNA (United States of America) Becton, Dickinson and Company is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action Employer. We do not unlawfully discriminate on the basis of race, color, religion, age, sex, creed, national origin, ancestry, citizenship status, marital or domestic or civil union status, familial status, affectional or sexual orientation, gender identity or expression, genetics, disability, military eligibility or veteran status. Extruder Operator Rubber Roll Builder. Candidate will learn how to build rubber rolls using a strip builder. Must be able to formal application for job, grasp controls on an rubber extruder.

Rod Mill Production Operator II - 2Nd Shift- Norwich, CT. Freeport-McMoRan is phd thesis, a premier U.S.-based natural resource company with headquarters in Phoenix, Arizona. We operate large, long-lived, geographically diverse assets with significant proven and probable reserves of copper, gold, molybdenum, cobalt, oil and gas. The Company has a dynamic portfolio of operating, expansion and how to creative writing, growth projects in the copper industry and is the world’s largest producer of phd thesis, molybdenum and a significant gold, oil and gas producer. We have a long and successful history of conducting our business in a safe, highly efficient and socially responsible manner. Formal! We have the assets, the talent, the drive and science, the financial strength to provide attractive and rewarding careers for formal letter our employees. We encourage you to take some time to explore your career opportunities at Freeport-McMoRan. Under direct supervision this role performs duties related to the production process of a continuous cast copper operation to include melting, casting, milling, coiling, shipping, furnace and phd thesis, refractory. May assist with and perform the milling process, coiling process, and paper outline format, finish mill. Performs receiving of copper cathode duties.

May operate processing equipment such as mill hydraulic presses, elevator systems, and compactors. Operates mobile equipment such as forklifts, light-duty vehicles, and overhead cranes. May be responsible for the accurate measuring of copper coils. Performs housekeeping duties. Performs other duties as required *Minimum Qualifications. Six (6) months of industrial experience *Preferred. High School diploma or GED *Criteria/Conditions. Ability to understand and apply verbal and written work and safety-related instructions and science, procedures given in science English. Ability to communicate in English with respect to job assignments, job procedures, and applicable safety standards.

Must be able to work in a potentially stressful environment. Employee may be required to work in environments that may include exposure to extreme temperatures, humidity, dust, noise, fumes, and gasses. Personal protective equipment is required when performing work in a mine, outdoor, manufacturing or plant environment, including hard hat, hearing protection, safety glasses, safety footwear, and as needed, respirator, rubber steel-toe boots, protective clothing, gloves and phd thesis, any other protective equipment as required. Freeport-McMoRan promotes a drug/alcohol free work environment through the science paper outline, use of phd thesis science, mandatory pre-employment drug testing and for cause drug testing as per applicable State Laws Freeport-McMoRan has reviewed the small, jobs at its various office and operating sites and phd thesis, determined that many of these jobs require employees to perform essential job functions that pose a direct threat to the safety or health of the style, employees performing these tasks or others. Accordingly, the Company has designated the following positions as safety-sensitive: Site-based positions, or positions which require unescorted access to phd thesis, site-based operational areas, which are held by help, employees who are required to receive MSHA, OSHA, DOT, HAZWOPER and/or Hazard Recognition Training; or.

Positions which are held by employees who operate equipment, machinery or motor vehicles in furtherance of performing the essential functions of their job duties, including operating motor vehicles while on Company business or travel (for this purpose “motor vehicles” includes Company owned or leased motor vehicles and personal motor vehicles used by phd thesis science, employees in furtherance of Company business or while on paper format, Company travel); or. Positions which Freeport-McMoRan has designated as safety sensitive positions in the applicable job or position description and which upon phd thesis science, further review continue to be designated as safety-sensitive based on an individualized assessment of the actual duties performed by a specifically identified employee. //Equal Opportunity Employer/Protected Veteran/Disability// Title: Rod Mill Production Operator II - 2nd Shift- Norwich, CT. Cnc Boring Mill Machinist / Boring Mill Operator. We are looking for at least one Kuraki 4-axis CNC Boring Mill Operator. The machines have Fanuc controls so any Horizontal CNC experience you have with Fanuc controls would be a plus. 3-5 years minimum experience required. Some compound angle set ups will be encountered. We do offer training but more experience is a plus. We are a custom manufacturer of steel plastic injection mold bases. This is not production work.

Each plate and mold base is unique. The operators set up and tram their own work pieces, load a CAM program, set up tooling and verify it all before machining. Our standard work week is 50-60 hours so overtime is normal. Argument! We are an phd thesis air conditioned shop offering Blue Cross Health Insurance, 401K with profit sharing, paid vacations and holidays when eligible. We are open 24 hours so must be willing to rotate if needed. Improve Style! No employees are left on science, night shift unless they choose. CNC Machinist Lg.

Horizontal Vertical Mill Operator. Signal Metal Industries is a well-established, highly diversified, steel fabrication and bar business plan, machining company that manufactures large steel products for various heavy industries throughout the country. We do traditional job shop work and science, also perform production work for other large manufacturers in the USA. Science! Our growing, 41 year old company has over 150 employees who are dedicated to providing superior quality products in a safe environment while meeting our customer's toughest delivery requirements. We recognize the importance of rewarding good ideas and initiative. Signal Metal Industries, Inc. doesn't allow bureaucracy to get in science the way.

The work environment is fast-paced, furious, and high-energy. You'll get a chance to bar business plan, communicate with others without hidden agendas. * Our machine shop is clean, insulated, and climate controlled in the winter * As a CNC Machinist for Signal Metal Industries, Inc., you will be an science important member of the team that produces finish machined parts; produces pre-machined component parts for our fabrication shop; loads machines using overhead cranes or by hand; assists our programming department with writing and how to style, editing programs for our fleet of CNC mills; maintains safe operations of all equipment; accomplishes organizational goals. Candidate MUST be able to science, set-up, edit, and maintain print specifications. How To Writing! We have four NEW 5 horizontal boring mills and one large vertical mill ALL with Fanuc controls, integrated rotary tables and automatic tool changers. We also operate large CNC VTL's. We are looking for several EXPERIENCED, PROFESSIONAL, and FULLY-TRAINED individuals to science, join our team.

This is not just a button pushing position. · Proven safety record. Takes precautions and preventive measures to ensure a safe work environment. · Highly productive with minimal guidance or supervision. · Understands tooling equipment, tooling processes, and industrial trends. Plan! Realizes that part accuracy is directly related to the accuracy of the tooling therefore the tooling must be handled with extreme care. · Has the ability to read and understand detailed mechanical assembly drawings and detailed machining drawings. · Experience with manufacturing equipment controls and instrumentation to science, monitor progress and formal letter for job, determine actions.

Understands the proper use of OD/ID micrometers, calipers, and dial indicators to ensure accuracy of the part being machined. · Has the functional and science, technical knowledge and small plan, skills to do the job at a high level of accomplishment. · Maintains attention to detail, completing multiple or repetitive tasks. Science! Demonstrates a serious commitment to accuracy and writing, quality while meeting goals or deadlines. · Ideal candidate must have a minimum of 5 years on-the-job experience operating a large CNC machine. · Must have your own Tools to perform your job. · Capable of heavy lifting (up to science, 50 pounds). · Has excellent attendance and can handle responsibility. · Ability to expand job responsibilities, suggest improvements, and collaborate with others to generate ideas and improve processes. · Experience analyzing complex functions, procedures, and writing help, problems to find creative, logical, and phd thesis, affective solutions.

· Articulates ideas clearly and concisely in a variety of settings, adjusting the message to match the audience. · Must have a TEAM PLAYER attitude and work well with co-workers. We recognize people as our most valuable asset. Our competitive salary and application letter, benefits package includes a safe harbor matching 401k plan, dental insurance, medical insurance with prescription drug coverage, life insurance, flexible hours, paid company holidays, free parking, snack and beverage machines available, job training programs, and paid vacations. *Signal Metal Industries, Inc. is an Equal Opportunity Employer. Employment contingent upon successful completion of background investigation. Drug-free work environment. Pre-employment drug screening required. No recruiters or agencies without a previously signed contract.

Only candidates whose profiles closely match requirements will be contacted during this search. Principals only. Relocation costs not covered by employer. Must be eligible to work in this country. We E-Verify. Signal Metal Industries has profound impact, experience and sustainable results to make great career matches for individuals.

We are a company that values our employees and we are committed to phd thesis, continuing to grow as a leader in small bar business plan our industry. Sets up and operates horizontal boring, drilling, and milling machine to perform machining operations, such as milling, drilling, boring, and science, reaming metal work pieces, such as machine, tool, or die parts, analyzing specifications and deciding on tooling according to knowledge of writing, shop mathematics, metal properties, and machining procedures: Studies machining instructions, such as job order, blueprint, process sheet, or layout on work piece to determine machining required, sequence of phd thesis, operation, tooling, feed, and speed rate, applying knowledge of science outline format, materials and machining. Lifts work piece either manually or with crane or hoist onto science machine table or directs MONORAIL CRANE OPERATOR to put work piece on machine table. Positions and sat essay help, secures work piece to table or angle plate, using clamps, shims, and parallel blocks and verifies position with such instruments as dial indicators, gauge blocks, and height gauges. Selects and mounts tool in spindle. Moves controls to set feeds, speeds, and depth of cut, and to position tool and work piece in relation to each other, verifying position visually, with instruments, such as thickness gauges, and by reading dials.

Starts machine and science, observes operation, making one or more trial passes with manual control before engaging feed. Verifies dimensions of machined work piece with such measuring instruments as micrometers, telescoping gauges, vernier calipers, and dial indicators. May operate tracing attachment to writing, duplicate contours from templates or models. May operate machine with automatic positioning controls. May lay out reference lines and science, machining locations on workpiece, according to blueprints, using layout tools, such as rule, divider, and scriber, applying knowledge of shop mathematics and layout techniques. May operate bench grinder to sharpen tools. May set up and bar business, operate vertical boring mill and science, be designated Boring-Mill Set-Up Operator, Vertical. For over formal application letter three decades, we have been a leading supplier of phd thesis science, tool design and industrial automation solutions. Our.

talented staff of project managers and specialists adheres to a continuous improvement program to letter, consistently satisfy customer expectations for on-time delivery and quality. CNC Mill Operator QC Deburring (Haas) Fast pace CNC shop looking for science highly motivated CNC operators. Qualified candidates will have 1 - 2 years operating CNC mills, preferably HAAS. We are a state of the application letter, art machine shop, extremely clean and well organized. Good pay and phd thesis, health benefits. We are also looking for argument people who are passionate about machining and science, take pride in their work and can continue to grow with us. We are also looking for a QC DEBURRER, this will be a intro position.

Job Type: Full - time, Part - time, Weekend and night shifts.

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10 Free Business Plan Templates for Startups. Phd Thesis! Business plans can seem daunting to someone who has never written one. Science Paper Outline Format! The business idea itself might be fairly simple to science, explain, but if you want to apply for a loan, raise investor capital, or simply have a solid, documented direction for sat essay, your company, you#39;re going to need to write a business plan. Luckily for entrepreneurs, there are templates out phd thesis science there that allow you to plug in all of the information, instead of struggling with formatting and figuring out what you need to include. There are web-based business plan tools, but you may find it easier to use Microsoft Word and PDF-based templates.

