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Michel de Montaigne, French essayist (1533-92) - 1902 Encyclopedia

French essayist

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French Translation of “essayist” | Collins English-French Dictionary

blues essay topics This lesson examines both the content and form of lyrics in french blues songs. In addition to highlighting the basic musical form of a blues song, it also addresses the use of floating verses in blues music, both within the context of the original era in essayist which the songs were sung and also in relation to how this practice is perceived today. By completing this lesson, the student will: Understand and practice mapping out a blues song Comprehend the difference between the use of floating verse and for job the violation of copyright law Investigate the origins of the blues Standards. Addresses the following themes in the National Curriculum Standards for french Music Education: Secondary: 7, 8, 9.! The Road to Memphis (segment toward the end of Black Spot on the Dial in which B.B. French! King's performance shows the on mother AAB form) Borrowing from the Blues. Origins of the Blues. This exercise explores song elements and looks closely at french the blues song format. Ask students to bring the lyrics of a favorite song to class (reminding them beforehand what appropriate and inappropriate choices would be). Start by frontier quizlet discussing the lyrical parts of a song: Verses#151;In a song, a verse is a group of lines that constitutes a unit (similar to verses in french poetry).

Typically, a song consists of several verses, and the rhyme scheme and rhythm are usually the same from verse to verse. Chorus#151;A song's refrain (verse that repeats itself at given intervals throughout the song). Dad Appreciation! Bridge#151;Transitional passage connecting two sections of the song. As you discuss, demonstrate the parts on essayist, an overhead projector using a song with which students are familiar. Once students comprehend the parts, ask them to identify the essay parts of the essayist song lyrics they brought to class, pointing out that not all songs contain all parts. Mention that blues songs, like many other songs, conform to standard song structure in some ways while varying in others. Have students listen to Lost Your Head Blues by appic essay 1 Bessie Smith, recording the words as they listen. Once the class has heard the entire song, transcribe the french lyrics on the board in prose rather than verse form, filling in where student gaps exist. Ask students to appic essay 1, label each sentence with a letter, starting with A. French! Sentences that are the same should have the same letter. This should look like: Now, ask students to write the formal for job lyrics out in song form. Where would the line breaks be?

Where would the verse breaks be? The first verse of the final product should look like: Inform students that this format, known as the AAB blues format, is typical of many blues songs. The first line often presents an idea or issue, the second line repeats it (perhaps with a slight variation), and the third line develops or resolves the idea presented in the first and second lines. To further illustrate this blues form, show the segment Black Spot on the Dial from essayist The Road to Memphis in which B.B. King performs a song in the AAB format. [See Film Tie-Ins for details on the film segment.] Finally, demonstrate how blues music frequently veers away from the AAB format.

Playing a variety of beautiful marathi on mother songs, including Stack O' Lee by Mississippi John Hurt, When Will I Get to french essayist, Be Called a Man by Big Bill Broonzy, and Mannish Boy by Muddy Waters, can illustrate how the AAB form is by essayist no means the exclusive song format of the cancer screening blues. Floating verses#151;the same lyrics or phrases used in more than one blues song#151;are very common in blues music. To illustrate the notion of floating verses, ask students to read the french essayist lyrics of two blues songs: I Believe I'll Dust My Broom (1936) by marathi essay on mother Robert Johnson and Dust My Broom (1951) by french Elmore James. Students should identify phrases and lines borrowed from Johnson by James. Inform them that Johnson borrowed lyrically from others as well. Specifically, phrases from three early blues songs#151;Kokomo Arnold's Sagefield Woman Blues and Sissy Man Blues and Carl Rafferty's Mr. Carl Blues#151;appear in I Believe I'll Dust My Broom. Ask students what they think about essay, this kind of borrowing. Why would blues singers borrow from one another in french this fashion? How might the original writer feel about his/her phrases appearing in the lyrics of another blues musician's songs? How might the fact that the blues is based largely on African American oral tradition, in which stories were passed down from generation to generation, have shaped the phrase-borrowing that is so common to the blues? [Robert Johnson's song lyrics are at and Elmore James' can be found at] While borrowing lines or phrases from french essayist other blues songs was accepted practice, especially in quizlet early blues (up to the 1950s), blues musicians weren't necessarily happy when white artists borrowed their music, remaking it for white audiences.

Illustrate this idea by watching the french segment Sam Phillips in the film The Road to beautiful essay on mother, Memphis . After viewing, discuss: How do Sam Phillips and Ike Turner view the borrowing of blues music by white artists differently? Why might Turner have been less approving of such borrowing than Phillips? How is this borrowing different from floating verses as previously discussed? Why might black blues artists in the 1950s not have seen white artists' borrowing as a compliment? Do cultural differences come into play when assessing appropriate and inappropriate borrowing? Conclude this exercise by french essayist assigning students to compose an article in appic essay 1 the voice of Robert Johnson in which he describes the french difference between the practice of floating verse and plagiarism. Research and Analysis. Assign students to research the history of the blues, focusing on both the music from which the blues emerged (field hollers, work songs, spirituals, and country string ballads) as well as early blues performers. Research should consider the breast tomosynthesis a breast screening tool following: How the blues represents an extension of the french essayist African American oral tradition How the dad appreciation essay AAB blues form connects to African music and early African American music The connection between slave music lyrics and blues lyrics The history of the floating verse Because these topics are very large (and the focus of many academic studies of the blues), students should be encouraged to view their findings as ideas rather than as definitive answers. When students have been given adequate research time, the essayist class can hold a forum in which these issues are discussed. Assign students an essay where they either agree or disagree with the following assertion: Musicians who incorporate samples from other songs into their music today are no different from blues musicians who used floating verse.

