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AS Level Art and Design Coursework: Abstract paintings of instruments 100% February 8, 2017 by Amiria Gale. This AS Painting Coursework project gained 100% in 2008. Helper. It was completed by Nikau Hindin, while studying A Level Art Design (CIE 9704) at ACG Parnell College, Auckland, New Zealand. Argument Writing. Four x A1 sheets of supporting work for Nikau#8217;s 100% AS Coursework project. Nikau began her AS Coursework project by conducting a visual investigation into instruments. She was particularly interested in traditional Maori instruments, and how these were used to tell stories that were passed from generation to helper generation. Nikau began by arranging these instruments with a violin, triangle and trumpet, in compositions that were influenced by the works of American artist Jim Dine. Vertically aligned, the instruments faded in and out of messy textural backgrounds, in the way that a memory or story might ebb and flow through generations – clear and for business plan distinct in some places; blurry and obscured in others. Often these grounds were ‘found’ – i.e. Helper. bits of splattered pieces of paper that Nikau then worked over with washes of writing, paint and ink. This unpredictable mark-making strategy provided welcome contrast to the tight, controlled forms of the instruments themselves.

These mixed media drawing of instruments were completed on english, messy, textural backgrounds of splattered paint and ink. Throughout her folio, Nikau worked in a range of essay topics, drawing and painting mediums, including graphite, Indian ink, black pen, coloured pencil, watercolour and acrylic paint. After completion of the first half of an A1 sheet of preparation work, Nikau analysed her artworks (in an accompanying sketchbook which also contained artist studies and further media trials and exploratory work). She identified several visual elements that played a crucial role in her artwork, i.e. the repetition of strong vertical lines (violin neck and strings / trumpet pipes etc); the repetition of curving, organic form (body of the violin and the kowhaiwhai patterns in the carvings on the Maori instruments). It was at this stage that a colour scheme was also defined – one that would remain consistent throughout her Coursework project. These aspects of the composition were considered carefully, not just in terms of their aesthetic potential, but in terms of how they might allow her to best represent and english express her ideas. For example, the repetition of vertical lines – which became more prevalent throughout her folio – might help to express the passage of time, and the linking of common forms was a way to illustrate the connection of argument writing, ideas from past to english helper present. The bottom half of Nikau#8217;s first A1 sheet includes a series of for business, smaller preparatory works. English. The next stage of development resulted in the continued use of a wide range of media, splattered grounds, stenciled layers and the gradual disintegration and manipulation of tone and form. The vertical reflective lines on the trumpet were transposed onto to topics the surface of the violin and into parts of the background, while kowhaiwhai patterns from the helper carved instruments become a graphic element that interlaced across different parts of the painting.

Many of the english works were completed in series, with several pieces being worked on helper, at one time. The artworks have many rich layers, with mediums worked over each other many times. How To. This work (enlarged detail shown on the left) includes a beautiful abstraction of a musical instrument disintegrating and english falling through space a reflection of the topics for business larger scale disintegration of memory, story and form that was occuring in her paintings. Over the remainder of the english preparatory pages, Nikau continued to develop her work by abstracting form (with reference to cubist artists, such as Juan Gris) and playing with scale. She refined and developed her painting technique, with translucent layers (created using gel medium and water) and irregular backgrounds contrasting sharp, defined edges and tonal boundaries. As Nikau was studying in New Zealand, she was not restricted by having to post her work overseas for assessment.

As such, she was free to trial painting on essays, wooden boards. With access to her school’s technology woodworking workshop, Nikau cut out several forms from different thicknesses of MDF and layered these onto her artwork. This made the surface of her work slightly sculptural and 3D. The aspects of Nikau’s Coursework Project that were particularly successful (aside from english, her obvious strength in dual role observational drawing and painting) are the personal nature of the folio, and the creative and confident handling of helper, media. French Essayist. This detail of Nikau#8217;s final painting, shows the inclusion of raised wooden layers and the beautiful realism achieved in the head of the english helper violin. The final Coursework painting (shown below) was a large and impressive work, approximately 1.4m wide, on an MDF framed board. The final painting, on a ground of for business, vertical drips and raised MDF layers, comprises of a well-balanced mix of english, realism and abstraction. Beautiful! The following video showcases Nikau’s entire AS Painting Coursework project, including her sketchbook, which contains media trials, written analysis and artist studies. Argument. (Note: for CIE, a sketchbook is not required at AS Level, however it is common practise in New Zealand for students to complete one. English Helper. As the examiners visit our schools to moderate student work, we are not bound by strict postage requirements). Want to see more inspirational student artwork?

View our Featured Art Projects. This article was written by Amiria Gale. Amiria has been a teacher of Art Design and a Curriculum Co-ordinator for how to write an excellent essay seven years, responsible for the course design and assessment of english, Art and Design work in two high-achieving Auckland schools. Amiria has a Bachelor of Architectural Studies, Bachelor of Architecture (First Class Honours) and a Graduate Diploma of Teaching. She is a CIE Accredited Art Design Coursework Assessor.

Follow Student Art Guide on Pinterest. Join over 15,000 people who receive our free newsletter. You will be notified first when free resources are available: new art project ideas, teaching handouts, printable lesson plans, tips and topics plan advice from experienced teachers. What are you waiting for?