Here are 10 free templates you can download and use to create your first business plan. [See Related Story: The Dos and Don#39;ts of harvard essay writing Writing a Great Business Plan] Bplans.com, known as the authority on business plans, offers a free Word business plan template, complete with instructions and a table of contents. It also offers standard business plan sections such as executive summary, company summary, products and services, market analysis, strategy, management summary, and financial planning. Phd Thesis Science! Once you register, you will be able to download the materials and choose from a wide range of businesses in different industries in paper, which to base your plan. Whether your business is online, service-based, or a food establishment, Bplan#39;s Word business plan templates are comprehensive and are a great option for beginners and new business owners. Entrepreneur.com provides business tools, with a collection of business plans free in science, PDF, PowerPoint and Word. Science Paper! The templates can be viewed can downloaded through the SeamlessDocs platform. The site includes a template for a variety of specific business types, a business plan model that outlines the different parts of a business plan, and customizable templates that allow users to phd thesis, add their logos and business information. If you need a guide to science outline format, writing a business plan, Entrepreneur.com also provides a download for that.

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Having worked in the food industry, print and online journalism, and marketing, she is now a freelance contributor for Business News Daily. When she#39;s not working, you will find her exploring her current town of Cape May, NJ or binge watching Pretty Little Liars for the 700th time.

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Cisco Wireless Intrusion Prevention System Configuration Guide, Release 7.4. Cisco Wireless Intrusion Prevention System Configuration Guide, Release 7.4. wIPS Policy Alarm Encyclopedia. View with Adobe Reader on a variety of devices. Chapter: wIPS Policy Alarm Encyclopedia. The addition of WLANs to phd thesis science the corporate environment introduces a new class of threats for network security. RF signals that penetrate walls and extend beyond intended boundaries can expose the science format, network to unauthorized users. Rogue access points installed by phd thesis, employees for their personal use usually do not adhere to the corporate security policy. A rogue access point can put the entire corporate network at risk for outside penetration and small plan attack. Phd Thesis Science! Not to understate the threat of the improve creative writing, rogue access point, there are many other wireless security risks and intrusions such as mis-configured and unconfigured access points and DoS (Denial of Service) attacks. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS (wIPS) is designed to help manage against security threats by validating proper security configurations and detecting possible intrusions.

With the comprehensive suite of phd thesis science, security monitoring technologies, the wIPS alerts the user on more than 100 different threat conditions in the following categories: User authentication and format essay traffic encryption Rogue and ad-hoc mode devices Configuration vulnerabilities Intrusion detection on security penetration Intrusion detection on DoS attacks. To maximize the power of the wIPS, security alarms can be customized to best match your security deployment policy. For example, if your WLAN deployment includes access points made by a specific vendor, the product can be customized to generate the rogue access point alarm when an phd thesis science access point made by another vendor is detected by the access point or sensor. Intrusion Detection—Denial of Service Attack. Wireless DoS (denial of service) attacks aim to disrupt wireless services by taking advantage of various vulnerabilities of WLAN at Layer one and two. DoS attacks may target the physical RF environment, access points, client stations, or the back-end authentication RADIUS servers.

For example, an RF jamming attack with a high power directional antenna from a distance can be carried out from the outside of your office building. Attack tools used by intruders leverage hacking techniques such as spoofed 802.11 management frames, spoofed 802.1x authentication frames, or simply using the brute force packet flooding method. The nature and protocol standards for argument writing wireless are subject to some of these attacks. Science! Because of this, Cisco has developed Management Frame Protection, the basis of harvard format, 802.11i, to proactively prevent many of these attacks. Phd Thesis Science! (For more information on MFP, see the Cisco Prime Infrastructure online Help.) The wIPS contributes to this solution by an early detection system where the attack signatures are matched. The DoS of the wIPS detection focuses on WLAN layer one (physical layer) and format writing two (data link layer, 802.11, 802.1x).

When strong WLAN authentication and encryption mechanisms are used, higher layer (IP layer and above) DoS attacks are difficult to execute. The wIPS server tightens your WLAN defense by science, validating strong authentication and encryption policies. In addition, the intrusion detection of the wIPS on denial of service attacks and security penetration provides 24 X 7 air-tight monitoring on potential wireless attacks. Denial of service attacks include the following three subcategories: Denial of Service Attack Against Access Points.

DoS attacks against access points are typically carried out on the basis of the following assumptions: Access points have limited resources. For example, the per-client association state table. WLAN management frames and how to writing authentication protocols 802.11 and 802.1x have no encryption mechanisms. Wireless intruders can exhaust access point resources, most importantly the client association table, by emulating large number of phd thesis science, wireless clients with spoofed MAC addresses. Each one of these emulated clients attempts association and authentication with the target access point but leaves the protocol transaction mid-way. Format! When the access points resources and the client association table is phd thesis science, filled up with these emulated clients and their incomplete authentication states, legitimate clients can no longer be serviced by the attacked access point. This creates a denial of service attack. The wIPS tracks the client authentication process and identifies DoS attack signatures against the access point. Incomplete authentication and association transactions trigger the attack detection and statistical signature matching process.

Detected DoS attack results in setting off wIPS alarms, which includes the usual alarm detail description and target device information. Cisco Management Frame Protection (MFP) also provides complete proactive protection against frame and device spoofing. For more information on MFP, see the Prime Infrastructure online Help. DoS attacks against access points include the formal letter for job, following types: Alarm Description and Possible Causes. A form of phd thesis science, DoS (denial-of-service) attack is to exhaust the access point's resources, particularly the client association table, by flooding the how to creative, access point with a large number of emulated and phd thesis science spoofed client associations. At the plan, 802.11 layer, Shared-key authentication is flawed and rarely used. The other alternative is science, Open authentication (null authentication) that relies on higher level authentication such as 802.1x or VPN. Open authentication allows any client to essay authenticate and science then associate. Science! An attacker leveraging such a vulnerability can emulate a large number of clients to phd thesis science flood a target access point's client association table by creating many clients reaching State 3 as illustrated below. Small Plan! Once the client association table overflows, legitimate clients are not able to get associated thus a denial-of-serve attack is committed.

The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects spoofed MAC addresses and tracks the follow-up 802.1x actions and data communication after a successful client association to detect this form of DoS attack. After this attack is reported by the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS, you may log on phd thesis science, to this access point to inspect its association table for writing the number of phd thesis science, client associations. Cisco Management Frame Protection (MFP) also provides complete proactive protection against frame and device spoofing. For more information on MFP, refer to the Cisco Prime Infrastructure Configuration Guide or the Online help. Denial of Service Attack: Association Table Overflow. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. Wireless intruders can exhaust access point resources, most importantly the client association table, by imitating a large number of wireless clients with spoofed MAC addresses. Each one of these imitated clients attempts association and authentication with the target access point. Letter For Job! The 802.11 authentication typically completes because most deployments use 802.11 Open System authentication, which is basically a null authentication process. Association with these imitated clients follows the authentication process. These imitated clients do not, however, follow up with higher level authentication such as 802.1x or VPN, which would leave the protocol transaction half-finished.

At this point, the attacked access point maintains a state in the client association table for phd thesis each imitated client. Once the access point's resources and client association table is filled with these imitated clients and letter for job their state information, legitimate clients can no longer be serviced by the attacked access point. This creates a DoS (denial of service) attack. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS tracks the client authentication process and identifies a DoS attack signature against an access point. Incomplete authentication and association transaction trigger the phd thesis science, Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS's attack detection and statistical signature matching process. Denial of Service Attack: Authentication Flood.

Alarm Description and science outline format Possible Causes. IEEE 802.11 defines a client state machine for tracking station authentication and association status. Wireless clients and access points implement such a state machine according to the IEEE standard (see illustration below). On the access point, each client station has a state recorded in the access point's client table (association table). Phd Thesis Science! This recorded state has a size limit that can either be a hard-coded number or a number based on the physical memory constraint. A form of DoS (denial-of-service) attack floods the access point's client state table (association table) by imitating many client stations (MAC address spoofing) sending authentication requests to the access point.

Upon reception of each individual authentication request, the target access point creates a client entry in State 1 of the association table. If Open System authentication is used for the access point, the access point returns an authentication success frame and moves the client to State 2. If Shared-key authentication is used for the access point, the access point sends an authentication challenge to how to creative writing style the attacker's imitated client which does not respond. In this case, the access point keeps the science, client in State 1. In either case, the access point contains multiple clients hanging in plan, either State 1 or State 2 which fills up the phd thesis, access point association table. Plan! When the table reaches its limit, legitimate clients are not able to authenticate and associate with this access point. Science! This results in a DoS attack. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this form a DoS attack by tracking client authentication and small association states. When the alarm is phd thesis, triggered, the access point under attack is identified. The WLAN security analyst can log on to the access point to check the current association table status. Denial of Service Attack: EAPOL-Start Attack. Alarm Description and Possible Causes.

The IEEE 802.1x standard defines the authentication protocol using EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol) over LANs, or EAPOL. Application For Job! The 802.1x protocol starts with a EAPOL-Start frame sent by the client station to science begin the authentication transaction. The access point responds to an EAPOL-Start frame with a EAP-Identity-Request and formal some internal resource allocation. An attacker attempts to science bring down an access point by format essay, flooding it with EAPOL-Start frames to exhaust the access point internal resources. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this form of phd thesis science, DoS (denial-of-service) attack by tracking the 802.1x authentication state transition and bar business particular attack signature.

Denial of Service Attack: PS Poll Flood Attack. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. Power management is probably one of the most critical features of phd thesis, wireless LAN devices. Format! Power management helps to conserve power by enabling stations to remain in science, power saving state mode for writing longer periods of phd thesis science, time and to receive data from the access point only at specified intervals. The wireless client device must inform the access point of the length of time that it will be in the sleep mode (power save mode). At the end of the formal for job, time period, the client wakes up and phd thesis checks for waiting data frames. Small Bar Business! After it completes a handshake with the access point, it receives the data frames. The beacons from the access point also include the Delivery Traffic Indication Map (DTIM) to inform the client when it needs to wake up to accept multicast traffic. The access point continues to buffer data frames for the sleeping wireless clients. Using the Traffic Indication Map (TIM), the access point notifies the wireless client that it has buffered data buffered. Phd Thesis Science! Multicast frames are sent after the beacon that announces the DTIM.

The client requests the delivery of the buffered frames using PS-Poll frames to the access point. For every PS-Poll frame, the access point responds with a data frame. If there are more frames buffered for the wireless client, the access point sets the data bit in the frame response. The client then sends another PS-Poll frame to get the next data frame. This process continues until all the buffered data frames are received.

A potential hacker could spoof the MAC address of the wireless client and send out a flood of PS-Poll frames. The access point then sends out the plan, buffered data frames to the wireless client. In reality, the client could be in the power safe mode and would miss the data frames. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS can detect this DoS (denial-of-service) attack that can cause the wireless client to lose legitimate data. Locate the device and take appropriate steps to phd thesis remove it from the wireless environment. Cisco Management Frame Protection (MFP) also provides complete proactive protection against frame and device spoofing.

For more information on MFP, refer to the Cisco Prime Infrastructure Configuration Guide or the Online help. Denial of sat essay writing, Service Attack: Probe Request Flood. Alarm Description and phd thesis science Possible Causes. A form of Denial of Service attack allows the attacker to force the target AP into a constant stream of wireless packets intended to serve nonexistent clients. During a Probe Request Flood, the attacker will generate large quantities of probe requests targeted at a specific AP. Typical wireless design specifies that an AP will respond to a probe request by sending a probe response, which contains information about the corporate network. Harvard Format Essay! Due to the volume of probe requests transmitted during a flood attack, the AP will be stuck continuously responding, thus resulting in a denial of service for phd thesis all clients depending on that AP.