Therefore, copyright law should not apply. The U.S. Copyright office at will provide some background. 1. Blues lyrics, in addition to often following the formal AAB blues format, frequently tell a story. This exercise encourages students to consider the storytelling feature of the blues while allowing them to write their own blues song in AAB blues format. Essayist! Start by playing B.B. Appic Essay 1! King's Three O'Clock Blues. Discuss the story in the song. Next, identify how the song conforms to the AAB blues format, with the essayist first two lines in the verse being the same and the third, different; the A line presents an issue, while the B line presents the conclusion. Give students a few minutes to brainstorm a short story about which to write their own blues song.

Topics might include asking someone out on appic essay 1, a date, completing a homework assignment, or performing in essayist a school event#151;athletic or otherwise. Once students have each identified a story, inform them that they will use B.B.! King's song as the base from which to write their own blues song. French Essayist! Record the song's first verses on the board: Well now, it's three o'clock in the morning. And I can't even close my eyes. Three o'clock in the morning. And I can't even close my eyes.

Can't find my baby. And I can't be satisfied. Assign students to formal application for job, change the last line of the verse to a line corresponding with the story they want to tell. A student creation might read: Well now, it's three o'clock in essayist the morning. Essay! And I can't even close my eyes. Three o'clock in the morning. And I can't even close my eyes.

My computer lost my report. And I'm just fit to be tied. Next, encourage them to move further away from the original in another rewriting of the verse. This time, the verse might read: Well now, I woke up early this morning. And my eyes were burning with pain. I woke up early this morning. And my eyes were burning with pain.

I stayed up all night writing. 'Cause my computer lost my report again. Once all students have composed a verse to their own blues song, provide them time to write at french least two additional verses. When class members all have their verses written, ask them to a breast, post their lyrics up in the classroom. Invite students to french, read the work of their classmates, borrowing lines that they particularly like from one another's work and incorporating these lines into their own songs. Inform students that borrowing lines, a concept further explored in the Focus Exercise , was common practice in early blues. 2. French! Much that became rock and roll was borrowed from the blues, both in terms of the music and the lyrics.

To have students consider the lyrical legacy of the blues on popular music, ask them to complete a side-by-side comparison of blues song lyrics and frontier quizlet popular song lyrics from the french essayist same era, taking examples from the 1950s, 1970s, and today. The following checklist of blues song elements can serve as a guide for essayist assessing each song: ____geared toward a specific demographic. ____no specific audience intended. Blues songs to consider can include: Some options for popular music comparisons: 1955 #10 hit: Fats Domino, Ain't That a Shame 1956 #5 hit: Chuck Berry, Maybellene 1957 #12 hit: Patsy Cline, Walkin' After Midnight 1958 #6 hit: Frank Sinatra, Witchcraft 1959 #7 hit: Bobby Darin, Mack the Knife 1970 #1 hit: The Jackson 5, ABC 1971 #1 hit: Isaac Hayes, Theme From Shaft 1974 #6 hit: ABBA, Waterloo 1976 #1 hit: The Manhattans, Kiss and Say Goodbye 1979 #1 hit: Michael Jackson, Don't Stop 'Til You Get Enough As a class, analyze both the form and topical content of the lyrics, focusing on whether there is sufficient evidence to suggest that blues song elements crossed over into popular music of the same time period. Readings: Burns, Loretta.

A Stylistic Analysis of Blues Lyrics . Ann Arbor: University Microfilms, 1977. Kovacs, Edna. Writing Across Cultures: A Handbook on Writing Poetry and breast tomosynthesis Lyrical Prose . Hillsboro, OR: Blue Heron Publishing, 1994. Tracy, Stephen C., ed. Write Me a Few of Your Lines: A Blues Reader . Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1999. French! Web Sites:

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sameer rathod resume AECOM Technology's (ACM) CEO Mike Burke on Q4 2014 Results - Earnings Call Transcript. Nov. 11, 2014 5:26 PM • acm. AECOM Technology Corporation (NYSE:ACM) Q4 2014 Results Earnings Conference Call. November 11, 2014, 12:00 PM ET. Paul Cyril - SVP, Investor Relations. Mike Burke - CEO and Director. Steve Kadenacy - President and CFO. Andrew Kaplowitz - Barclays Capital.

Steven Fisher - UBS. Tahira Afzal - KeyBanc Capital Markets. Justin Hauke - Robert W. Baird. Sameer Rathod - Macquarie Research. Chase Jacobson - William Blair Company. Good morning, and welcome to the AECOM Fourth Quarter 2014 Earnings Conference Call.

I would like to french inform all participants, this call is being recorded at the request of french essayist, AECOM. This broadcast is a copyrighted property of AECOM. Any rebroadcast of this information, in whole or part, without the prior written permission of AECOM is prohibited. As a reminder, AECOM is also simulcasting this presentation with slides at Investors section at dad appreciation Later, we will conduct a question-and-answer session. I would like to turn the call over to Paul Cyril, Senior Vice President, Investor Relations. Thank you, operator.

Before reviewing our fiscal 2014 fourth quarter and full year results, I would like to point you to our Safe Harbor statement on Page 2. I would like to remind everyone that today's discussion contains forward-looking statements based on french the environment as we see it today, and as such, does include risks and uncertainties. Our actual results might differ significantly from those projected in these forward-looking statements. Frontier Thesis Quizlet? Please refer to our press release or Page 2 of our earnings presentation and to our reports filed with the SEC for french more information on breast tomosynthesis a breast cancer screening tool the risk factors that could cause actual results to materially differ from projections. Note that we are using certain non-GAAP financial measures as references in french essayist the presentation. The appropriate GAAP financial reconciliations are incorporated into our press release which is posted on our website. Please also note that all percentages refer to formal letter for job year-over-year progress except where otherwise noted.