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OPEC – The Organisation of english Petroleum Exporting Countries Essay Sample. The Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries has merely become the most popular name related to oil, overnight. Today the countries are thoroughly dependent on its operations, and without OPEC, it can be a nightmare for all of them. OPEC has got a sheer power to operate the dual, governments of various countries. Regardless of the fact that there have been all sorts of ups and downs in oil production, OPEC still has got a firm control on the oil supply of the free world. English? The weaker nations are all lucky to dual role have a support of OPEC as well as stronger, the weaker nations get the support from the stronger ones all because of an operating body like OPEC. OPEC has found its geopolitical strength and has realised its power suddenly and has become an important force playing an important part in regions like Asia and Africa. It has brought the huge multinational oil companies under control who could have done so many wrong acts otherwise, but now they all are on english helper their knees, OPEC has made them merely impotent in the decision-making process, which is english essay topics for competitive exams, a good sign as there aim of profitability can disturb many other economies. It has forced the helper, Western nations to have its favour on numerous occasions.

There is a growing recognition in argument the Western world that the industrialised countries cannot solve the problems of helper chronic inflation and economic stagnation permanently unless they force OPEC to abandon its stand of raising oil prices ever higher and disrupt supplies to the oil consuming nations, but imagine what they could have done if OPEC was not there. The dependence on OPEC increased considerably in the United States during the essay for competitive exams, last decade and english helper, a half. According to a study by the Federal Energy Administration (FEA), U.S. Writing? oil imports raised 150 percent between 1968 and 1973, from about 2.5 million barrels a day in 1968 to helper 6.3 mb/d in role of women 1973. Imports from the english, Arab oil producing countries were raised to emmersons essays 31.9 percent in 1976 from a negligible 2 percent of total U.S. English Helper? oil imports in 1970. On the whole, the reliance of the United States on foreign oil had increased disturbingly. In 1970, the United States depended on foreign oil for 23 percent of its total oil consumption, which was quite clearly showing what could have happened in for business plan no oil situation.

In 1974, the figure was raised to 37 percent, and in 1976, oil imports were about 44 percent of total U.S. consumption. In 1977, the oil imports reached the pinnacle at an average of 8.7 mb/d. That represented approximately 48 percent of the total domestic supply, which averaged 18.4 mb/d in that year. The FEA’s figures also showed that the consumption of oil in United States was raised by 3.7 percent in 1976 as compared to english 1975, with gasoline use advancing at 6.7 percent and distillate by 7.9 percent. At the same time, the domestic production during 1975 and essay, 1976 had decreased from 8.24 mb/d of crude oil to 7.93 mb/d.

The nation’s refineries ran at english 86 percent of essays capacity in that period compared to 87.1 percent in 1975, which is a considerable difference in the short run. It has also been identified that the Arab nations and Nigeria were increasing their share of the U.S. market while the nation’s traditional suppliers such as, Venezuela and Canada were contributing a smaller share, fundamentally because of the high price of Canadian oil and helper, the restricted output of Venezuela. It was for french essayist, the first time in 1976 that Saudi Arabia had overtaken Venezuela as the United State’s chief overseas supplier of crude oil. On the other hand countries like Algeria and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) have all increased their shipments, while Canada is pointing out helper, its shipments to the United States. The conditions took a big change during 1979-1981.

Suddenly, the write essay, oil crisis gave a rise to the oil surplus, it was perhaps due to the remarkable changes in the balance between demand and supply which is the base of economics and english helper, also famous for changing any country’s fate. The oil consumption in the Western side of the world dropped more than 7 percent between 1979 and 1980, and declined another 3 percent in 1981 that gave birth to so many questions. Write? In the United States, it decreased by 5.8 percent during 1980 and 1981. The country’s oil import in 1980 was on average 5.3 mb/d, a much smaller figure as compared to that of helper previous years. Emmersons Essays? Oil consumption in helper the United States fell an estimated 5 percent in 1980 to its lowest level in four years. Where as the world consumption of petroleum products also fell to essays 2.38 billion tons, or about 18.33 billion barrels, while gasoline consumption in industrial nations decreased merely by helper, 30 million tons to essays 52.3 million, or about 231 million barrels. On the other hand the motor fuel consumption, accounting for nearly one third of total oil demand in industrial nations, also decreased by 5 percent in 1980, after a 2 percent fall in 1979. The reasons behind this great disturbance of oil consumption were of course, the higher price of crude oil and the collapsing conditions prevailing in the Western side of the world. The price of crude oil raised an english helper average 74 percent in emmersons essays 1980, and in the first three months of 1981, it was 17 percent higher than the first three months of english helper 1980.

The price rose from $13 per barrel in 1978 and 1979 to $34 per barrel in November 1981. Also, the economies of the Western world grew at just over 1 percent in 1980, as compared to a 3.3 percent growth in 1979, and this decline has been a major contributor to a lower demand. Within the same situation, the world output of crude oil also decreased in 1980 by 123 million tons, or nearly about 4 percent, because of a 12 percent reduction among OPEC members. OPEC production had almost declined by 1 mb/d, from 31.1 to 30.2 from 1973 to 1978. Meanwhile, the non-OPEC production raised by essay topics for competitive, nearly about 6 mb/d, from 27 million in 1973 to helper 32.8 million in emmersons essays 1978, which was showing the change in roles. English? The output of the Communist trading area such as China, extended sharply by about 45 percent, and the developing countries production rose by approximately 88 percent in 1980, according to the General Agreement on Tariffs and english essay exams, Trade (GATT) annual report. As a consequence of each and every act, the demand for oil lessened considerably in the Western world mainly because of the downturn, preservation and because of the higher oil prices, resulting in the surplus of english excess oil supplies, which damaged the OPEC association vitally. “Thus the oil-consuming nations of the world are truly between Scylla and Charybdis.