The wIPS server monitors the sat essay, levels of science, probe request frames detected and will trigger a Probe Request Flood alarm when the threshold is exceeded. Even in cases where the requests are valid, the volume of the frames could cause problems with wireless activity. Consequently, the source(s) of the offending frames should be located and removed from the plan, enterprise environment. Denial of Service Attack: Re-association Request Flood. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. A form of Denial-of-service attack is to exhaust the phd thesis science, AP's resources, particularly the client association table, by flooding the science paper format, AP with a large number of emulated and spoofed client re-associations. At the 802.11 layer, Shared-key authentication is flawed and rarely used any more. The only other alternative is science, Open authentication (null authentication) that relies on higher level authentication such as 802.1x or VPN.

Open authentication allows any client to authenticate and then associate. An attacker leveraging such a vulnerability can emulate a large number of clients to flood a target AP's client association table by application, creating many clients reaching State 3 as illustrated below. Science! Once the client association table overflows, legitimate clients will not be able to get associated thus a denial-of-serve attack is formal letter, committed. The wIPS server monitors the levels of phd thesis science, re-association requests on the network and formal for job triggers this alarm if the science, threshold is exceeded. Denial of formal application, Service Attack: Unauthenticated Association. Alarm Description and Possible Causes.

A form of DoS (denial-of-service) attack is to exhaust the access point's resources, particularly the client association table, by flooding the phd thesis, access point with a large number of imitated and spoofed client associations. At the 802.11 layer, Shared-key authentication is flawed and rarely used. The other alternative is how to creative writing, Open authentication (null authentication) that relies on a higher level of authentication such as 802.1x or VPN. Phd Thesis! Open authentication allows any client to authenticate and then associate. An attacker leveraging such a vulnerability can imitate a large number of clients to flood a target access point's client association table by creating many clients reaching State 3 as illustrated below. Once the argument, client association table overflows, legitimate clients are not able to get associated causing a DoS attack.

Denial of Service (DoS) attacks are unique in that most ways to phd thesis contain them will not work. Writing! Unauthenticated Association Attack is no different. You have an attacker that is randomly generating hundreds if not thousands of MAC addresses and crafting those as Association frames and phd thesis sending them as fast as possible to the target Access Point. Wireless containment on this type of letter, attack is clearly not possible. What are your options? Locating the phd thesis, source of the attack is help, your best option. Using a wireless analyzer, lock onto the channel where the attack is coming from. Since you will see Association Frames streaming by, take note of signal strength readings from those frames.

Using these signal strength numbers, try to locate the source of the attack by walking around the area where you think the attack is being generated from. Denial of Service Attack Against Infrastructure. In addition to attacking access points or client stations, the phd thesis, wireless intruder may target the RF spectrum or the back-end authentication RADIUS server for DoS (denial of service) attacks. The RF spectrum can be easily disrupted by small, injecting RF noise generated by a high power antenna from a distance. Back-end RADIUS servers can be overloaded by a DDoS (distributed denial of service) attack where multiple wireless attackers flood the RADIUS server with authentication requests. Phd Thesis! This attack does not require a successful authentication to perform the attack. DoS attacks against infrastructure include the following types: Denial of Service Attack: Beacon Flood.

Alarm Description and how to improve Possible Causes. A form of Denial of Service attack allows an attacker to inhibit wireless activity for the entire enterprise infrastructure by preventing new associations between valid APs and stations. Typically, an enterprise AP will broadcast beacon frames to all recipients within range to notify users of the network's presence. Upon receipt of this beacon, stations can consult their configurations to verify that this is an appropriate network. During a beacon flood attack, stations that are actively seeking a network are bombarded with beacons from networks generated using different MAC addresses and SSIDs. This flood can prevent the valid client from detecting the beacons sent by the corporate APs, and phd thesis thus a denial of service attack is initiated. The wIPS server monitors the levels of beacon frames detected and will trigger a Beacon Flood alarm when the threshold is exceeded. Even in cases where the beacons are valid, the outline format, volume of the frames could cause problems with wireless activity. Consequently, the sources of the phd thesis science, offending frames should be located and removed from the enterprise environment. Denial of Service Attack: CTS Flood. Attack tool: CTS Jack.

Alarm Description and Possible Causes. As an optional feature, the IEEE 802.11 standard includes the RTS/CTS (Request-To-Send/Clear-To-Send) functionality to control the station access to the RF medium. Essay! The wireless device ready for transmission sends a RTS frame in phd thesis, order to acquire the right to the RF medium for a specified time duration. The receiver grants the right to the RF medium to the transmitter by sending a CTS frame of the same time duration. Bar Business Plan! All wireless devices observing the CTS frame should yield the media to phd thesis science the transmitter for transmission without contention. A wireless denial-of-service attacker may take advantage of the application, privilege granted to the CTS frame to reserve the phd thesis science, RF medium for transmission. By transmitting back-to-back CTS frames, an science paper outline format attacker can force other wireless devices sharing the RF medium to hold back their transmission until the attacker stops transmitting the phd thesis science, CTS frames. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects the abuse of CTS frames for a DoS attack. Denial of harvard writing, Service Attack: Destruction Attack. Alarm Description and science Possible Causes.

MDK3 is a suite of harvard essay writing, hacking tools that allows users to utilize a number of different security penetration methods against corporate infrastructures. MDK3-Destruction mode is a specific implementation of the suit that uses an array of the tools to effectively completely shut down a wireless deployment. During an phd thesis MDK-Destruction attack, the tool simultaneously: Initiates a beacon flood attack, which creates fake APs within the environment, Triggers an authentication flood attack against valid corporate APs, preventing them from servicing clients, and kicks all active connections with valid clients. Additional enhancements allow for the tool to be used to argument writing connect the phd thesis science, valid clients to the fake APs generated with the improve creative, beacon flood, causing further confusion in science, the environment. The wIPS server monitors for the combination of symptoms of an MDK3-Destruction attack and triggers an science outline alarm when they are detected. Due to the dramatic impact that this attack can have on a wireless deployment, it is strongly recommended that the science, source of the attack be identified and removed immediately in how to improve writing, order to resume normal network operations. Denial of Service Attack: Queensland University of Technology Exploit. Denial of Service Vulnerability in IEEE 802.11 Wireless Devices: US-CERT VU#106678 Aus-CERT AA-2004.02. Alarm Description and phd thesis science Possible Causes. 802.11 WLAN devices use Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) as the basic access mechanism in which the harvard essay, WLAN device listens to the medium before starting any transmission and science backs-off when it detects any existing transmission taking place.

Collision avoidance combines the physical sensing mechanism and the virtual sense mechanism that includes the sat essay, Network Allocation Vector (NAV), the time before which the medium is phd thesis science, available for transmission. Clear Channel Assessment (CCA) in the DSSS protocol determines whether a WLAN channel is clear so an 802.11b device can transmit on it. Mark Looi, Christian Wullems, Kevin Tham and Jason Smith from the Information Security Research Centre, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia, have recently discovered a flaw in the 802.11b protocol standard that could potentially make it vulnerable to DoS (denial-of-service) RF jamming attacks. This attack specifically attacks the CCA functionality. Argument! According to the AusCERT bulletin, an attack against this vulnerability exploits the CCA function at the physical layer and causes all WLAN nodes within range, both clients and access points, to defer transmission of data for science the duration of the small plan, attack. When under attack, the device behaves as if the channel is always busy, preventing the transmission of any data over the wireless network. This DoS attack affects DSSS WLAN devices including IEEE 802.11, 802.11b, and low-speed (below 20Mbps) 802.11g wireless devices. IEEE 802.11a (using OFDM), high-speed (above 20Mbps using OFDM) 802.11g wireless devices are not affected by this attack.

Devices that use FHSS are also not affected. Any attacker using a PDA or a laptop equipped with a WLAN card can launch this attack on SOHO and enterprise WLANs. Switching to the 802.11a protocol is the only solution or known protection against this DoS attack. For more information on this DoS attack refer to : The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this DoS attack and sets off the phd thesis, alarm. Sat Essay Help! Locate the responsible device and take appropriate steps to remove it from the wireless environment.

Denial of science, Service attack: RF Jamming Attack. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. WLAN reliability and efficiency depend on the quality of the RF media. Each RF is susceptible to RF noise impact. An attacker leveraging this WLAN vulnerability can perform two types of DoS (denial-of-service) attacks: Disrupt WLAN service Physically damage AP hardware. Disrupt WLAN service —At the 2.4GHz unlicensed spectrum, the attack may be unintentional. A cordless phone, Bluetooth devices, microwave, wireless surveillance video camera, or baby monitor can all emit RF energy to disrupt WLAN service.

Malicious attacks can manipulate the RF power at 2.4GHz or 5GHz spectrum with a high gain directional antenna to amplify the attack impact from a distance. With free-space and indoor attenuation, a one kilo-watt jammer 300 feet away from a building can jam 50 to 100 feet into the office area. The same one kilo-watt jammer located inside a building can jam 180 feet into the office area. During the attack, WLAN devices in the target area are out of improve creative style, wireless service. Physically damage AP hardware— An attacker using a high output transmitter with directional high gain antenna 30 yards away from an access point can pulse enough high energy RF power to damage electronics in the access point resulting in it being permanently out of service.

Such HERF (High Energy RF) guns are effective and are inexpensive to build. Like any RF based disturbance, your best way to resolve this would be to physically locate the device that is triggering the science, RF Jamming alarm and take it offline. Alternatively with Cisco CleanAir and sat essay writing help its signature library, you can get a better description of this device. Find out the wIPS Access Point that triggered this alarm. Science! Using a mobile spectrum analyzer, walk around to locate the science paper, source of the interference. Once the phd thesis science, device is located, turn off or move the writing help, device to an area that won't affect your WLAN. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. As an optional feature, the IEEE 802.11 standard includes the phd thesis science, RTS/CTS (Request-To-Send/Clear-To-Send) functionality to control access to the RF medium by stations. The wireless device ready for formal transmission sends an RTS frame to acquire the right to the RF medium for a specified duration.

The receiver grants the science, right to the RF medium to improve creative the transmitter by sending a CTS frame of the same duration. All wireless devices observing the CTS frame should yield the RF medium to phd thesis science the transmitter for argument transmission without contention. A wireless denial of service attacker may take advantage of the privilege granted to the CTS frame to phd thesis science reserve the RF medium for transmission. By transmitting back-to-back RTS frames with a large transmission duration text box, an help attacker reserves the wireless medium and force other wireless devices sharing the science, RF medium to hold back their transmissions. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects the abuse of RTS frames for denial-of-service attacks. Denial of Service Attack: Virtual Carrier Attack. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The virtual carrier-sense attack is implemented by modifying the 802.11 MAC layer implementation to allow random duration values to be sent periodically. Help! This attack can be carried out on the ACK, data, RTS, and phd thesis CTS frame types by using large duration values.

By doing this the attacker can prevent channel access to legitimate users. Under normal circumstances, the only time a ACK frame carries a large duration value is when the ACK is part of a fragmented packet sequence. A data frame legitimately carries a large duration value only when it is a subframe in science outline format, a fragmented packet exchange. One approach to deal with this attack is to place a limit on the duration values accepted by nodes. Any packet containing a larger duration value is truncated to the maximum allowed value. Low cap and high cap values can be used.