In addition, our discussion of fiscal 2014 financial results will exclude the impact of acquisition and french essayist integration related costs, unless otherwise noted. Please turn to Slide 4. Beginning today's presentation is Mike Burke, Chief Executive Officer. Mike? Thank you, Paul. Welcome, everyone, to our fourth quarter and formal full year 2014 earnings call.

I also want to welcome former URS stakeholders to our first call as a combined company and thank you for french essayist your vote of, confidence that made this transaction a reality. Joining me today is Steve Kadenacy, our President and Chief Financial Officer. On today's call, I will provide an overview of AECOM's fiscal fourth quarter and full year 2014 results. Then Steve will review our financial results in greater detail, provide fiscal 2015 financial guidance for the combined company, and review changes to our reporting structure. I will conclude with additional remarks on business trends and the opportunities we see for the combined company. I'm pleased to report that in fiscal 2014, we finished with $25.1 billion of backlog including $3 billion from the acquisition of Hunt's Construction which closed during the fourth quarter.

Including $4.2 billion of wins in the fourth quarter, we achieved a full year book-to-burn ratio of 1.7 times. In our PTS segment our organic growth rate improved and we benefited from a continued favorable mix shift in our MSS business, which help to drive strong operating performance. Throughout fiscal 2014, private infrastructure markets led growth especially in our construction services and international design markets. This was offset by the slower than anticipated recovery of our Americas design business. Please turn to Slide 5. French? Before turning the beautiful essay call over to Steve, I will take a moment to talk about the structure of the combined company. AECOM will operate across three segments, design and consulting services, construction services and management services.

AECOM Capital will continue to support our integrated services platform and differentiate our competitive offering through direct investments in real estate and public private partnerships. To-date, we have committed $150 million to 13 projects that have driven approximately $1 billion in construction services backlog. This new operating structure is designed to reflect the strengths of both AECOM and URS. There are very few companies in the world that can execute at french the scale and technical level that AECOM is known for delivery and frontier thesis quizlet our capabilities are enhanced with this new structure. With that, I will turn the french essayist call over to Steve, who will discuss our financial results. Thanks, Mike. Please turn to Slide 6. Before I begin, I would like to point out that our fourth quarter results included an extra week of business which favorably impacted growth rates as compared to prior periods.

As I discuss the financials I will speak to the actual results unless otherwise noted. For the fourth quarter gross revenue of $2.6 billion increased 23% from the prior year including approximately $150 million from the acquisition of dad appreciation, Hunt Construction. Net service revenue of $1.3 billion grew 6% from the prior year. Organic PTS growth was essentially flat after excluding the extra week. French? Our MSS business continued to letter for job diversify with strong backlog growth and french essayist profit improvement due to the successful repositioning of the business. Much like the frontier thesis quizlet last quarter, strong organic growth trends in our international and construction services markets, help to offset the french lack of growth in our Americas design business. We are especially happy to report that following several strong quarters of wins, construction services began converting backlog to french essayist revenue with revenue growth accelerating in the fourth quarter. For the fourth quarter, we delivered an 11.1% EBITDA margin. Our fiscal year EBITDA margin was 9.7% which was up 32% basis points from 2013.

We are pleased with our progress but as I mentioned earlier, our Americas design business wait on our performance. Our focus on free cash flow continued to deliver results. Once again, we achieved our targeted driving free cash flow in access of net income for the quarter and french the year. This marks our third consecutive year of formal for job, exceeding our target. French? And we delivered EPS of on mother, $2.53 which was within the range of guidance that we provided. Please turn to Slide 7. As Mike already noted, our backlog at the end of fiscal 2014 was $25.1 billion. Growth was driven by our private sector construction services business and french we benefited from the continuation of strong international design demand. Looking at AECOM and URS together, we estimate that the pro forma contracted and awarded backlog was over $40 billion at the end of fiscal fourth quarter. We intend to provide more detail around the components of this backlog and the future as we harmonize our processes and definitions in marathi the integration process.

Please turn to french essayist Slide 8. Moving to PTS, our fiscal fourth quarter gross revenue was $2.4 billion and net service revenue was $1.2 billion. Constant currency organic PTS net service revenue increased 7.7% from the prior year, but that was flat excluding the impact of the extra week. Beautiful Marathi On Mother? For the full year, our operating margin in french PTS was 9.1%, which compares to 9.7% last year. We delivered 52% backlog growth for the year. Americas construction services and the acquisition of Hunt Construction were the main growth drivers. And as Mike will talk about shortly, our sales pipeline has increased by double digits as compared to last year in our Americas design business. Please turn to Slide 9.Moving to MSS, our quarterly and full year revenue in operating income reflect the shift away from overseas contingency work for the U.S. Department of Defense, to french essayist a more diverse business mix. Despite an 18% decline in revenue in fiscal 2014, MSS operating income grew 21% from the prior year, resulting in a 600 basis point improvement in our operating margin. Delivering improved profitability in MSS was a priority we shared at the beginning of the screening fiscal year, and we are proud of this accomplishment. We achieved 51% growth in the MSS backlog this year which resulted in essayist the year-end backlog of $2 billion.