If their economies recover, OPEC gets stronger. If their economies decline, OPEC weakens. Under present circumstances, it would mean that only a world depression would suffice to completely crack the dual essays, OPEC bloc”(Ghosh 8: 1983). Oil Demand and Supply Situation in the United States, 1980-1981. So far we have discussed the background of OPEC, which is potentially showing you all the ups and downs of OPEC, particularly its operations in relation to the countries that are supporting its regime and also those because of which it has paid a heavy price for. From now and onwards we would be discussing its recent operations that would give you a hint of english its effectiveness, which was even there way back in 1980s. As a modern organisation, OPEC is an writing organisation of oil producing governments that assist to helper manage oil supply and prices in order to maximise the revenues of the member states and promote stability in the oil market, it is playing a role which is no different than the role of WTO or any other organisation which is working for the equitable distribution of wealth. There are ten producer governments that have made OPEC, most of them are being operated in the Middle East, they are economies that are highly dependent on oil revenues, they are also having quotas but Iraq, which is the eleventh member, currently is having no quota because it is trying to re-establish its former oil production after the Iraq war in 2003.

OPEC is acting like a union as it is pursuing Iraq’s economic and political objectives. This all has at least given Iraq a hope, proving the effectiveness of OPEC in the modern world. The role played by OPEC and emmersons, its importance can be visualised from the point that OPEC has about 75 percent of the english helper, world’s oil reserves and it is currently comprising of only writing about 35 percent of helper world oil production, which is not in comparison to the 60-65 percent it controlled at the time of the oil shocks in the 1970s. There goes a chance for non-OPEC producers, which are playing an important role, led by Russia, whose production is growing day by day, and the United States, whose production is surprisingly turning down. OPEC has although got success in dual role most phases in controlling the oil markets but it has also made mistakes, at various occasions it has been facing challenges that are perhaps beyond its control, as in 2004. “This rise in forward prices was matched by increases in prices bid for high-quality equity units offering investors a return directly linked to oil prices. Share prices offered for the BP Prudhoe Bay Royalty Trust, a trust issued by helper, British Petroleum for production from Prudhoe Bay in Alaska, rose from $14 per share in May 2004 to almost $40 per share. The increase in the BP share price corresponds to french essayist a change in investor expectations regarding the english, rate of increase in essay topics exams future oil prices”(Verleger 22, Vol 18: 2004). By the end of November 1997, at the failure of Jakarta meeting, the OPEC increased the oil production regardless of the oil issues in the Asian economies, which led to a decrease in demand in 1998 and a price collapse to US$10 per barrel.

The price fall down caused severe damage to the economies of oil producing countries. The union was able to regroup and cut production in March 1999 with the assistance of non-OPEC producers, which was a joint step to solve the english helper, situation, specifically Mexico, Russia, Norway, and writing, Oman. Oil prices recovered and increased above US$30 per barrel by early 2000, determined partially by Asian recovery and low Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) oil stocks. OPEC exceeded its goal of english restoring prices to the US$20 range. In the year 2000, the OPEC increased its output by topics plan, merely four times in a try to reduce the helper, high oil prices that endangered to lessen the oil demand. In its Vienna meeting in March of year 2000, OPEC turned its 1999 decision, down and increased production, again got some assistance by the many of the argument, non-OPEC producers.

It also announced a price band mechanism designed to keep oil prices in a target range of US$22 to US$28 per barrel for the OPEC basket of crudes, in relation to its goal of maintaining it with in the range of US$20. “The OPEC basket is a weighted average of english helper Saudi light and six other OPEC crude oils. It includes an english essay topics for competitive exams automatic production adjustment mechanism that is implemented if the price goes above or below the band, though the mechanism has not always been implemented. Other production increases followed in June, September, and October 2000, but oil prices remained stubbornly high, finally dropping at the year’s end”(Kohl 68, Vol 26: 2005). The settlement of the basket is useful in terms that the record of the OPEC basket price is a very good indicator of the OPEC’s success or failure in running the world oil market. The OPEC basket price tends to run about US$2 below the US benchmark oil price for West Texas Intermediate crude (WTI), which is the price quoted on the New York Mercantile Exchange, which is showing a complete planning done by OPEC to overestimate the expenses and underestimate the outcome. In the year 2001, OPEC faced an english economic collapse in the United States that gradually widened away in the world and reduced oil demand. Following several OPEC production ups and downs, the OPEC basket price initially remained in the US$20 range. However, the 9/11 attacks were followed by emmersons, a decrease in air travel and a decline in the stock market that even extended the english, downturn. Eventually the oil demand chopped off, and write, oil prices sooner fell even below US$20 per english helper, barrel. In response to the situation, the OPEC called an emergency meeting in late November and announced a production cut of 1.5 mb/d, in January 2002, on the condition that non-OPEC producers led by Russia would contribute an additional cut of 500,000 barrels per day.

The OPEC strategy was largely successful, which was another point proving their effectiveness in planning of the oil controlling market. Lets discuss the year 2002, with some more details. Right in french essayist the start of 2002, the OPEC was confronted by a global economic slowdown and a slump in oil demand. But OPEC was determined to avoid a further fall down of english helper prices and restrained production. At the same point of time, political tensions also raised in the Middle East side with new Israeli attacks against the Palestinians and US threats against Iraq that was also determined to keep the dual role of women essays, practice alive, they continued their practice of interrupting oil exports. One of the good things which was supporting the OPEC was its quotas that were lowest since 1991, assisted in keeping the oil stocks as low as possible and also helped in bringing oil prices back into the US$20 to US$25 range by spring 2003.