The low cap has a value equal to the amount of time required to send an ACK frame, plus media access backoffs for that frame. The low cap is phd thesis, used when the only packet that can follow the observed packet is an harvard ACK or CTS. This includes RTS and phd thesis science all management (association, etc) frames. The high cap is used when it is valid for a data packet to follow the writing help, observed frame. The limit in this case needs to include the time required to send the largest data frame, plus the media access backoffs for that frame. The high cap must be used in two places: when observing an ACK (because the ACK my be part of a MAC level fragmented packet) and when observing a CTS. A station that receives an RTS frame also receives the phd thesis, data frame. Small Plan! The IEEE 802.11 standard specifies the exact times for the subsequent CTS and data frames. The duration value of RTS is respected until the following data frame is phd thesis, received or not received. Bar Business Plan! Either the observed CTS is phd thesis science, unsolicited or the observing node is a hidden terminal. If this CTS is addressed to a valid in-range station, the valid station can nullify this by sending a zero duration null function frame.

If this CTS is addressed to an out-of-range station, one method of harvard, defense is to introduce authenticated CTS frames containing cryptographically signed copies of the preceding RTS. With this method, there is phd thesis science, a possibility of overhead and feasibility issues. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this DoS (denial-of-service) attack. Locate the device and take appropriate steps to remove it from the wireless environment. Denial of Service Attacks Against Client Station. DoS attacks against wireless client stations are typically carried out based on the fact that 802.11 management frames and argument writing 802.1x authentication protocols have no encryption mechanism and thus can be spoofed. Phd Thesis Science! For example, wireless intruders can disrupt the service to a client station by continuously spoofing a 802.11 disassociation or deauthentication frame from the access point to the client station. Besides the 802.11 authentication and association state attack, there are similar attack scenarios for 802.1x authentication.

For example, 802.1x EAP-Failure or EAP-logoff messages are not encrypted and can be spoofed to science disrupt the 802.1x authenticated state to disrupt wireless service. Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS tracks the client authentication process and identifies DoS attack signatures. Incomplete authentication and association transactions trigger the attack detection and phd thesis science statistical signature matching process. Sat Essay Writing! Detected DoS attack results in setting off wIPS alarms that include the usual alarm detail description and science target device information. DoS attacks against client station include the following types:

Denial of Service Attack: Authentication Failure Attack. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. IEEE 802.11 defines a client state machine for tracking station authentication and association status. Wireless clients and access points implement this client state machine based on science paper outline format, the IEEE standard (see illustration below). A successfully associated client station remains in State 3 in phd thesis, order to continue wireless communication. Science Outline! A client station in State 1 and in State 2 cannot participate in the WLAN data communication process until it is science, authenticated and associated to State 3. IEEE 802.11 defines two authentication services: Open System Authentication and Shared Key Authentication. Wireless clients go through one of these authentication processes to how to improve associate with an access point.

A denial-of-service (DoS) attack spoofs invalid authentication request frames (with bad authentication service and status codes) from an phd thesis science associated client in sat essay, State 3 to an access point. Upon reception of the invalid authentication requests, the access point updates the client to State 1, which disconnects its wireless service. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this form of a DoS attack by monitoring for spoofed MAC addresses and authentication failures. This alarm may also indicate an intrusion attempt. When a wireless client fails too many times in authenticating with an access point, the science, server raises this alarm to indicate a potential intruder's attempt to breach security. This alarm focuses on 802.11 authentication methods, such as Open System and paper Shared Key. 802.1x and EAP based authentications are monitored by other alarms.

Denial of Service Attack: Block ACK Flood. Alarm Description and phd thesis science Possible Causes. A form of Denial of Service attack allows an attacker to prevent an how to improve creative style 802.11n AP from receiving frames from a specific valid corporate client. With the introduction of the 802.11n standard, a transaction mechanism was introduced which allows a client to phd thesis science transmit a large block of frames at once, rather than dividing them up into segments. In order to initiate this exchange, the client will send an Add Block Acknowledgement (ADDBA) to how to creative the AP, which contains sequence numbers to inform the AP of the size of the block being transmitted. The AP will then accept all frames that fall within the specified sequence (consequently dropping any frames that fall outside of the phd thesis science, range) and transmit a BlockACK message back to the client when the transaction has been completed. In order to exploit this process, an argument writing attacker can transmit an invalid ADDBA frame while spoofing the valid client's MAC address. This process will cause the AP to science ignore any valid traffic transmitted from the client until the invalid frame range has been reached. The wIPS server monitors Block ACK transactions for signs of spoofed client information. When an attacker is detected attempting to initiate a Block ACK attack, an alarm is triggered. It is recommended that users locate the offending device and eliminate it from the wireless environment as soon as possible.

Denial of Service Attack: Deauthentication Broadcast. Attack tool: WLAN Jack, Void11, Hunter Killer. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. IEEE 802.11 defines a client state machine for harvard format writing tracking the station authentication and association status. Wireless clients and access points implement this state machine according to the IEEE standard. A successfully associated client station remains in State 3 to phd thesis continue wireless communication. A client station in State 1 and State 2 can not participate in improve, WLAN data communication until it is authenticated and associated to State 3.

A form of DoS (denial-of-service) attack aims to send all clients of an access point to the unassociated or unauthenticated State 1 by phd thesis, spoofing de-authentication frames from the access point to the broadcast address. Formal For Job! With today's client adapter implementation, this form of attack is very effective and immediate in terms of disrupting wireless services against multiple clients. Typically, client stations re-associate and re-authenticate to phd thesis science regain service until the attacker sends another de-authentication frame. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this form of improve creative writing style, DoS attack by detecting spoofed de-authentication frames and science tracking client authentication and association states. When the alarm is triggered, the access point under attack is sat essay writing help, identified. The WLAN security analyst can log on to the access point to check the current association table status. Cisco Management Frame Protection (MFP) also provides complete proactive protection against MAC spoofing. For more information on MFP, refer to the Cisco Prime Infrastructure Configuration Guide or Online help. Denial of Service Attack: Deauthentication Flood. Attack tool: WLAN Jack, Void11.

Alarm Description and Possible Causes. IEEE 802.11 defines a client state machine for phd thesis tracking station authentication and association status. Wireless clients and access points implement this state machine according to the IEEE standard. A successfully associated client station stays in State 3 in order to continue wireless communication. Argument! A client station in State 1 and science State 2 can not participate in formal, WLAN data communication until it is phd thesis, authenticated and associated to formal State 3.

A form of DoS (denial-of-service) attack aims to send an access point's client to the unassociated or unauthenticated State 1 by spoofing de-authentication frames from the access point to the client unicast address. Science! With today's client adapter implementations, this form of attack is very effective and immediate in science paper format, terms of phd thesis, disrupting wireless services against the client. Typically, client stations re-associate and re-authenticate to regain service until the attacker sends another de-authentication frame. An attacker repeatedly spoofs the de-authentication frames to keep all clients out of service. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this form of DoS attack by detecting spoofed dis-association frames and tracking client authentication and association states. When the alarm is triggered, the access point under attack is identified. The WLAN security officer can log on to the access point to check the current association table status. Denial of Service Attack: Disassociation Flood. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. IEEE 802.11 defines a client state machine for tracking the sat essay, station authentication and association status.

Wireless clients and science access points implement this state machine according to the IEEE standard. A successfully associated client station stays in State 3 in order to continue wireless communication. A client station in writing help, State 1 and State 2 can not participate in WLAN data communication until it is phd thesis science, authenticated and associated to State 3. A form of DoS (denial-of-service) attack aims to send an access point's client to the unassociated or unauthenticated State 2 by spoofing dis-association frames from the outline, access point to the broadcast address (all clients). With today's client adapter implementations, this form of attack is effective and immediate in phd thesis, terms of disrupting wireless services against bar business plan, multiple clients. Typically, client stations re-associate to regain service until the attacker sends another dis-association frame. An attacker repeatedly spoofs the dis-association frames to keep all clients out of service. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this form of DoS attack by phd thesis, detecting spoofed dis-association frames and tracking client authentication and association states.

When the alarm is triggered, the access point under attack is identified. The WLAN security officer can log on to the access point to check the current association table status. Denial of Service Attack: EAPOL Logoff Attack. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The IEEE 802.1x standard defines the authentication protocol using EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol) over LANs, or EAPOL. The 802.1x protocol starts with a EAPOL-Start frame to how to improve creative writing style begin the authentication transaction. At the end of an authenticated session when a client station wishes to log off, the client station sends an science 802.1x EAPOL-Logoff frame to terminate the session with the paper outline format, access point.

Since the EAPOL-logoff frame is phd thesis, not authenticated, an attacker can potentially spoof this frame and log the user off the access point, thus committing a DoS (denial-of-service) attack. Science! The client station is unaware that it is logged off from the access point until it attempts communication through the WLAN. Typically, the client station discovers the phd thesis science, disrupted connection status and re-associates and authenticates automatically to application letter for job regain the wireless connection. The attacker can continuously transmit the phd thesis science, spoofed EAPOL-Logoff frames to be effective on improve writing, this attack. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects the use of FATA-jack by monitoring on spoofed MAC addresses and authentication failures. This alarm may also indicate an intrusion attempt. When a wireless client fails too many times in phd thesis, authenticating with an access point, the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS raises this alarm to indicate a potential intruder's attempt to application for job breach security. This alarm focuses on science, 802.11 authentication methods (Open System, Shared Key, etc). EAP and 802.1x based authentications are monitored by other alarms.

Denial of science paper, Service Attack: FATA Jack Tool Detected. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. EEE 802.11 defines a client state machine for tracking station authentication and association status. Phd Thesis! Wireless clients and access points implement this state machine based on the IEEE standard. A successfully associated client station stays in State 3 in order to small bar business continue wireless communication. A client station in State 1 and in State 2 cannot participate in phd thesis, the WLAN data communication process until it is authenticated and associated to State 3. IEEE 802.11 defines two authentication services: Open System Authentication and Shared Key Authentication. Wireless clients go through one of these authentication processes to associate with an access point.

A form of DoS (denial-of-service) attack spoofs invalid authentication request frames (with bad authentication service and status codes) from an associated client in State 3 to an access point. Upon reception of the invalid authentication requests, the access point updates the client to State 1, which disconnects its wireless service. FATA-jack is one of the commonly used tools to run a similar attack. It is a modified version of WLAN-jack and it sends authentication-failed packets along with the reason code of the previous authentication failure to the wireless station. Creative! This occurs after it spoofs the MAC address of the access point. Phd Thesis! FATA-jack closes most active connections and at times forces the user to reboot the station to continue normal activities. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this form of DoS attack by tracking the spoofed pre-mature EAP-Failure frames and the 802.1x authentication states for each client station and access point.

Locate the device and take appropriate steps to remove it from the wireless environment. Denial of harvard format writing, Service Attack: Premature EAP Failure Attack. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The IEEE 802.1x standard defines the authentication protocol using EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol) over LANs, or EAPOL. The 802.1x protocol starts with a EAPOL-Start frame to begin the authentication transaction. Phd Thesis Science! When the 802.1x authentication packet exchange is complete with the harvard format essay, back-end RADIUS server, the science, access point sends an EAP-Success or EAP-Failure frame to the client to indicate authentication success or failure.

The IEEE 802.1X specification prohibits a client from displaying its interface when the required mutual authentication is not complete. Harvard Format! This enables a well-implemented 802.1x client station to avoid being fooled by a fake access point sending premature EAP-Success packets. An attacker keeps the client interface from phd thesis science displaying (therefore Denial-of-Service) by continuously spoofing pre-mature EAP-Failure frames from the how to improve creative writing, access point to the client to disrupt the authentication state on science, the client. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this form of DoS attack by tracking spoofed premature EAP-Success frames and the 802.1x authentication states for each client station and access point. Locate the device and take appropriate steps to remove it from the wireless environment. Intrusion Detection—Security Penetration.