Despite the removal of our Libya contract from awarded backlog, due to the continued political instability. As highlighted by our strong margin performance in fiscal 2014, the profit we expect to recognize on appic essay 1 this backlog is higher than our historical overseas contingency operations work. Please turn to Slide 10. Turning to the balance sheet and capital allocation, we generated $298 million of french essayist, free cash flow in 2014. This continues our strong track-record of cash flow.

Our near term priority is to deploy cash to tomosynthesis a breast screening tool pay-down debt. As we have communicated, the forecast of free cash flow of the combined organization is quite strong, and we expect to pay our debt down to around 2x debt to EBITDA by the end of french essayist, 2017. Please turn to Slide 11. Formal Application Letter For Job? Now, let's turn to our guidance for the combined company. This guidance excludes acquisition and french integration costs as well as the beautiful marathi essay on mother amortization of essayist, intangible assets.

We expect our fiscal year 2015 adjusted EPS to beautiful essay on mother be in the range of $2.75 to $3.35. Our guidance assumes a tax rate of 32%, depreciation expense of approximately $210 million, interest expense of essayist, approximately $225 million, and a diluted share count of $155 million. Our guidance assumes that we continue to make progress on our $250 million synergy target. We anticipate, realizing synergies of approximately $110 million during the fiscal year and target ending fiscal 2015 at a cost synergy run rate of approximately $180 million. Our confidence in achieving our synergy target continues to grow, and we will update you with more details at our planned Investor Day in December. Now we’ll take a moment to comment on the expected contribution of appic essay 1, URS's highly successful chemical demilitarization contract for the U.S.

Department of french essayist, Defense. Through the formal application for job first nine months of the calendar 2014, URS generated revenue and french operating income from the chemical demilitarization programs of $272 million, and $93 million respectively and was ahead of plan. While the four baseline sites for french URS was leading are now largely completed, AECOM will continue to beautiful marathi essay perform key services at essayist two other chemical demilitarization sites, needless to formal letter say we are happy to have this world class capability at french AECOM. We expect the contribution from these programs to operating income will be approximately $46 million for FY 2015. URS generated strong cash flow during the period before the close of the transaction. Cash flow that lowered the debt level we originally anticipated having to pay down on the deal.

Accordingly, the effective multiple pro forma for synergy savings is under 7x EBITDA, which is where we anticipated we would close. Mike mentioned, we will report our results across a new set of appic essay 1, operating segments. Let me spend a few minutes quantifying each. First, our design and consultancy services segment would have accounted for approximately 45% of pro forma revenue on a trailing 12 months basis, and comprises URS's infrastructure and environment segment and AECOM’s global design business. Second, we have grouped our construction businesses into construction services segment. This division would have accounted for approximately 35% of our trailing 12 months pro forma revenue.

This includes our building construction business, which is mainly vertical, and URS's engineering and construction, and oil and french gas divisions. Lastly, our management services group combines our increasingly diversified national government businesses. This group would have accounted for approximately 20% of french essayist, our pro forma revenue on a trailing 12 month basis. Beginning with our fiscal first quarter, we’ll provide segment level gross revenue, operating income, backlog, and new wins. We will discontinue the use of on mother, net service revenue in the combined company. Essayist? This metric is more relevant when you have a mix of construction and design in the same segment. Based on on mother the new alignment of our businesses, gross revenue was the most relevant measure of revenue performance. And now, I would like to turn the french call back over to application Mike, who will provide an overview of the french combined operations, and a review of end-market trends. Thank you, Steve. Frontier Quizlet? Please turn to Slide 12.

In mid-October, we completed the URS transaction with strong support from our stakeholders. French Essayist? Through the efforts of countless people at AECOM and URS, we closed the transaction within three months of the announcement, enabling us to limit disruption in the business and move quickly to appoint new leaders to take the combined company forward. The combination of these two great companies furthers our path toward becoming the premier integrated provider of services in the infrastructure space, and we are pleased with the efficiency of our closing process as well as the initial stages of the integration. The optimism of our employees and client is strong, and we are excited by the opportunities in front of us. One of the essayist great benefits of this combination is the tremendous advantage it gives us in building the premier leadership team in our industry. As we fill the critical leadership roles for the combined organization, we are choosing the french best leaders from both companies, creating a team that is stronger and more committed than ever before.

It is worth noting some of the key leaders, because it illustrates my point that we have taken the most talented people of the combined organization to create something even stronger. From legacy URS, Tom Bishop, will now lead our Americas design and consulting services business. George Nash, will oversee our energy infrastructure and industrial construction group, and Randy Wotring will serve as Group President of our management services business. I am excited about the addition of these leaders to the AECOM organization. And from legacy AECOM, Fred Werner will run our global design and consultancy business. Dan McQuade, will run our vertical construction business, and Mike Donnelly will run our end-markets program. These are just a few of the most senior examples, but this process is thesis quizlet cascading through every level of the company.

Please turn to Slide 13. Our opportunities are truly exciting, but let me pause for a moment and take you through our markets and the trends we have seen develop over the last quarter. I will begin with our design business. French? In fiscal 2014, our Americas business experienced weakness due to continued slow end-market growth, largely due to the lack of committed long term public funding. We saw intermittent signs of improvement throughout the year, but this has not yet translated into a sustainable recovery. Looking forward, our sales pipeline in the Americas remain healthy, and our new leadership is working diligently to leverage the capabilities of URS and AECOM across our combined footprint. I mentioned public funding because it remains a bottleneck to improve the performance for our business. But we're encouraged by a number of appic essay 1, valid measures dedicated to infrastructure investment that were passed by voters last week. For example, a $7.6 billion water bond passed in California, a direct response to the states need to act on the ongoing drought that has now entered its third year.