The OPEC’s basket prices were again within the price band settled earlier. In December 2002, OPEC again raised its production maximum to 23 mb/d to support it with real production. In discussion of the year 2003, a strike of Venezuelan oil production workers in the early 2003 removed most of that producer’s oil production and exports, which eventually resulted in a shortfall in the market. At the same time, turbulence in Nigeria decreased that country’s production, as a result, at english its January 2003 meeting, OPEC determined to raise its production by 1.5 mb/d to 24.5 mb/. It was mainly to compensate the Venezuelan shortfall.

Later on in march, the WTI drove up the topics for business, prices to US$40 per english, barrel as a result of the war threat in Iraq. OPEC stood up and gave a hope by indicating that it would keep the oil market well supplied in crisis and the International Energy Agency (IEA) agreed to let OPEC challenge this before responding with any release of strategic oil supplies. When the war broke out in how to write essay Iraq, the helper, oil prices again declined to US$30, as WTI was in expectation of a short war, which was not really a case. English? OPEC tackled the situation of english lost production in Iraq by increasing the production in Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and Algeria. By the end of April 2003, OPEC agreed to cut actual production by 2 mb/d to 25.4 mb/d on the hypothesis that there would be a seasonal fall in demand and Iraq would be slowly get settled into the market. Saudi oil Minister, Ali al-Naimi made a good effort to keep the price as close to US$25 per barrel as possible. Iraqi production began to slowly recover which OPEC earlier anticipated. Emmersons? Now oil prices were at the top of the price band. But then in August when the Iraq export pipeline was damaged and UN headquarters were bombed in Baghdad, the oil prices were facing a pressure to get raised again. OPEC took a very surprising decision later on in September 2003, by deciding to cut production and return to the February plan of maximizing the production to 24.5 mb/d to obstruct stock build in english the fourth quarter and maintain prices in the upper part of the price band.

OPEC took this decision under the hypothesis that the world economy was slowly improving and that Iraq’s production and exports were slowly expanding as discussed earlier. Naimi said that OPEC would not raise the price band despite a proposal from Venezuela to do so. Oil prices rose to between US$28 and french essayist, US$29 per barrel in September and to between US$30 and US$32 per barrel by November. Both US President George W. Bush and IEA Executive Director Claude Mandil showed great disappointment at helper the September decision, as they perceived it harmful for the economic growth. In the last month of write an excellent 2003, OPEC confirmed its September decision, keeping in english mind the disorder in Iraq and the continuing weakness of the US dollar, which worsened OPEC purchasing power. Meanwhile, Iraq’s production reached 2.35 mb/d and how to an excellent essay, the OPEC basket price had exceeded US$28, But OPEC, in response resisted this action, fearing that demand would be dropped by the second quarter of helper 2004. Lets now discuss the year 2004, it was sooner that OPEC lost control of role of women oil prices in 2004, In the first three quarters of that year, the OPEC basket price remained above US$40 per barrel which was far above from US$28 per barrel, however it fell slightly below US$40 per barrel later on in September. There were so many reasons behind that, such as a largely unanticipated flow in english helper oil demand spurred by high economic growth in China and the United States, low oil inventories, deepening violence and instability in dual role essays Iraq, declining OPEC additional capacity, and english, blockage in the gasoline market. OPEC, led by Saudi Arabia, began the year by misunderstanding the market when it announced its intention to decrease overproduction and stick to english for competitive exams a 24.5 mb/d of maximum production.

Naimi confirmed his belief in a US$25 per barrel price for the OPEC basket, mentioning concern about falling demand and a large stock build in the second quarter, and was determined not to repeat the english helper, previous mistakes of 1997 to for business 1999. In March, WTI prices reached a high of between US$36 and US$38 per english helper, barrel and the OPEC basket price ranged from between US$32 and US$33 per barrel was yet not according to the plan and willingness of many other associates. Sooner OPEC confirmed its earlier decision of cutting the output by 1 mb/d to 23.5 mb/d despite high oil prices. OPEC also tried to cut many of the supplies of market, however ministers insisted that the market was very well supplied with oil and thus OPEC should not allow any shortages in french essayist world oil markets, but they were all determined to keep inventories low and english, prices high. White House and US Department of Energy officials criticised OPEC’s production cuts while prices were high. In the for business plan, meantime, Venezuela, Nigeria, and Iran argued for the need to raise the helper, price band, causing disagreement within OPEC. In the face of growing oil demand and emmersons essays, attacks on oil facilities in Iraq and Saudi Arabia, oil prices rose above US$40 per barrel in May, which was because of english a side never perceived by emmersons essays, OPEC. Naimi finally began calling for a production increase.

He got his wish at the June 3 meeting in Beirut when OPEC raised its production to a maximum by 2 mb/d to 25.5 mb/d from July 1, and by a further 500 kilo barrels per helper, day from August 1. This was a negotiation between Saudi Arabia, which wanted an instant increase to emmersons essays 26 mb/d, and Iran, which would initially only accept 25.5 mb/d. The measures were taken only to ensure ample supply and helper, give a clear signal of how to an excellent essay OPEC’s commitment to market stability and to maintaining prices at acceptable levels to both producers and consumers, according to a June 7 OPEC statement. Actual OPEC output was reported as 26 mb/d in April increasing to english about 27 mb/d in June, with Saudi Arabia increasing to 9.1 mb/d. As a result, remaining OPEC extra capacity was significantly reduced to about 1 mb/d in Saudi Arabia, then again conditions turned very tight in argument writing the summer of 2004, in July, the IEA enlarged its oil demand projection for english, the year by an additional 2.5 mb/d.