A form of wireless intrusion is to breach the WLAN authentication mechanism to small gain access to the wired network or the wireless devices. Dictionary attacks on the authentication method is a common attack against an access point. The intruder can also attack the wireless client station during its association process with an access point. For example, a faked access point attack on a unsuspicious wireless client may fool the client into associating with faked access point. This attack allows the intruder to gain network access to the wireless station and potentially hack into its file system. The intruder can then use the station to access the wired enterprise network. These security threats can be prevented if mutual authentication and strong encryption techniques are used. The wIPS looks for weak security deployment practices as well as any penetration attack attempts.

The wIPS ensures a strong wireless security umbrella by science, validating the sat essay writing, best security policy implementation as well as detecting intrusion attempts. If such vulnerabilities or attack attempts are detected, the wIPS generates alarms to bring these intrusion attempts to the administrator's notice. Security penetration attacks include the phd thesis, following types: Alarm Description and Possible Causes. WLAN devices using static WEP key for encryption are vulnerable to the WEP key cracking attack. Cisco Systems introduced LEAP (Lightweight Extensible Authentication Protocol) to leverage the existing 802.1x framework to avoid such WEP key attacks.

The Cisco LEAP solution provides mutual authentication, dynamic per session and per user keys, and configurable WEP session key time out. The LEAP solution was considered a stable security solution and is easy to configure. There are hacking tools that compromise wireless LAN networks running LEAP by using off-line dictionary attacks to break LEAP passwords After detecting WLAN networks that use LEAP, this tool de-authenticates users which forces them to reconnect and provide their user name and password credentials. The hacker captures packets of legitimate users trying to re-access the network. The attacker can then analyze the traffic off-line and guess the password by testing values from a dictionary. The main features of the ASLEAP tool include: Reading live from any wireless interface in RFMON mode with libpcap Monitoring a single channel or performing channel hopping to look for target networks running LEAP.

Actively deauthenticating users on science outline format, LEAP networks, forcing them to reauthenticate. This allows quick LEAP password captures. Phd Thesis Science! Only de-authenticating users who have not already been seen rather than users who are not running LEAP. Reading from stored libpcap files. Using a dynamic database table and index to allow quick lookups on large files.

This reduces the worst-case search time to small bar business .0015% as opposed to lookups in a flat file. Writing only the phd thesis, LEAP exchange information to a libpcap file. This could be used to capture LEAP credentials with a device short on paper outline format, disk space (like an iPaq); the LEAP credentials are then stored in the libpcap file on phd thesis science, a system with more storage resources to mount the dictionary attack. The source and Win32 binary distribution for the tool are available at small, http://asleap.sourceforge.net. Cisco Systems has developed the Extensible Authentication Protocol-Flexible Authentication via Secure Tunneling (EAP-FAST) protocol which stops these dictionary attacks. EAP-FAST helps prevent man-in-the-middle attacks, dictionary attacks, and packet and authentication forgery attacks.

In EAP-FAST, a tunnel is created between the client and the server using a PAC (Protected Access Credential) to authenticate each other. Phd Thesis Science! After the tunnel establishment process, the client is formal letter for job, then authenticated using the user-name and password credentials. Some advantages of EAP-FAST include: It is not proprietary. It is compliant with the phd thesis science, IEEE 802.11i standard. It supports TKIP and WPA. It does not use certificates and harvard format writing avoids complex PKI infrastructures. It supports multiple Operating Systems on PCs and Pocket PCs. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects the de-authentication signature of the ASLEAP tool.

Once detected, the server alerts the wireless administrator. Phd Thesis Science! The user of the attacked station should reset the password. The best solution to counter the ASLEAP tool is to replace LEAP with EAP-FAST in paper format, the corporate WLAN environment. Cisco WCS also provides automated security vulnerability scanning that proactively reports any access points configured to utilize weak encryption or authentication. For more information on automated security vulnerability scanning, refer to Cisco WCS online help. Starting with Apple OSX Lion, Apple has a new feature called AirDrop. This new feature is supported on newer MacBook, MacBook Pro and phd thesis iMac.

What this new feature allows users to do is quickly setup a wireless file transfer system. To achieve this, both of the users that want to share files need to open their finder and click on the AirDrop link. Once both of the systems are in range of each other and the link is setup, the users will see the bar business, other user's login icon in the AirDrop window. Phd Thesis Science! They can then drag-and-drop files onto how to, the other users icon to begin a file transfer. This could potentially create a security risk due to unauthorized Peer-to-Peer networks being dynamically created in phd thesis science, your WLAN environment. File sharing is also a concern here. The system monitors the bar business, wireless network for traffic consistent with an AirDrop session. Cisco recommends that you locate users creating AirDrop sessions and inform them of your company policies regarding unauthorized Peer-to-Peer networks.

Alarm Description and Possible Causes. Airpwn is a framework for 802.11 packet injection. Airpwn listens to incoming wireless packets, and if the phd thesis science, data matches a pattern specified in the config files, custom content is how to improve creative writing, injected (spoofed) from the wireless access point. Airpwn utilizes the inherent delay when a client sends a request to science the internet. Since the Airpwn attacker is closer, it will be able to how to improve quickly respond.

As an example, the phd thesis science, hacker might replace all images on a website that the how to improve, visitor is trying to view, showing only phd thesis science what the hacker wants the visitor to plan see. Airpwn only works on open wireless networks and phd thesis WEP encrypted networks when the attacker knows the WEP key. Cisco Enterprise monitors the wireless network for small potential traffic that is consistent with an phd thesis science Airpwn attack against Open or WEP decrypted Access Points and notifies the WLAN administrator. It is recommended that security personnel identify the device and locate it using the Floor Plan screen. Science Paper! The attacking station should be removed from the wireless environment as soon as possible. Alarm Description and phd thesis science Possible Causes. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects the wireless device running the AirSnarf tool. Appropriate action must be taken by the administrator to remove the sat essay, AirSnarf tool from the WLAN environment. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. Certain frame transmissions from a valid corporate client to an AP can cause a crash in some AP models due to insufficient or invalid data. A wireless attacker can take advantage of this vulnerability by transmitting the defective frames in order to bring down a corporate AP.

By sending EAP-TLS packets with flags set to phd thesis science 'c0' and no TLS message length or data, APs from some vendors can be rendered inoperable until they are rebooted. During this reboot process, attackers may have a brief opportunity to gain access to the corporate network, resulting in argument writing, a potential security leak. The wIPS server monitors EAP-TLS transmissions and triggers an science alarm if defective or invalid frames are detected. Essay Writing! Although this issue may not always represent a wireless attack, it is an phd thesis issue that should be remedied in order to maintain the health of the overall wireless deployment. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. 802.11 Fuzzing is the process of introducing invalid, unexpected or random data into the 802.11 frames and small bar business then replaying those modified frames into the air.

This can cause unexpected behavior to the destination device including driver crashes, operating system crashes and phd thesis stack based overflows which would allow execution of bar business plan, arbitrary code on the affected system. The CVE website (http://cve.mitre.org/index.html) has numerous reported entries for science fuzzing based vulnerabilities on letter, 802.11 frames. The system inspects each beacon frame looking for signs of fuzzing activity. Most common forms of beacon fuzzing involve expanding the SSID field beyond the limit of 32 bytes and changing the supported data rates to invalid rates. The system looks for these anomalies and will generate the Beacon Fuzzing alarm when the science, field values are beyond the 802.11 specification. The system monitors the science paper outline, wireless network for phd thesis traffic consistent with Beacon Fuzzing. It is recommended to locate the device and take it offline. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. A common practice amongst WLAN Administrators is to disable broadcasting of the SSID for science paper an Access Point. The idea behind this is that if people scanning for wireless networks can't see you, then you are safe. Basically you would need to phd thesis science know the SSID in order to connect to that wireless network.

This protects your wireless network from casual drive by users who don't have the tools to extract the SSID from hidden networks. But hackers are a different story. They have the tools, the time and energy to extract the SSID from hidden networks. There are many tools to perform this type of snooping. If a hidden SSID is not found through normal methods, hackers can use a brute force method using the tool mdk3. Bar Business Plan! With the tool mdk3, they can perform a Dictionary attack or a word list attack on the hidden network to extract the SSID. Cisco Enterprise monitors the wireless network for potential traffic that is phd thesis science, consistent with a brute force attack against a hidden SSID and notifies the WLAN administrator. It is recommended that security personnel identify the device and locate it using the science paper outline format, Floor Plan screen. The attacking station should be removed from the wireless environment as soon as possible. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. This attack takes advantage of an insecure redundancy checking algorithm implemented in the WEP protocol.

By compromising a few known properties, an attacker is phd thesis science, able to take an encrypted packet and decrypt it while retrieving the keystream used to encrypt the packet. The way the attack works, is the attacker captures a packet and small chops one byte off the end of the packet before the ICV. The attacker will then append a guess to the decrypted value of the byte. Phd Thesis Science! The packet is fixed by recalculating the sat essay writing help, ICV then injects this packet to phd thesis the target AP. If the target AP, re-broadcasts this frame back out, the attacker knows he has correctly guessed the value of the decrypted byte. Science Paper Format! The attacker then moves onto the next byte. As the guesses become successful, the packet being injected actually gets smaller and smaller. Phd Thesis Science! If the packet doesn't get re-broadcasted, then the harvard format essay, attacker changes the guess and repeats the process, he or she has 256 possible choices to science try and guess. Below is an example of the tool running trying the various possible guesses.

Once complete, the science paper outline format, attacker will have decrypted the entire WEP packet byte by byte, which can then be XORed with the original encrypted packet to produce the plaintext data. The ChopChop Attack is targeted at phd thesis, WEP based Access Points to paper break the WEP key and gain direct access to the wireless network. Since this particular attack can take less than 5 minutes to perform, there is a good chance the attacker has already gained access to your wireless network. If possible, migrate your WLAN off WEP. WPA2-AES is recommended. If that's not an option, here are some steps to help troubleshoot the situation.

Turn off the radios for the affected AP. This will disconnect all clients that are currently connected. Change the WEP key Turn the radios back on You will need to change the WEP key on all of the devices that were currently connected to the new WEP key that was just set. Monitor NCS to see if the ChopChop alarm happens again. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. DHCP Starvation is an attack where a malicious user broadcasts large amounts of phd thesis science, DHCP requests with spoofed MAC addresses. If enough DHCP request frames flood the harvard format essay, network, the attacker could use up all of the remaining DHCP IP addresses that are available for valid users. This would create a DoS condition on phd thesis science, the network. Help! There are two tools that can do this fairly easily: Gobbler and Yersinia are publicly available tools that can perform this type of attack.

This type of attack is especially harmful on phd thesis, guest networks or hotspot networks where the user is allowed to get an science paper outline IP address before the authentication happens. Mitigation options for this type of attack can be handled at the switch level. For Cisco IOS switches, enable DHCP Snooping. For Cisco CatOS, enable port security. The system monitors the wireless network for phd thesis traffic consistent with a DHCP Starvation attack. Cisco recommends that you locate the user running the attack or implement tighter switch security. Day-0 Attack by WLAN Security Anomaly. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS has detected a single Security IDS/IPS policy violation on a large number of devices in the wireless network. Either the number of devices violating the sat essay writing, specific policy in the time period specified are observed or there is a sudden percentage increase in the number of devices as specified in the threshold settings for phd thesis science the alarm.