Also in San Francisco, a $500 million infrastructure bond measure passed with strong support. We are also seeing an increase in freight opportunities as growing intermodal traffic and crude volumes being transported by french essayist, rail are driving facility capacity expansions and improvements. In the port industry, the Panama Canal expansion is nearly complete and a number of East Coast ports are pursuing projects to be able to handle the larger shipments. As the leading provider of services to both rail and port operators in the country, we see a significant opportunity for AECOM to benefit. Moving on to EMEA, we continue to capitalize on strong end-market trends and finish the fiscal year with double digit revenue growth across Europe, the Middle East, and Africa.

Within Europe, the United Kingdom continues to dad appreciation be a source of essayist, growth for AECOM. Our work on large rail, highways, social infrastructure projects, carried our growth in fiscal 2014, and provides us with a good visibility into fiscal 2015. The U.K. has ambitious high speed rail plants and we are currently supporting the West Midlands to Manchester line, as well as an engineering for line to formal application letter Scotland. We're also pursuing several major infrastructure programs and direct partnerships with contractors to french leverage our vision for integrated delivery. In the Middle East, our business continues to benefit from a growing resume of french, marquee and infrastructure projects across the region. Our backlog remains near all time highs at the end of fiscal 2014. We are positioning ourselves to be a central player in the build-out of french essayist, infrastructure for decades with key roles for the World Cup in appic essay 1 Qatar and a design in development of french essayist, entirely new cities in countries including Saudi Arabia. The Middle East is transforming and AECOM is helping to facilitate the growth in this region. Looking at Africa, which grew over 20% for the full year we saw continued growth in our private sector work in the energy and industrial markets. We are positioned to participate for the outset in the potential multi decade investment required to monetize natural gas resources of the East Coast of Africa. In addition to the energy processing facilities that are being developed, large improvements and infrastructure to facilitate world class energy export capabilities will be required and we're pursuing these opportunities.

Moving to essayist Asia Pacific, in Australia the stabilization process we have noted throughout the year continued in the fiscal fourth quarter. Our wins reached the highest level in nearly two years. This has helped to support our backlog which was down only 2% on a constant currency basis from a prior year. In Asia, we delivered 9% revenue growth for the year, and formal application letter 10% growth in the fiscal fourth quarter. French Essayist? Backlog increased 9% in the fourth quarter and we expect another solid year in appic essay 1 fiscal 2015.

The market in Asia remains one of AECOMs largest international growth opportunities due to the continued focus on french building world class infrastructure to AECOM is best suited to deliver. Moving on to construction services which had a strong year for new projects awards and dad appreciation essay backlog. We closed on the acquisition of Hunt Construction during the fiscal fourth quarter and as a result AECOM is now the premiere builder of arenas and stadia in North America which complements our industry leading design presence in this market. We also continued to win work on french large vertical construction projects in metropolitan areas where non-residential and mixed use construction activity is outpacing overall infrastructure spending. Our construction services business in EMEA which is concentrated in Eastern Europe and Middle East markets delivered 100% revenue growth and 50% backlog growth in fiscal 2014. We have been successful and winning work on iconic projects over the past two years such as the Crescent development in Baku and the midfield terminal in Abu Dhabi. The outlook for 2015 reflects the french major opportunities we are pursuing in the regions and the continued progress on our existing portfolio of projects. Finally in MSS, we continue to successfully diversify our mix of business and expend into higher margin markets for formal letter for job our national government clients including an french essayist increase in intelligence work in the U.S. Excluding the expected decline in overseas contingency operations exposure, we expect to deliver revenue growth in fiscal 2015 and our plays to turn the coin are on absolute growth by fiscal 2016. Please turn to Slide 14. Now let me turn to the opportunities ahead for the combined companies.

I know you have often heard this me say, that our vision is to become the breast a breast cancer tool leading provider of integrated services to our clients, but with URS we can confidently say, that we have attained the capabilities and scale to move us significantly closer to french essayist this vision. We know possess the quizlet critical process engineering and french essayist construction capabilities in power and oil and gas to deliver fully integrated project execution to our clients. Through the combination, we have also broadened our exposure and capabilities with an industrial markets with URS's strength in manufacturing already opening up opportunities to participate more broadly. We have a more complete federal offering that includes world class nuclear and frontier quizlet environmental remediation capabilities. French? And we have rounded out our already industry-leading capabilities in light rail, ports, airports, highways and bridges, facilities and essay water and environmental markets through the combination. These strengths of the essayist combined company are already being deployed through our industry leading global platform.

We are seeing tangible evidence as the capabilities and the scale we now possess are allowing us to serve clients, and frontier compete in essayist new ways. We have clients from each respective company and many that we share asking us to reframe agreements to leverage our combined graph. The revenue synergy opportunity is french essayist growing and exciting. To-date we have identified and our jointly pursuing more than $3 billion of projects in our industrial vertical alone that are our direct result of the combined company's capability set and footprint. Even more impressive than the application for job dollar volume, is the mediate action by our nearly 100,000 employees to share resources and jointly identify where our new capabilities can create opportunities for growth. We believe this will prove to be the key differentiator versus our peers and the early examples of joint project pursuits clearly demonstrates the essayist potential size of this opportunity. With that, I would like to now open the line for questions.

Operator? (Operator Instructions) The first question comes from Andrew Kaplowitz from Barclays. Please go ahead. Andrew Kaplowitz - Barclays Capital. Hey guys, how’re you? Mike or Steve, can you talk about your adjusted 2015 EPS guidance a little more?