OPEC canceled its July meeting but proceeded with its planned August increase in supply of 500,000 barrels to a maximum of 26 mb/d. Yet OPEC actions were insufficient to prevent further price increases. The WTI oil prices again moved above US$40 per barrel in July and hit record highs of US$44.73 on August 5 and US$48.75 on August 19, which again was an indication that OPEC’s planning was not implemented as decided. Another major factor for the outcome was the disturbance in Iraq, which heated up and spread to the oil rich southern regions with attacks on the South oil company pipelines. The U.S. oil inventories were still low compared with demand, refineries continued at peak production, and emmersons essays, there was continuing concern about the small OPEC additional capacity to meet any supply disruption, which was originally about 1 to 1.5 mb/d. Saudi Arabia continued to secure the price band, but other countries, including Iran, Nigeria, and Venezuela, were satisfied with oil prices in the US$30 to US$40 range. OPEC facing continuing high prices was in a weaker position at its September 15 meeting. With additional capacity reduced to about 1 mb/d in Saudi Arabia, OPEC required to cure high prices by announcing an increase in its production with a maximum from 26 to 27 mb/d in english helper November. This was more a signal than an actual change because current production from the OPEC was already known to be 28 mb/d.

Regardless of interest by several members, a decision was delayed on whether to raise the price band or not, which by this point had become inappropriate. Naimi clearly opposed the raise, saying it should only be raised if there was a structural change in the market. Saudi Arabia, now producing 9.5 mb/d, also announced just before the meeting that it would add 800,000 barrels per day of write an excellent essay production capacity in two new fields by the end of english helper September. Kuwait was also planning to topics have an expansion. The WTI crude price decreased slightly after the meeting to english US$43.58. The higher oil prices and expanded production has greatly benefited OPEC in the past two years through the oil export revenue. In June 2004, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) estimated OPEC’s net oil export revenues for 2004 at dual role of women essays US$286 billion, up from US$240 billion in 2003 and US$195 billion in english 2002.

Certainly all these revenues have helped OPEC in its recovery and curing from the price collapse of 1997 to 1999. However, OPEC has a very less per capita income for essay for competitive exams, adjusting inflation and rapid population growth. It should be noted that many countries are greatly thankful from the period of lower oil prices from the mid 1980s to the late 1990s, and many OPEC countries are moving slowly on helper required economic restructuring. Saudi Arabia which is OPEC’s largest oil producer and a leader in OPEC production decisions, will possibly earn US$100 billion from french essayist oil export revenues in 2004 based on average oil production of 8.7 mb/d, it is quite predictable as well since the earnings for 2003 were US$86 billion. Last year, Saudi Arabia experienced healthy gross domestic product growth and a government surplus, greatly improving the country’s economic situation.

However, Saudi Arabia’s 2003 surplus was only the second surplus in the past 20 years, during which the government had run deficits and trade imbalances. Total government debt has been nearly 100 percent of english helper GDP, surpluses in 2003 and 2004 are likely to be used to increase foreign assets and pay off some government debt, which would stable the french essayist, country’s situation more importantly. In Saudi Arabia, oil exports put in english helper over 90 percent of of women essays export earnings, 70 to 80 percent of state revenues, and about 40 percent of GDP, which gives a hint of its heavy dependence on english helper oil sector. Oil export revenues per capita were about french essayist US$3,683 in 2003, which in real terms are much lower than the per english, capita figure for 1980 at the high point of oil prices, which was only about US$22. French Essayist? Saudi Arabia continues to face serious economic challenges of fast population growth, which is about 3 percent per year, which is english helper, not a healthy sign and relating them to essays other economies, which are not doing well because of similar population growth, such as Pakistan. Also Saudi Arabia is having high unemployment, which is about 15 to 20 percent. More recently, the threat of domestic terrorism has provided a new challenge and will require more government spending on security, which is again in relation to the increased transportation which than has a relation with the oil pricing. The large financial needs of the state have been estimated to require a stable oil price of US$30 per barrel, which helps explain recent Saudi unwillingness and disagreement at OPEC meetings to press for helper, lower oil prices. Other OPEC members face similar challenges with even larger populations and exams, immense financial needs. The only exceptions are Kuwait and the United Arab Emirates, which have small populations and large GDP per capita.

The Stock traders in New York, London, and Singapore, which are all aware of both economic fundamentals and geopolitical risks, ultimately have set the price of oil. In recent months the risk premium on english helper the oil price may have grown to US$10 to US$15 per topics, barrel. However the OPEC actions to increase production have not been sufficient to reduce the upward price acceleration, which if left free, will slow economic growth and lessen the future oil demand. OPEC continues to helper be in a weak position by the fact that as a group of independent countries, it has no enforcement method. Therefore, exceeding quotas is a continuous problem, which weakens its efforts to french essayist manage the market. The financial needs of Saudi Arabia and other OPEC countries appear to english helper require oil prices well above the emmersons essays, price band as discussed earlier in english helper relation to the population growth and french essayist, unemployment, still the english, members have delayed making a decision about whether to admit this or not and this delay has damaged OPEC’s market standing. It is essays, difficult to english trust Saudi statements that they would be happy with an oil price at US$25 per barrel for the OPEC basket when they clearly are not trying to achieve this and their financial needs are demanding a much higher price. OPEC can certainly not control unexpected shifts in demand or geopolitical risks. The oil market is difficult to manage and would remain this way as OPEC has limited tools and also at times inadequate information to take decisions. Ford N, “ The Middle East: Keeping OPEC Together ”, (n.p.), Issue 339: November 2003. Ghosh A, “ The Petroleum Industry and topics plan, United States Energy Policy ”, West Port, CT, Quorum Books: 1983.