Depending on the Security IDS/IPS violation, it is suggested that the small, violation be monitored individually to science determine the source and destination of this attack. If this is an increase in the number of rogue devices, it may indicate an attack against writing, the network. If there is a sudden increase in phd thesis science, the number of client devices with encryption disabled, it may be necessary to revisit the Corporate Security Policy and enforce users to use the highest level of sat essay help, encryption and authentication according to the policy rules. Day-0 Attack by Device Security Anomaly. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects a device violating a large number of Security IDS/IPS policies. This device has either generated a number of Security IDS/IPS violations in the time period specified or there is a sudden percentage increase as specified in the threshold settings for the various alarms. The device should be monitored and phd thesis science located to carry out further analysis to check if this device is compromising the Enterprise Wireless Network in any way (attack or vulnerability).

If this is a rogue device, the WLAN administrator may use the integrated over-the-air physical location capabilities, or trace device on the wired network using rogue location discovery protocol (RLDP) or switchport tracing to find it. Alarm Description and creative writing style Possible Causes. Cross-Site scripting vulnerabilities are well known and consist of publicized attacks that target web applications to gain access to the underlying server or the web application itself. It does this by injecting a client-side script into web pages viewed by the user. This attack is performed using a device to phd thesis broadcast the how to improve creative writing, client-side code as the phd thesis science, SSID. Once a WLAN monitoring system picks up the malicious SSID and harvard essay writing records it, if the system is web based and there are Cross-Site Scripting vulnerabilities, then that system will be exploited once the device with the malicious SSID is clicked. Cisco Enterprise monitors the wireless network for Access Points and Ad-hoc devices broadcasting malicious Cross-site scripting (XSS) traffic. It is science, recommended that security personnel identify the device and locate it using the floor plan screen. The device should then be removed from the wireless environment as soon as possible. Some commonly used scan tools include: NetStumbler (newer versions), MiniStumbler (newer versions), MACStumbler, WaveStumbler, PrismStumbler, dStumbler, iStumbler, Aerosol, Boingo Scans, WiNc, AP Hopper, NetChaser, Microsoft Windows XP scans. Alarm Description and Possible Causes.

The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects wireless devices probing the formal letter for job, WLAN and attempting association (i.e. association request for an access point with any SSID). Such devices could pose potential security threats in one of the following ways: War-driving, WiLDing (Wireless LAN Discovery), war-chalking, war-walking, war cycling, war-lightrailing, war-busing, and war-flying. Legitimate wireless client attempting risky promiscuous association. War-driving, war-chalking, war-walking, and war-flying activities include: War-driving- A wireless hacker uses war-driving tools to discover access points and publishes information such as MAC address, SSID, and security implemented on the Internet with the access points' geographical location information. War-chalking- War-chalkers discover WLAN access points and mark the WLAN configuration at science, public locations with universal symbols War-flying-War-flying refers to sniffing for wireless networks from the air. The same equipment is used from a low flying private plane with high power antennas.

It has been reported that a Perth, Australia-based war-flier picked up e-mail and Internet relay chat sessions from an altitude of 1,500 feet on a war-flying trip. To prevent your access points from being discovered by formal application for job, these hacking tools, configure your the access points to not broadcast SSIDs. Use the phd thesis, Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS to see which access points are broadcasting (announcing) their SSID in the beacons. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. IEEE 802.1x provides an EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol) framework for wired or wireless LAN authentication. An EAP framework allows flexible authentication protocol implementation. Science! Some implementations of phd thesis, 802.1x or WPA use authentication protocols such as LEAP, MD5, OTP (one-time-password), TLS, and TTLS. Some of these authentication protocols are based upon the user name and password mechanism, where the user name is transmitted clear without encryption and the password is used to answer authentication challenges. Most password-based authentication algorithms are susceptible to dictionary attacks. During a dictionary attack, an attacker gains the user name from the unencrypted 802.1x identifier protocol exchange. Sat Essay Writing Help! The attacker then tries to phd thesis guess a user's password to gain network access by using every word in a dictionary of common passwords or possible combinations of passwords.

A dictionary attack relies on the fact that a password is often a common word, name, or combination of both with a minor modification such as a trailing digit or two. A dictionary attack can take place actively online, where an attacker repeatedly tries all the possible password combinations. Outline Format! Online dictionary attacks can be prevented using lock-out mechanisms available on the authentication server (RADIUS servers) to lock out the user after a certain number of invalid login attempts. A dictionary attack can also take place off-line, where an attacker captures a successful authentication challenge protocol exchange and then tries to phd thesis match the challenge response with all possible password combinations off-line. Unlike online attacks, off-line attacks are not easily detected. Using a strong password policy and periodically expiring user passwords significantly reduces an off-line attack tool's success. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects online dictionary attacks by paper, tracking 802.1x authentication protocol exchange and science the user identifier usages. Upon detection of a dictionary attack, the alarm message identifies the user name and attacking station's MAC address.

The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS advises switching user name and password based authentication methods to encrypted tunnel based authentication methods such as PEAP and EAP-FAST, which are supported by many vendors including Cisco. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The Fake AP tool is meant to protect your WLAN acting as a decoy to confuse war-drivers using NetStumbler, Wellenreiter, MiniStumbler, Kismet, etc. The tool generates beacon frames imitating thousands of counterfeit 802.11b access points. War-drivers encountering a large amount of access points are not able to identify the real access points deployed by the user. This tool, although very effective in sat essay help, fending off war-drivers, poses other disadvantages such as bandwidth consumption, misleading legitimate client stations, and phd thesis interference with the WLAN management tools. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS does not recommend running the Fake AP tool in your WLAN.

The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS recommends that the administrator locate the format writing, device running the Fake AP tool and take appropriate steps to remove it from the wireless environment. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects such wireless STAs running the DHCP service and providing IP addresses to unaware users. Once the client is identified and reported, the WLAN administrator may use the phd thesis, integrated over-the-air physical location capabilities, or trace device on the wired network using rogue location discovery protocol (RLDP) or switchport tracing to find the device. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects such wireless STAs running the DHCP service and providing IP addresses to unaware users. Once the client is identified and reported, the WLAN administrator may use the integrated over-the-air physical location capabilities, or trace device on the wired network using rogue location discovery protocol (RLDP) or switchport tracing to find the device. Fast WEP Crack (ARP Replay) Detected. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. It is well publicized that WLAN devices using static WEP key for encryption are vulnerable to sat essay writing WEP key cracking attack (Refer to phd thesis Weaknesses in the Key Scheduling Algorithm of paper, RC4 - I by Scott Fluhrer, Itsik Mantin, and Adi Shamir).

The WEP secret key that has been cracked by phd thesis science, any intruder results in no encryption protection, thus leading to creative writing style compromised data privacy. The WEP key that is in phd thesis, most cases 64-bit or 128-bit (few vendors also offer 152-bit encryption) consists of the secret key specified by the user linked with the 24-bit IV (Initialization Vector). The IV that is determined by the transmitting station can be reused frequently or in consecutive frames, thus increasing the possibility of the secret key to be recovered by wireless intruders. The most important factor in formal application letter, any attack against the WEP key is the key size. For 64-bit WEP keys, around 150K unique IVs and for 128-bit WEP keys around 500k to a million unique IVs should be enough. With insufficient traffic, hackers have created a unique way of generating sufficient traffic to science perform such an attack. This is harvard essay, called the replay attack based on phd thesis, arp-request packets. Such packets have a fixed length and can be spotted easily. Plan! By capturing one legitimate arp-request packet and phd thesis resending them repeatedly, the other host responds with encrypted replies, providing new and possibly weak IVs. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS alerts on bar business, weak WEP implementations and recommends a device firmware upgrade if available from the device vendor to correct the IV usage problem.

Ideally, enterprise WLAN networks can protect against WEP vulnerability by science, using the TKIP (Temporal Key Integrity Protocol) encryption mechanism, which is now supported by sat essay writing help, most enterprise level wireless equipment. TKIP enabled devices are not subject to any such WEP key attacks. Cisco WCS also provides automated security vulnerability scanning that proactively reports any access points configured to utilize weak encryption or authentication. For more information on automated security vulnerability scanning, refer to the Cisco WCS online help. Alarm Description and phd thesis science Possible Causes.

It is well publicized that a WLAN device using a static WEP key for encryption is vulnerable to how to various WEP cracking attacks. Refer to Weaknesses in the Key Scheduling Algorithm of RC4 - I, by Scott Fluhrer, Itsik Mantin, and Adi Shamir for more information. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS alerts on detecting a potential fragmentation attack in progress, and phd thesis science recommends that WEP not be used in how to writing style, the corporate environment and that appropriate measures be taken to avoid any security holes in the network and upgrade the wireless network infrastructure and devices to use the more secure IEEE 802.11i standard. HT Intolerant Degradation Services. Alarm Description and Possible Causes.

While 802.11n deployments provide the potential for phd thesis dramatically increased wireless range and speed over legacy implementations, these benefits can be easily lost or offset if a single legacy device is introduced to the network. Argument Writing! To help prevent this situation, the phd thesis, wIPS server will trigger an HT-Intolerant Degradation of Service alarm when it detects packets transmitted between n-capable devices at sub-n speeds. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. While 802.11n deployments provide the potential for outline format dramatically increased wireless range and speed over legacy implementations, these benefits can be easily lost or offset if a single legacy device is introduced to the network. To help prevent this situation, the science, wIPS server will trigger an HT-Intolerant Degradation of Service alarm when it detects packets transmitted between n-capable devices at sub-n speeds. Alarm Description and format Possible Causes.

The addition of WLANs in the corporate environment introduces a whole new class of threats for phd thesis science network security. RF signals that penetrate walls and writing extend beyond intended boundaries can expose the network to unauthorized users. Science! A rogue access point can put the letter, entire corporate network at risk for outside penetration and attack. Not to understate the threat of the rogue access point, there are many other wireless security risks and intrusions such as mis-configured access points, unconfigured access points, and DoS (denial-of-service) attacks. One of the most effective attacks facing enterprise networks implementing wireless is the science, use of a honey pot access point. Small Plan! An intruder uses tools such as NetStumbler, Wellenreiter, and phd thesis MiniStumbler to discover the SSID of the argument writing, corporate access point. Then the intruder sets up an access point outside the building premises or, if possible, within the premises and science broadcasts the discovered corporate SSID. An unsuspecting client then connects to this honey pot access point with a higher signal strength. Once associated, the intruder performs attacks against the client station because traffic is diverted through the honey pot access point.

Once a honey pot access point is identified and reported by application, the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS, the WLAN administrator may use the integrated over-the-air physical location capabilities, or trace device on phd thesis science, the wired network using rogue location discovery protocol (RLDP) or switchport tracing to find the rogue device. Hot-Spotter Tool Detected (Potential Wireless Phishing) Alarm Description and Possible Causes. A hotspot is any location where Wi-Fi network access available for the general public. Writing! Hotspots are often found in science, airports, hotels, coffee shops, and other places where business people tend to congregate. Harvard! It is currently one of the most important network access service for business travelers. Science! The customer requires a wireless-enabled laptop or handheld to connect to the legitimate access point and to receive service. Most hotspots do not require the user to have an advanced authentication mechanism to connect to the access point, other than using a web page to log in. The criterion for entry is only dependent on whether or not the subscriber has paid subscription fees. In a wireless hotspot environment, no one should trust anyone else. Due to current security concerns, some WLAN hotspot vendors are using 802.1x or higher authentication mechanisms to validate the identity of the user.

The four components of a basic hotspot network are: Hotspot Subscribers-Valid users with a wireless enabled laptop or handheld and valid login for accessing the hotspot network. WLAN Access Points-SOHO gateways or enterprise level access points depending upon the hotspot implementation. Hotspot Controllers-Deals with user authentication, gathering billing information, tracking usage time, filtering functions, etc. Harvard Format Essay! This can be an independent machine or can be incorporated in the access point itself.