At least at dad appreciation the lower end of the range, it seems a little low versus what some might have thought during the summer. So, can you talk about the french puts and takes of the tomosynthesis a breast cancer screening URS deal as you closed it? Were there any businesses that you think could be a little worse than you initially thought? And then are there any businesses at AECOM where the essayist outlook has deteriorated a bit from breast cancer screening tool, where you were over the summer - maybe that's the french Americas design business but I'll let you answer the question. Thanks, guys. I will let Steve to appic essay 1 address the puts and takes and then we can come back and give you a better sense of some of the upsize and french downsize of the mid point of range to frame it out. So, why don't I start with Steve will take you through the puts and essay takes. Andy, at the mid point take 305 is about 15% accretive on a cash basis, on the adjusted EPS line which is french lower than the breast tomosynthesis a breast screening 25% that we had mentioned when we announced the deal which we know. And there is a few reasons for that. I think that the biggest is french essayist less - we pulled forward some of the on mother chem demil work, or URS did into its first three quarter of the french three which comes at the detriment to FY 15 even though it's really a high performing contract.

And then further weakness in there IE business as well. Formal Application? So there is the degradation to what we expected URS producing FY 15. And then the other piece is, we closed the deal two week into essayist, the fiscal year. Appic Essay 1? So there is a two weeks less of an essayist impact that will bridge you back to something close to 25% cash accretive. But I will turn it back to Mike to marathi on mother talk about french what could take us lower than that midpoint. Just trying to formal frame-out the french essayist wide range that we have starting with the mid pointed 305 Steve mentioned. So from a upside perspective, there is as you've seen in the past, there are significant award fees in our business and depending on the timing of those award fees, if we pull those award fees into essayist, 2015, we have upside to the plan. You heard me mention the appic essay 1 EC pipeline of opportunities. It's the biggest pipeline of essayist, opportunities that we’ve seen in quite a few years.

So, to dad appreciation essay that extent that pipeline of opportunities comes to french essayist fruition as we expect, there is upside to that. And of course the thesis quizlet timing of the synergies. As Steve mentioned, we are moving very quickly against essayist, our synergy targets. We are very confident that we're going to achieve the numbers that we projected but to frontier thesis the extent we can move even faster towards that target and pull more that into 2015, we have some upside there. From a downsize perspective, you got the EC awards. The flip side of the essayist EC pipeline is appic essay 1 its lumpy, they are big projects and if we win them but we win them later in the year, they push into french essayist, 16. Frontier? So that has some downside also. Another point is that the recovery of the Americas design business. As you know the Americas design business both at AECOM and URS has had a challenging past couple of years and we’ve seen some signs of french, recovery there, we both the URS and AECOM legacy businesses had a recovery and wins in french essayist Q4.

And so that pertains well for the future. But if we don't keep that recovery heading in the right direction, that could take us below that midpoint. Oil prices are something we think about. Obviously our oil and gas business here in the Americas it can be impacted by the price of oil. We're not as much focused on frontier thesis quizlet the spot price of the oil but looking more at the curve and curve still puts prices well above the cost of production. French Essayist? So that gives us a good outlook.

But this is appic essay 1 skittish environment right now in oil prices. And important fact of our oil business is that half of our business is driven by regulatory issues and as we all know and as we all expect to be more regulatory changes in this environment, it helps us with half the business. French Essayist? But the other half of the business is based on production and CapEx as we know decreases in a lower price market. So that's something we think about. And then of appic essay 1, course the timing of the synergy, the flip side of what I just talked about is that if we don't get the synergies as quickly in essayist 2015, there could be downside. So that’s some of the big picture issues that would take us to the upside and take us to essay the downside of that midpoint but all in all we feel pretty good about the french essayist range that we set forth. Andrew Kaplowitz - Barclays Capital. That's very helpful. How much of the $110 million in letter for job synergies do you think is really low hanging fruit?

I know you mentioned $180 million run rate by french, the end of the year. I assume that's because the marathi on mother real estate savings really start to ramp up at the end. But I'd be curious as to, of that $110 million what do you feel really good about in the short term versus develops over time? Andy this is Steve. I don't know if we would classify it as long hanging fruit but what we have around $110 is a lot of certainty in french essayist terms of frontier thesis quizlet, what we need to do to french achieve it. There is a real estate piece of that. Our feeling is there is probably upside for the real estate piece that really depends on how fast we can execute on the projects because you’re talking about thesis moving people from one office to another, closing down an office, sometimes doing tenant improvements. But in terms of the synergies around people where they are within departments, where they are within the operations, we feel very confident.

And as we mentioned in essayist the script, we're more confident than we were when we announced the deal on the overall number and we plan to give you even more confidence in that in the Investor Day with more detail. Andrew Kaplowitz - Barclays Capital. Got it. Steve, just one more thing. Is it possible to give us a little more color? You've given us the segments and the pro forma revenue, but is it possible to give us more color around what we should think about marathi essay on mother growth of the french individual segments within -- you've given us EPS guidance but you haven't given us much else in terms of how to look at growth of the individual segments and how to look at margins within the individual segments.

Obviously we can put the two models together, but any more color you want to give us around how to do this for 2015? For 2015 we’re not ready to formal application letter for job start breaking it down further. Essayist? I mean, we're still getting – we’ve had the combination for a few weeks, now we’re still getting our arms around certain pieces of this. But I think that the overall comments that Mike made in his prepared comments hold true. Our vertical construction business is growing quite fast, our design business internationally is frontier showing quite strong, MSS is diversifying quite well, and the backlog is french up significantly. A lot of formal application letter for job, those truths hold over onto the new business on a combined basis as well. Andrew Kaplowitz - Barclays Capital. Okay. That's fine. But design and consultancy would still be more Americas based, given it two together, right?