Kohl W.L, “ Harvard International Review: The Perfect Storm ”, Vol 26, Issue 4: 2005. Siddiqi M.A, “ The Middle East: OPEC Maintains Firm Resolve ”, (n.p.): May 2001. Verleger P.K, “ The International Economy: Why Oil Could Go to $60 ”, Vol 18, Issue 4: 2004. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order OPEC – The Organisation of english helper Petroleum Exporting Countries. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for OPEC – The Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Definition of ‘Organization Of Petroleum Exporting Countries – OPEC’ An organization consisting of the topics for business, world’s major oil-exporting nations.

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Alvis Car and Engineering Company. Thomas George John. Chairman and english helper, Managing Director, 1919–44. How To Essay! Chairman and Managing Director, 1946–73. Chief Engineer and helper, General Manager, 1922–50. Argument Writing! Chief Engineer, Vehicle Division, 1922–59. Chief Engineer, Aero Engine Division, 1922–72. Alvis Car and Engineering Company Ltd was a British manufacturing company in helper Coventry from 1919 to 1967. In addition to argument writing, automobiles designed for the civilian market, the company also produced racing cars, aircraft engines, armoured cars and other armoured fighting vehicles.

Car manufacturing ended after the helper company became a subsidiary of how to, Rover in english 1965, but armoured vehicle manufacture continued. Alvis became part of British Leyland and then in 1982 was sold to United Scientific Holdings, which renamed itself Alvis plc. open two-seater T.T. replica. The original company, T.G. John and an excellent, Company Ltd., was founded in 1919 by Thomas George John (1880–1946). Its first products were stationary engines, carburetors and english, motorscooters.

Following complaints from the Avro aircraft company whose logo bore similarities to the original winged green triangle, the more familiar inverted red triangle incorporating the english essay word Alvis evolved. On 14 December 1921 the english company officially changed its name to The Alvis Car and Engineering Company Ltd. Geoffrey de Freville (1883–1965) designed the first Alvis engine and is also responsible for the company name. French Essayist! [1] The origin of the name Alvis has been the subject of a great deal of speculation over the years. Some have suggested that de Freville proposed the name Alvis as a compound of the english words aluminium and vis (meaning strength in Latin), or perhaps it may have been derived from the Norse mythological weaponsmith, Alviss. De Freville however vigorously rejected all of these theories. In 1921 he specifically stated that the name had no meaning whatsoever, and was chosen simply because it could be easily pronounced in any language. Role! He reaffirmed this position in the early 1960s, stating that any other explanations for the source of the name were purely coincidental. [1] Production was relocated to Holyhead Road in Coventry, where from 1922 to 1923 they also made the Buckingham car. In 1922 George Thomas Smith-Clarke (1884–1960) left his job as assistant works manager at Daimler and helper, joined Alvis as chief engineer and works manager. French Essayist! Smith-Clarke was accompanied by William M. Dunn, who also left his job as a draughtsman at Daimler to become chief draughtsman at Alvis. This partnership lasted for nearly 28 years and english, was responsible for producing some of the most successful products in the company's history. Smith-Clarke left in 1950, and Dunn assumed Smith-Clarke's position as chief engineer, remaining in that position until 1959. [1] De Freville's first engine design was a four-cylinder engine with aluminium pistons and essay exams, pressure lubrication, which was unusual for that time.

The first car model using de Freville's engine was the Alvis 10/30. It was an instant success and established the reputation for quality workmanship and superior performance for helper, which the company was to become famous. The original 10/30 side-valve engine was improved, becoming by topics for business plan 1923 the overhead valve Alvis 12/50, a highly successful sports car that was produced until 1932. Around 700 of the 12/50 models and english, 120 of the later Alvis 12/60 models survive today. [ citation needed ] 1927 saw the introduction of the six-cylinder Alvis 14.75 and role, this engine became the basis for english helper, the long line of luxurious six-cylinder Alvis cars produced up to the outbreak of the Second World War. These cars were elegant and full of technical innovations. Independent front suspension and the world's first all-synchromesh gearbox came in 1933 followed by servo assisted brakes. The Alvis 12/75 model was introduced in english topics exams 1928, a model bristling with innovation, such as front-wheel drive, in-board brakes, overhead camshaft and, as an option, a Roots type supercharger. [ citation needed ] In 1936 the company name was shortened to Alvis Ltd, and aircraft engine and english, armoured vehicle divisions were added to the company by the beginning of the Second World War. Smith-Clarke designed several models during the how to write an excellent 1930s and 1940s, including the six-cylinder Speed 20, the Speed 25, and the Alvis 4.3 Litre model. [1] Car production was initially suspended in helper September 1939 following the outbreak of war in Europe, but was later resumed and production of the 12/70, Crested Eagle, Speed 25, and 4.3Litre continued well into 1940. The car factory was severely damaged on 14 November 1940 as a result of several bombing raids on Coventry by writing the German Luftwaffe, although ironically the armaments factory suffered little damage. English! Much valuable cutting gear and other equipment was lost and car production was suspended for emmersons essays, the duration of the war, only english helper, resuming during the latter part of argument writing, 1946.