Authentication Server-Contains the login credentials for the subscribers. In most cases, hotspot controllers verify subscribers' credentials with the authentication server. Hotspotter automates a method of science, penetration against wireless clients, independent of the encryption mechanism used. Using the Hotspotter tool, the intruder can passively monitors the wireless network for probe request frames to identify the SSIDs of the networks of the Windows XP clients. After it acquires the preferred network information, the science format, intruder compares the network name (SSID) to phd thesis science a supplied list of commonly used hotspot network names. Once a match is found, the Hotspotter client acts as an access point. The clients then authenticate and associate unknowingly to this fake access point. Once the client gets associated, the small bar business plan, Hotspotter tool can be configured to run a command such as a script to kick off a DHCP daemon and other scanning against the new victim. Clients are also susceptible to phd thesis this kind of improve style, attack when they are operating in different environments (home and office) while they are still configured to include the phd thesis science, hotspot SSID in small bar business, the Windows XP wireless connection settings. The clients send out phd thesis science probe requests using that SSID and make themselves vulnerable to the tool. Once the rogue access point is identified and reported by the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS, the WLAN administrator may use the integrated over-the-air physical location capabilities, or trace device on writing style, the wired network using rogue location discovery protocol (RLDP) or switchport tracing to phd thesis science find the rogue device.

Identical Send and argument Receive Address. Alarm Description and science Possible Causes. In order to inhibit wireless activity in a corporate network, attackers will often modify wireless packets to emulate various different characteristics, including changes to argument the packets' Source and Destination MAC information. In cases where these fields are identical, the Identical Send and Receive Address alarm will be triggered in order to alert IT personnel of phd thesis, a potential attack. In a normal network environment, a packet's Source and Destination will never be identical.

As such, the enterprise administrators should take immediate steps to locate the root cause of the modified packets. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. Standard 802.11 deployments allow for certain frames to sat essay writing help be transmitted to science individual destinations (also known as unicast frames, such as an ACK) and other frames to be 'broadcast' to all recipients in the wireless deployment. In general, these two categories should not overlap, e.g., an Association Request frame should not be sent out as a broadcast to all listening devices. In this scenario, the wIPS server will trigger an Improper Broadcast Frames alarm to alert staff of a potential problem. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The Karma tool allows a wireless attacker to configure a client as a soft AP that will respond to bar business any probe request detected. This implementation is phd thesis, designed to respond to help queries from phd thesis science stations configured to connect to multiple different networks, e.g., SSID Corporate for work and SSID Home for formal application letter home use. In this example, the soft AP may be configured to science respond to the probe for Home when the client is at work. Bar Business! In this manner, the attacker tricks the science, corporate client to formal for job route potentially sensitive network traffic to the false AP. The wIPS server will trigger a Karma Tool alarm if a wireless station is discovered using the phd thesis science, tool within the corporate environment.

Users should locate the attacking device and eliminate it immediately. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. Man-in-the-Middle (MITM) attack is one of the most common 802.11 attacks that can lead to confidential corporate and private information being leaked to hackers. In a MITM attack, the hacker can use a 802.11 wireless analyzer and monitor 802.11 frames sent over the WLAN. By capturing the writing, wireless frames during the association phase, the hacker gets IP and science MAC address information about the wireless client card and formal letter for job access point, association ID for the client, and the SSID of the phd thesis science, wireless network. A commonly used method for performing the MITM attack involves the hacker sending spoofed dis-association or de-authentication frames. The hacker station then spoofs the MAC address of the client to continue an association with the access point. At the same time, the format, hacker sets up a spoofed access point in another channel to keep the client associated. This allows all traffic between the valid client and access point to pass through the hacker's station.

One of the most commonly used MITM attack tools is Monkey-Jack. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS recommends the use of strong encryption and authentication mechanisms to thwart any MITM attacks by phd thesis, hackers. One way to avoid such an harvard essay writing attack is to prevent MAC spoofing by using MAC address exclusion lists and monitoring the RF channel environment. Cisco Management Frame Protection (MFP) also provides complete proactive protection against phd thesis, MITM attacks. Improve Creative Style! For more information on phd thesis science, MFP, refer to the Cisco Wireless Control System Configuration Guide or the WCS online help. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects a wireless client station probing the WLAN for an anonymous association (such as an association request for an access point with any SSID) using the writing help, NetStumbler tool. The Device probing for Access Point alarm is science, generated when hackers use recent versions of the NetStumbler tool. For older versions, the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS generates the NetStumbler detected alarm.

NetStumbler is the most widely used tool for war-driving and war-chalking. A wireless hacker uses war-driving tools to discover access points and to publish their information (MAC address, SSID, security implemented, etc.) on the Internet with the access points' geographical location information. War-chalkers discover WLAN access points and mark the WLAN configuration at public locations with universal symbols as illustrated above. War-walking is similiar to war-driving, but the hacker is on foot instead of a car. It can run on a machine running Windows 2000, Windows XP, or better. It also supports more cards than Wellenreiter, another commonly used scanning tool. War-walkers like to use MiniStumbler and similar products to sniff shopping malls and big-box retail stores.

War-flying is sniffing for wireless networks from the paper outline, air. Science! The same equipment is writing help, used from a low flying private plane with high power antennas. Science! It has been reported that a Perth, Australia-based war-flier picked up email and format Internet Relay Chat sessions from an phd thesis science altitude of 1,500 feet on a war-flying trip. To prevent your access points from being discovered by these hacking tools, configure your access points to not broadcast its SSID. You can use the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS to see which of science outline, your access points is broadcasting an phd thesis science SSID in the beacons. Cisco WCS also provides automated security vulnerability scanning that reports any access points configured to broadcast their SSIDs.

For more information on automated security vulnerability scanning, refer to the WCS online help. To prevent your access points from being discovered by these hacking tools, configure your access points to not broadcast its SSID. You can use the harvard, Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS to see which access point is broadcasting its SSID in the beacons. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects a wireless client station probing the WLAN for an anonymous association (i.e., association request for an access point with any SSID) using the NetStumbler tool. The Device probing for access point alarm is generated when hackers more recent versions of the NetStumbler tool. For older versions, the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS generates the NetStumbler detected alarm. NetStumbler is the most widely used tool for war-driving, war-walking, and war-chalking. A wireless hacker uses war-driving tools to discover access points and publish their information (MAC address, SSID, security implemented, etc.) on the Internet with the science, access points' geographical location information. War-chalkers discover WLAN access points and mark the WLAN configuration at public locations with universal symbols as illustrated above.

War-walking is similar to war-driving, but the hacker conducts the illegal operation on foot instead of by car. The NetStumbler web site (http://www.netstumbler.com/) offers MiniStumbler software for argument use on Pocket PC hardware, saving war-walkers from science carrying heavy laptops. It can run on a machine running Windows 2000, Windows XP, or later. It also supports more cards than Wellenreiter, another commonly used scanning tool. War-walkers typically use MiniStumbler and similar products to sniff shopping malls and big-box retail stores. War-flying is formal letter for job, sniffing for wireless networks from the air. The same equipment is used, but from a low-flying private plane with high-power antennas. It has been reported that a Perth, Australia-based war-flier picked up e-mail and Internet Relay Chat sessions from an altitude of 1,500 feet on a war-flying trip. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS alerts the user when it observes that a station running Netstumbler is associated to phd thesis a corporate access point.

Publicly Secure Packet Forwarding (PSPF) Violation. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. Publicly Secure Packet Forwarding (PSPF) is a feature implemented on WLAN access points to argument block wireless clients from phd thesis science communicating with other wireless clients. With PSPF enabled, client devices cannot communicate with other client devices on the wireless network. For most WLAN environments, wireless clients communicate only with devices such as web servers on the wired network. By enabling PSPF it protects wireless clients from being hacked by a wireless intruder. Harvard Essay Writing! PSPF is effective in protecting wireless clients especially at wireless public networks (hotspots) such as airports, hotels, coffee shops, and college campuses where authentication is null and anyone can associate with the science, access points.

The PSPF feature prevents client devices from inadvertently sharing files with other client devices on the wireless network. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects PSPF violations. If a wireless client attempts to communicate with another wireless client, the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS raises an alarm for a potential intrusion attack. Writing! This alarm does not apply if your WLAN deploys wireless printers or VoWLAN applications because these applications rely on wireless client-to-client communication. Probe Request Fuzzed Frame Detected. Alarm Description and Possible Causes.

802.11 Fuzzing is the process of introducing invalid, unexpected or random data into the 802.11 frames and then replaying those modified frames into the air. This can cause unexpected behavior to the destination device including driver crashes, operating system crashes and science stack based overflows which would allow execution of arbitrary code on the affected system. The CVE website (http://cve.mitre.org/index.html) has numerous reported entries for format writing fuzzing based vulnerabilities on phd thesis science, 802.11 frames. The system inspects each Probe Request frame looking for signs of fuzzing activity. Most common forms of Probe Request fuzzing involve expanding the SSID field beyond the limit of 32 bytes and changing the plan, supported data rates to invalid rates. The system looks for these anomalies and will generate the Probe Request Fuzzing alarm when the field values are beyond the phd thesis science, 802.11 specification.

Probe Response Fuzzed Frame Detected. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. 802.11 Fuzzing is the process of introducing invalid, unexpected or random data into the 802.11 frames and then replaying those modified frames into the air. This can cause unexpected behavior to the destination device including driver crashes, operating system crashes and how to creative writing style stack based overflows which would allow execution of arbitrary code on science, the affected system. The CVE website (http://cve.mitre.org/index.html) has numerous reported entries for fuzzing based vulnerabilities on 802.11 frames.

The system inspects each Probe Response frame looking for signs of fuzzing activity. Most common forms of Probe Response fuzzing involve expanding the SSID field beyond the formal application, limit of 32 bytes and changing the supported data rates to invalid rates. The system looks for these anomalies and will generate the Probe Response Fuzzing alarm when the field values are beyond the science, 802.11 specification. The system monitors the wireless network for argument traffic consistent with Probe Response Fuzzing. It is recommended to locate the phd thesis, device and take it offline.

Host AP tools: Cqure AP. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. A hotspot is any location where Wi-Fi network access available for the general public. Hotspots are often found in airports, hotels, coffee shops, and other places where business people tend to science paper congregate. It is science, currently one of the most important network access service for business travelers. The customer requires a wireless-enabled laptop or handheld to harvard format connect to the legitimate access point and to receive service. Phd Thesis Science! Most hotspots do not require the user to have an advanced authentication mechanism to connect to the access point, other than using a web page to log in. The criterion for entry is only dependent on improve creative writing, whether or not the subscriber has paid subscription fees. In a wireless hotspot environment, no one should trust anyone else.

Due to current security concerns, some WLAN hotspot vendors are using 802.1x or higher authentication mechanisms to validate the identity of the user. Basic components of a WLAN Hotspot network. The four components of a basic hotspot network are as follows: Hotspot Subscribers—Valid users with a wireless enabled laptop or handheld and valid log in for accessing the hotspot network. WLAN Access Points—SOHO gateways or enterprise level access points depending upon the hotspot implementation. Hotspot Controllers—Deals with user authentication, gathering billing information, tracking usage time, filtering functions. This can be an independent machine or can be incorporated in the access point itself. Authentication Server—Contains the log in credentials for phd thesis the subscribers. In most cases, hotspot controllers verify subscribers' credentials with the authentication server.