So, I might think of that as a little bit slower growing overall versus the other construction services? Andy, I think that’s fair. The Americas design business has not been growing for either URS or the AECOM legacy businesses, and that's the most challenged part of our entire business globally, without question. Andrew Kaplowitz - Barclays Capital. Okay. Thanks guys.

Thank you. The next question comes from Steven Fisher from UBS. Please go ahead. Great. Thanks very much. I'm wondering if you guys could help us understand the free cash flow a little bit better. Do you have maybe a forecast you could give us for 2015?

Or, if not, maybe just help us with some of the pieces underlying that. We do not give a specific forecast for 2015, in the past we've always said we would exceed net income over french essayist the past three years, obviously that metric is not all that relevant given the significant cost that we have on on mother acquisition, integration related expenses. So that's a significant moving piece. Our expectation as Steve said, our cash flow will continue to be very robust at the operational level, and that will be more than enough to french essayist keep us within our forecast to take down debt over the next few years to get down to french essayist close to two by FY 17. Can you just tell us how much CapEx is going to be in 2015? The CapEx is still a fairly moving target, Steve, largely because we're still working through the integration plan for our real estate portfolio, which could move that numbers significantly.

Okay. I mean - do you anticipate that it would still be less than your depreciation? Okay. And, can you give us a sense of what the cash integration cost are of that $290 million? The $290 million, we’re still not ready to break it out into cash and PL yet. But again, in the Investor Day we plan to spend a little bit more time on that, Steve. So again, I think from a cash perspective, the cash is going to be healthy, we’re going to french essayist stay on appic essay 1 our track to reduce our overall debt, reduce our debt to EBITDA even with a lower EBITDA compared to essayist when we announce. So, we’re feeling fairly confident on breast tomosynthesis a breast cancer screening tool it.

Okay. Shifting over to margins in the quarter, they were down year over french essayist year in PTS. Just curious, how much impact maybe Hunt had on the margins there? And ex-Hunt would you still have been down year-over-year? And I'm curious, what's pressuring the margins there on a year-over-year basis? By far, the most significant impact on essay on mother our margins is the lower than expected revenue in our Americas design business. Hunt had a very minimal impact on that particularly when you look at it from an NSR standpoint. Okay.

And then maybe just to follow up there, it sounded like a quarter ago Americas design was maybe getting a little bit better, some water projects were coming through. What is it that stunted the trajectory there? The way of the decline lessened in Q3, and then – it did not continue to improve in Q4. So, we were down a few percentage points in Q4 on organic basis. But we did see the wins tick up in Q4. And so, as I think, you heard I say earlier, the wins ticked up very nicely in Q4 but the actual revenue production was still down by a few percentage points. It's a challenging market overall, it’s not something that is french particular to AECOM, we saw it in URS, we saw it in AECOM, we see it in our competitors. It’s a tough market.

The civil infrastructure market in the United States is difficult. Certainly our private sector, construction market is booming, but we are seeing an uptick in the pipeline in the Americas design business. In the beautiful quarter we were up 20% in our pipeline of opportunities. So, the essayist pipeline is up, the wins are up, the backlog is up, and we just got to breast tomosynthesis cancer tool get it converted to french essayist revenue producing projects a little quicker. And the wins there, are those contracted wins or awarded wins? Well, everything comes into awarded first and then moves into contracted. So, it’s a combination. Okay. Thanks very much.

Thank you. Next question comes from Tahira Afzal from KeyBanc. Please go ahead. Tahira Afzal - KeyBanc Capital Markets. Hi, folks. Congratulations on an on-track integration. First question is really regarding your amortization. And thank you for breaking that down versus the expenses on the slides. Application Letter For Job? As we look from 2015 to 2016, would it be possible to essayist get an idea of directionally how much that ticked down by, to the extent you can comment?

We would expect it to appic essay 1 tick down over time, but we’re not prepared to get the amortization guidance for 2016, just yet, Tahira. Tahira Afzal - KeyBanc Capital Markets. Got it. Okay. Thought I'd try my luck. Essayist? Second question is just another follow-up on the free cash flow side. Breast A Breast Cancer? In your MA documents, you filed with the SEC you put a projection out french there for what you expected from tomosynthesis tool, URS.

Does the degradation, the slide degradation, and the outlook really impact that number directionally? And in terms of your integration costs that you've disclosed today, are they still in essayist line with what you thought a couple of beautiful marathi, months back? So, if I understand the french question, it’s on cash flow relative to the degradation in quizlet our EBITDA. We did pull in french cash flow into the calendar year - into formal application letter, our fiscal year from URS's calendar year. They outperformed significantly before we closed the deal, and that of course helped the essayist overall multiple that we paid for dad appreciation the company. Some of french essayist, that obviously would come from an acceleration of what was their fiscal year, but as a whole we still anticipate the combined company exceeding the cash flow forecast that we had originally put together. Tahira Afzal - KeyBanc Capital Markets. Great. Thank you. Well, thanks Tahira. Thank you.

Next question comes from marathi essay, Justin Hauke from Robert W. Baird. Please go ahead. Justin Hauke - Robert W. Essayist? Baird. Yes. Good morning, guys. Beautiful Marathi Essay On Mother? You've alluded to a couple of times that URS's cash flow was better than expected and pulled forward.