Despite this, Alvis carried out war production on aircraft engines (as sub-contractor of english, Rolls-Royce Limited) and french essayist, other aircraft equipment [1] in its shadow factories. English Helper! [3] [4] Car production resumed with a four-cylinder model, the role TA 14, based on the pre-war 12/70. A solid, reliable and attractive car, the TA 14 fitted well the mood of sober austerity in post-war Britain, but much of the magic attaching to the powerful and sporting pre-war models had gone and life was not easy for a specialist car manufacturer. Not only had Alvis lost their car factory but many of the pre-war coachbuilders had not survived either and those that had were quickly acquired by other manufacturers. The post-war history of Alvis was dominated by the quest for reliable and reasonably priced coachwork. [ citation needed ] Smith-Clarke retired in 1950 and Dunn took over as chief engineer. Helper! In 1950 a new chassis and six-cylinder 3–litre engine was announced and this highly successful engine became the basis of all Alvis models until production ceased in 1967. Write An Excellent! Saloon bodies for helper, the TA 21, as the new model was called, again came from Mulliners of Birmingham as they had for the TA 14, with Tickford producing the dropheads. French Essayist! But with the first of these committing themselves in October 1954 to supply only english, Standard Triumph who purchased it in 1958 and french essayist, the second being acquired by David Brown owner of Aston Martin Lagonda in late 1955, it was becoming clear that new arrangements would have to be made. Some of the most original and beautiful designs on the 3Litre chassis were being produced by master coachbuilder Carrosserie Herman Graber of Switzerland and helper, indeed these often one-off–designed cars are highly sought after today. French Essayist! Graber had begun to english helper, use TA 14 chassis soon after the war building three Tropic coupes which were much admired. Emmersons Essays! When the Three Litre chassis was introduced his bodies displayed at the Geneva Motor Shows in 1951 and 1952 attracted sufficient interest for Graber to set up a standing order of english, 30 chassis per year. Argument! Swiss-built Graber coupes were displayed on the Alvis stand at english helper both Paris and London Motor Shows in October 1955.

With a licence in place, from writing, late 1955 all Alvis bodies became based on Graber designs however few chassis and few bodies were built over the next two years. Around 15 or 16 TC108/Gs were built by helper Willowbrook Limited of essay, Loughborough and Willowbrook was subsequently taken over by Duple Coachbuilders. Over the same two years Graber built 22 TC 108Gs and complained that if he had received chassis he would have committed himself to buying 20 a year. Only after late 1958 with the launch of the TD 21 did something resembling full-scale production resume as Rolls-Royce subsidiary Park Ward began to build the new bodies now modified in many small ways. These cars, the TD 21 and its later variants, the TE 21 and helper, finally the TF 21 are well built, attractive and role essays, fast cars. However it was clear by english helper the mid-1960s that with a price tag of nearly double that of the mass-produced Jaguar, the end could not be far off. [ citation needed ] From 1952 to 1955 Alec Issigonis, the creator of the french essayist later Mini, worked for Alvis and designed a new model with a V8 engine which proved too expensive to produce. [ citation needed ] fixed head coupe. drophead coupe or cabriolet. Rover took a controlling interest in Alvis in 1965 and a Rover-designed mid-engined V8 coupe prototype named the P6BS was rumoured to be the new Alvis model but with the takeover by British Leyland this too was shelved. By the time the TF 21 was launched in english helper 1966, (available, like its predecessors in both saloon and drophead form and with either manual or automatic gearbox), the essays model was beginning to show its age despite a top speed of 127mph – the fastest Alvis ever produced. With only 109 sold and with political troubles aplenty in helper the UK car manufacturing business at emmersons essays that time, production finally ceased in 1967. In 1968, a management buyout of the helper car operations was finalised and all the Alvis car design plans, customer records, stock of dual of women essays, parts and english helper, remaining employees were transferred to Red Triangle. [ citation needed ] As part of Rover, Alvis Limited was incorporated into British Leyland but was bought by United Scientific Holdings plc in 1981. Subsequently the company's name was changed to Alvis plc.

Alvis plc acquired British truck manufacturer Universal Power Drives in 1994, naming their new subsidiary Alvis Unipower Limited. The trucks were subsequently branded as Alvis-Unipower. In 1998, Alvis plc acquired the armoured vehicle business of GKN plc, and french essayist, the main UK manufacturing operation was moved from Coventry to helper, Telford. The site of the Alvis works in Holyhead Road is now an out-of-town shopping complex, but its name, Alvis Retail Park, reflects the heritage of the site. In 2002 Alvis plc purchased Vickers Defence Systems to form the subsidiary Alvis Vickers Ltd, which was in turn purchased by BAE Systems in 2004. BAE Systems ended the how to use of the Alvis distinctive red triangle trademark. [ citation needed ] In 2009, Red Triangle negotiated the legal transfer of the Alvis car trademarks. The following year, the company announced that the 4.3 Litre Short Chassis tourer would once again be available. Helper! All Alvis' records remain intact at the company’s Kenilworth headquarters along with a large stock of for business, period parts.

One of the men to have worked on the very last Alvis car produced in 1967 is english still retained by Red Triangle in english for competitive exams a training capacity. Built to english helper, the original plans, the new car has been named the Continuation Series, to reflect the argument writing 73-year interruption in its production between 1937 and 2010. It differs only in detail from the pre-war examples: for emissions, the english engine is governed by an electronic fuel injection system with electronic ignition, brakes are hydraulic rather than cable, the steering column collapsible and the rear light arrangement reconfigured to conform to modern standards. [ citation needed ] In the early 21st century a new website launched a retro model from the company's past, following an how to write essay, agreement between the english helper company and BAe to dual of women, revive the marque. [5] List of most commercial models, 1920–67 [ edit ] 2-seat sports, 4-seat sports, 75 b.h.p. supercharged. English Helper! Types: SA, SE, SF, SG, TA, TB, TC. Types: TF, TG, TJ, TK. Types: TA, TB, TC, TD.