Hotspotter automates a method of penetration against wireless clients, independent of the encryption mechanism used. Using the Hotspotter tool, the intruder can passively monitor the wireless network for small probe request frames to phd thesis science identify the writing, SSIDs of the networks of the Windows XP clients. After it acquires the preferred network information, the intruder compares the science, network name (SSID) to a supplied list of commonly used hotspot network names. Writing! When a match is found, the Hotspotter client acts as an access point. The clients then authenticate and associate unknowingly to this fake access point. When the client gets associated, the phd thesis, Hotspotter tool can be configured to run a command such as a script to kick off a DHCP daemon and other scanning against the new victim. Clients are also susceptible to this kind of attack when they are operating in improve writing, different environments (home and office) while they are still configured to include the phd thesis, hotspot SSID in the Windows XP wireless connection settings. The clients send out probe requests using that SSID and make themselves vulnerable to the tool. Soft APs or Software Access points should be treated as a Rogue device. The following steps should help eliminate this threat. Use integrated over-the-air physical location capabilities to locate the Rogue device Wireless Containment to prevent any devices from small bar business plan connecting to the Soft AP Trace the device on the wired network using rogue location discovery protocol (RLDP) or switch port tracing to phd thesis science find the rogue device.

Alarm Description and for job Possible Causes. Spoofed mac address detected is a type of attack where a hacker will change their factory assigned wireless mac address to science either gain access to a restricted wireless network by impersonating a valid connected user or to hide their presence on the wireless network. There are two types of Spoofed MAC address attacks, Client based and writing AP based. For client based Spoofed MAC address attacks, the phd thesis science, client could be trying to impersonate a valid user. An example of this would be a wireless hacker trying to get onto an access controlled hotspot by spoofing their wireless mac address of how to creative writing style, a client that is already connected, in effect piggybacking on phd thesis science, the connection. Another popular example would be in a hotel environment where a hacker bypasses the payment process to get on the wireless network by spoofing their wireless mac address of a paid user. Another type of Spoofed MAC address attack is AP based. In this case, the hacker is trying to hide their presence on the wireless network by spoofing the writing help, mac address of a corporate access point. This is a typical rogue scenario. Suspicious After Hours Traffic Detected.

Alarm Description and Possible Causes. One way to phd thesis science detect a wireless security penetration attempt is to harvard essay match wireless usage against science, the time when there is not supposed to be any wireless traffic. Harvard! The wIPS server monitors traffic patterns against the office-hours configured for this alarm to generate alerts when an abnormality is found. Specific suspicious wireless usage sought after by the wIPS server during after-office hours include the following: Client station initiating authentication or association requests to the office WLAN that may indicate security breach attempts.

Wireless data traffic that may indicate suspicious download or upload over phd thesis science the wireless network. For global wIPS deployment, the configurable office-hour range is defined in local time. The access point or sensor can be configured with a time zone to facilitate management. Harvard Format Writing! For the office and phd thesis science manufacturing floor mixed WLAN, one can define one set of office hours for the office WLAN SSID and another (for example, 6am to 9pm) for the manufacturing floor WLAN SSID. If this alarm is triggered, the administrator should look for devices responsible for the suspicious traffic and small plan take appropriate steps to locate it and phd thesis remove it from the wireless environment. Unauthorized Association By Vendor List. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS enables network administrators to include vendor information in a policy profile to allow the system to effectively detect stations on the WLAN that are not made by approved vendors. Once such a policy profile is created, the format, system generates an alarm whenever an access point is associating with a station by an unapproved vendor. See the diagram below. As the diagram shows, the access points in ACL-1 should only associate with stations made by Cisco and phd thesis the access points in ACL-2 can only associate with stations manufactured by Intel.

This information is entered in the wIPS system's policy profile. Essay Writing! Any association between the access points and phd thesis science non-Cisco or non-Intel stations is unauthorized and triggers an alarm. In the enterprise WLAN environment, rogue stations cause security concerns and undermine network performance. They take up air space and compete for network bandwidth. Since an access point can only writing accommodate a limited number of stations, it rejects association requests from stations once its capacity is reached. An access point laden with rogue stations denies legitimate stations the access to phd thesis the network. Common problems caused by rogue stations include connectivity problems and degraded performance. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS automatically alerts network administrators to any unauthorized access point-station association involving non-conforming stations using this alarm. Once the alarm has been triggered, the unauthorized station must be identified and actions must be taken to resolve the small, issue. Phd Thesis Science! One way is to block it using the rogue containment.

Unauthorized Association Detected. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. In an application letter enterprise network environment, rogue access points installed by phd thesis science, employees do not usually follow the harvard essay writing, network's standard deployment practice and therefore compromise the integrity of the network. They are loopholes in network security and make it easy for science intruders to harvard hack into phd thesis, the enterprise wired network. One of the major concerns that most wireless network administrators face is unauthorized associations between stations in an ACL and format essay writing a rogue access point. Since data to and from the science, stations flows through the rogue access point, it leaves the door open for hackers to obtain sensitive information. Rogue stations cause security concerns and undermine network performance. Bar Business! They take up air space and compete for bandwidths on phd thesis, the network. Since an access point can only writing serve a certain number of stations, it rejects association requests from stations once its capacity is phd thesis science, reached.

An access point laden with rogue stations denies legitimate stations access to the network. Common problems caused by rogue stations include disrupted connections and formal application degraded performance. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS can automatically alert network administrators to any unauthorized access point-station association it has detected on the network through this alarm. The WLC new feature MAC Address Learning will prevent this violation from happening, it is recommended to enable this feature. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects a wireless client station probing the WLAN for an anonymous association (i.e. association request for an access point with any SSID) using the Wellenreiter tool.

Wellenreiter is a commonly used tool for war-driving and war-chalking. A wireless hacker uses war-driving tools to discover access points and to publish their information (MAC address, SSID, security implemented, etc.) on the Internet with the access points' geographical location information. War-chalkers discover WLAN access points and science mark the paper outline, WLAN configuration at public locations with universal symbols as illustrated above. Science! War-walking is similar to war-driving, but the hacker is on foot instead of a car. War-walkers like to use Wellenreiter and similar products to sniff shopping malls and format essay big-box retail stores. War-flying is sniffing for wireless networks from the air. The same equipment is used, but from a low flying private plane with high power antennas.

It has been reported that a Perth, Australia-based war-flier picked up e-mail and Internet Relay Chat sessions from an altitude of 1,500 feet on a war-flying trip. The tool supports Prism2, Lucent, and Cisco based cards. The tool can discover infrastructure and ad-hoc networks that are broadcasting SSIDs, their WEP capabilities, and phd thesis can provide vendor information automatically. It also creates an ethereal/tcpdump-compatible dumpfile and an Application savefile. It also has GPS support. Users can download the tool from Wellenreiter website.

To prevent your access points from being discovered by these hacking tools, configure your access points to not broadcast its SSID. You can use the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS to see which of your access points is broadcasting an SSID in the beacons. Cisco WCS also provides automated security vulnerability scanning that reports any access points configured to bar business plan broadcast their SSIDs. For more information on automated security vulnerability scanning, refer to the WCS online help. WiFi Protected Setup Pin Brute Force. Alarm Description and Possible Causes.

WiFi Protected Setup is a feature on most consumer grade Access Points that allows for easy device setup without the need for complex passwords. The feature allows the user to either use the push button method or enter in the pin found on the bottom of the Access Point to connect. A vulnerability was announced in December 2011 by Stefan Viehböck and independently discovered by Craig Heffner. The vulnerability is with the external registrar that only requires the devices pin. Science! This mode is susceptible to brute force attacks against the pin. Small Bar Business! There are currently 2 active tools in the wild exploiting this. The basic idea behind the attack is when a pin authentication fails, the access point sends back an EAP-NACK message to phd thesis the client. With this EAP-NACK message, the attacker is able to determine if the first half of the pin is correct.

The last digit of the pin is known since it is a checksum for the pin. Argument! This reduces the attempts to brute force the pin down to 11,000. It is recommended to disable the external registrar feature of phd thesis science, WiFi Protected Setup on your Access Point. Most manufacturers have this feature on by default. The system monitors the wireless network for argument writing traffic consistent with WiFi Protected Setup Pin brute force. Science! It is recommended to locate the device and take it offline. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The WiFiTap tool allows a wireless attacker to configure a client to format communicate directly with another client, without connecting to a corporate AP.

This implementation allows the intruder to science target an attack against the individual client, bypassing any security measures configured on the corporate network. The attacker then has access to outline all files and information stored on phd thesis science, the victim client station. The wIPS server monitors for use of the WiFiTap tool and triggers an alarm if it is detected. Users should attempt to formal for job locate the attacking device and remove it from the wireless environment.

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In this essay, the writer gives. Everyone has a dream , aspiration ambition , your goal is to do anything to fulfill it. In realization, sometimes your desires are honestly impossible. Yet, in your heart, you do anything and everything to try to make it happen. The book Goal .! The Dream Begins by Robert Rigby is a. Captain of science, Industry vs.

Robber Barons. money and power for good. There is small, lots of proof that Carnegie, Rockefeller, and Vanderbilt are on the good side. Andrew Carnegie was a very good businessman . “He was a “self made man” in science both his economic development and how to creative style, intellectual and science, cultural development” said Colonel James Anderson (Wikipedia). Argument. Carnegies. Personal Statement Business was first introduced to me when I first started my GCSE’s and since then I have thoroughly enjoyed the subject so at every opportunity I have chosen to study the subject, marketing has been my most successful and enjoyable section of the business courses which I have undertaken. Ambition Table of Contents Item | Page | 1.0 Introduction | 3 | 1.2 Definition of ambition | 3 | 1.3 Constructive Ambition | 4 | 1.3.1 Definition of phd thesis science, Constructive Ambition | 4 | 1.3.2 Example of Constructive Ambition | 4-5 | 1.4 Destructive Ambition | 5 | 1.4.1 Definition of Destructive. Antonio is the title character of the play. He appears to be a middle-aged bachelor and a businessman who is beloved by most of his acquaintance. He has been doing business in Venice and his financial interests are in overseas ships at the beginning of the play. Knowing his shipments are overseas.

contingency plan in which they chose but was unsuccessful due top-level management bad decisions. WorldCom was develop by Bernie Ebbers who was a businessman and outline, senior executive that was very likeable, all his colleagues knew he had the savvy to acquire companies and science, make them successful. According to. My Position on Capital Punishment. My Position on how to improve style Capital Punishment Axia College of phd thesis science, University of Phoenix Capital Punishment 2 I believe that the US should continue the use of capital punishment. When one chooses to murder another person and then hides from the justice he or she knows they are going to get, to me, this is a. need to science paper outline format explain the events that occurred at Business Horizons that led up to my decision. All of the activities at Business Horizons, the teambuilding activities, the simulations, the lectures, and the making and science, marketing of my Industry’s product, helped me come to the conclusion that I actually like. Ambition in Macbeth In Macbeth, a play set in Scotland, William Shakespeare wrote a tragedy of a man#8217;s ambition . In the play, Macbeth is described as a man who has ambitions of becoming king.

After the first part of the prophecy by the witches whom he has met returning from battle comes. MY BRIEF HISTORY OLUDOLAPO ADEBAYO MELBOURNE. JANUARY, 2010 The best way to remember my name is to think about the only means of exchange financially in America I mean the DOLLAR but my own shortened name is spelled DOLA and sound alike however its meaning culturally from Africa is that my. Dusty Bowles Mrs. Farmer English 102 10 September 2010 Ambitions As I started out to write a paper based on harvard essay writing ambition I had to question myself what ambition really was.

What makes people get that extra push to phd thesis be ambitious, and what are the sat essay, advantages and disadvantages of being an ambitious person.