4 light saloon, 6 light saloon, drophead coupe. Dual! Three British car companies– Alvis, Bentley, and english helper, Sunbeam– entered vehicles in for business plan local racing events between 1920 and 1930. Alvis and english helper, Sunbeam were at that time the role essays only British companies building cars to Grand Prix formula racing specifications. English Helper! Of these, Alvis was the only company whose race cars were characterized by front-wheel drive and fully independent suspension. [20] Alvis was a pioneer of english essay, front-wheel drive vehicles. While J. Walter Christie had designed the first front-wheel drive race car, which he drove in the 1906 Vanderbilt Cup, [21] the next notable front-wheel drive race car was the supercharged Alvis 12/50 racing car designed by G. T. Smith-Clarke and W. English! M. Dunn, which was entered in the 1925 Kop Hill Climb in Princes Risborough in Buckinghamshire on 28 March 1925. Essay Topics For Competitive! Two months later (on Saturday, 30 May 1925), Harry Arminius Miller's Miller 122 front-wheel drive car was entered in the 1925 Indianapolis 500. [20] 1932 Alvis 12/50 Type TJ, rebuilt to resemble a car of the mid-1920s. 1928 Alvis 12/75 Type FD 2 seat front-wheel drive sports car with a 1.5L supercharged engine and Tourist Trophy Race bodywork. English Helper! 1932 Alvis 12/60 Type TL 2 seat with beetle-back type coachwork. The initial Alvis aero-engines were licence-built Gnome-Rhone radials. The first aero-engine designed and built by Alvis was the 14-cylinder Alvis Pelides radial in 1936.

Development of this and related engines (Pelides Major, Alcides, Alcides Major, Maeonides Major) was stopped with the topics for business start of the english helper Second World War. The Alvis Leonides, a smaller 9-cylinder radial, continued in development during the war and was used after the war in some aircraft and helicopters until production finished in 1966. Argument! In 1952, Alvis returned to 14-cylinder radials with a development of the Leonides as the english helper Leonides Major. [22] [23] The Hungarian automotive engineer Nicholas Straussler had designed an armoured car (AC1) in 1932, which was built by the Manfred Weiss company under licence in write an excellent essay Budapest. When Hungary aligned itself with Germany soon after that, Straussler emigrated to England. [24] Straussler's small new company, Straussler Mechanisations Ltd, lacked the necessary resources and capacity to build the vehicle on a large scale, so Straussler approached Alvis, and Alvis-Straussler Ltd, a short-lived joint venture company, was formed in July 1936. [24] [25] The prototype vehicle produced, the Alvis Straussler AC2, was built upon the AC1 chassis. English Helper! The first AC3– the first operational purpose-built armoured car ever produced [ citation needed ] – was delivered in 1937 by Alvis-Straussler Ltd, built upon the AC2 prototype. [24] Twenty-seven vehicles were built: 12 for the Royal Air Force, 3 for the Portuguese Army, and 12 for the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army. [25] The AC2 was subsequently used as a basis for topics for business, the 39M Csaba armoured scout car built for the Royal Hungarian Army during the Second World War. In 1938, Alvis produced a prototype armoured light reconnaissance vehicle for comparison trials with other manufacturers. The Alvis Dingo lost out to a design by BSA Cycles but the Dingo name was adopted as a nickname for english, the BSA design – as the Daimler Dingo. Post-war, Alvis designed a series of english topics exams, six-wheel drive vehicles.

The Saladin (FV601) armoured car and helper, Saracen armoured personnel carrier were first. The Saracen was built as a number of related vehicles including FV604 Regimental Command Vehicle, and FV610 Armoured Command Post. The Salamander was an airfield crash tender. It was subsequently used as a basis for the Stalwart amphibious military truck. [26] The FV611 model was also built to serve as an armoured ambulance. [27] Combat Vehicle Reconnaissance (Tracked) series of tracked armoured personnel carriers The FV432 tracked armoured personnel carrier and related vehicles was developed in the early 1960s by GKN Sankey and came under Alvis in 1998. The Combat Vehicle Reconnaissance (Tracked) family of tracked vehicles were designed in the 1960s. The family includes the FV101 Scorpion, FV102 Striker, FV103 Spartan, FV104 Samaritan, FV105 Sultan, FV106 Samson, FV107 Scimitar, FV4333 Stormer, and the Streaker. [26] The first vehicle of this series was the FV101 Scorpion, which was the emmersons first aluminium hull tank ever to be built. The hull and turret are actually fabricated from a welded aluminium-zinc-magnesium alloy. Seventeen Scorpion prototypes were delivered for field testing in February 1969. [26] Dingo Scout armoured light reconnaissance vehicle. Not adopted by the British Army which chose a design by BSA instead. FV603 Saracen armoured personnel carrier.

Stalwart cross-country amphibious load carrier. FV101 Scorpion armoured reconnaissance vehicle. FV102 Striker anti-tank guided missile vehicle. FV103 Spartan armoured personnel carrier. FV105 Sultan armoured command vehicle. FV106 Samson armoured recovery vehicle. FV107 Scimitar armoured reconnaissance vehicle. FV722 Vixen armoured reconnaissance vehicle(Wheeled) More than 20 per cent of all Alvis cars ever manufactured were still in existence in helper 1989. [1] The Alvis Owner Club, founded in 1951, is a club for all Alvis car and military vehicle enthusiasts. It has over 1,300 members. It hosts International Weekends annually, where owners from the UK and overseas display their cars. The Alvis Register is a club with more than 600 members, dedicated to all things related to vintage Alvis motor cars (1920–32).

Members can access technical and historical information and share their interest with other Alvis enthusiasts. Most owners retain an eligible car or cars. [28]

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