Can you give us a pro forma balance sheet, either for the combined entity at close, or at a minimum can we get URS's balance sheet as of the end of the third quarter? I don’t know if I want to give a pro forma balance sheet, but let me give you just some high level numbers. I mean, we closed at french right around the debt EBITDA numbers that we had anticipated, which was right around $4.4 billion, and the debt at the close was $5.3 billion-ish. Justin Hauke - Robert W. Baird. $5.3 billion? And did you care to comment on URS's cash flow in the third quarter? Their cash flow in the third quarter, their third quarter was quite good. I don’t know if you want an exact number, obviously they had three closes during the month of October, so, it depends on what period of time, but they pulled forward relative to our original calendar year forecast and our fiscal year forecast about $270 million.

Justin Hauke - Robert W. Baird. Okay. Marathi Essay On Mother? Great. French Essayist? Thank you. And then on the backlog, being up so significantly, I assume some of french essayist, that is formal letter for job from the construction management business. I think last quarter you commented that net service revenue backlog was up at a comparable rate to the gross figures you report.

Is that still the case here in the fourth quarter or is there any kind of divergence we should think about? On a year-over-year basis, net service revenue was up 18% which is not as robust because of the french essayist construction wins, as gross revenue, but still quite healthy. Justin Hauke - Robert W. Baird. Okay, great. Thank you very much. Thank you.

We have a question from Sameer Rathod from Macquarie. Please go ahead. Sameer Rathod - Macquarie Research. Hi, good afternoon. Appic Essay 1? I was wondering what the impact of factoring of essayist, receivables had on cash flow in appic essay 1 the quarter.

The net impact, Sameer, was negative actually. We factored about $77 million and essayist unlined was around $85 million. Sameer Rathod - Macquarie Research. Okay. And then could you quickly comment on the drill rig moving business and oil sands-exposed part of your businesses, given the pullback in frontier crude? Sameer, are you asking about the rig hauling business? Sameer Rathod - Macquarie Research.

Yes, the rig hauling business. If you look at essayist Baker Hughes, a number of rigs are coming off. I was just wondering if you guys have started to tomosynthesis a breast cancer screening see any impact. The impact on what, Sameer? The rig hauling business that was sold?

Is that what you’re asking? It didn’t contribute at the EBITDA line. So, there is no impact on french essayist the bottom line. Sameer Rathod - Macquarie Research. Okay. And you mentioned several times that there was a pull forward in application letter chem demil of the legacy URS business.

Does this imply there should be a sharper fall off in 2016, just given the prior guidance URS had given? Absolutely. They will be back down to just the normal run rate on existing projects. There is a follow up from what we’ve mentioned in the prepared remarks about $90 million or so of income, and next year will be $46 million, 2016 will be even less, probably closer at $10 million. Sameer Rathod - Macquarie Research. Okay.

And then my last question, on Hunt-- any way you can comment on essayist what new orders for Hunt in the quarter were? New orders for Hunt in the quarter, I don’t know if I have ever broken down at frontier that level, they brought $3 billion of backlog to the business, about $2 billion of that was awarded backlog, and essayist $1 billion was in frontier quizlet contracted. Sameer Rathod - Macquarie Research. Thank you. (Operator Instructions) We have a question from french essayist, Chase Jacobson from William Blair. Please go ahead. Chase Jacobson - William Blair Company.

Hi, good afternoon. On the appic essay 1 core AECOM business you guys have had some -- it's been slow but steady margin improvement on the EBITDA line over the last couple years, 20, 30 basis points a year. But still tracking below the 12% target that you had talked about in essayist the past. So, wondering if you could give any color on to what's been different there versus when you gave that 12% target, and how you incorporate that into when you look at savings in the URS business. The reason that we haven't made more progress on that 12% EBITDA to NSR target is largely the appic essay 1 slowness in our Americas design business. So, our outlook going forward, obviously we will be giving guidance in the future against gross revenue, since we’re not going to be stating net service revenue anymore in the news segments, that would translate to french roughly 6% to 8% EBITDA to breast screening tool gross revenue margin. And we think that is highly achievable given the synergies that we see and with the expected improvement in our Americas design business and french essayist with the general efficiencies that we see in our business that we've taken out as AECOM standalone prior to the combination particularly on real-estate and procurement which will apply to the new organization. So, really the reason we haven’t made better progress on that is the slowness in the Americas business, which we anticipate will won’t last forever and we’ll make progress faster on that target.

Chase Jacobson - William Blair Company. Okay. French? Just so I understand, the $250 million targeted synergies is all focused on cost reductions, or there's revenue synergies included in that also, or growth? Those are all cost reductions. Chase Jacobson - William Blair Company. Okay. That's helpful. The other question I have is just more detailed. Can you just help reconcile the adjusted tax rate to essay what the GAAP tax rate would be in 2015? The adjusted tax rate for the GAAP, so FY 15 all in rate is about 26% - the biggest reason that its lower is because of some of the cost of integration we're going to get deducted at a higher tax rate, because they’re all domestic. So, perhaps we can take you offline and essayist help you with the modeling of that if you would like.

Chase Jacobson - William Blair Company. Yeah, okay. That would be great. Thank you. Thank you. And our last question comes from Justin Hauke from formal application letter, Robert W. French? Baird. Please go ahead. Justin Hauke - Robert W. Application For Job? Baird. Thanks guys.

Just a quick follow-up. Post all your financing, is french essayist there anything that's changed in your assumed interest rate? I think previously you were highlighting an all-in of 4.3%. It looks like it maybe a little bit higher. Is that correct? No, we actually came in slightly lower. Quizlet? So, the execution on the overall financing - there are moving pieces within that but we did slightly better. Justin Hauke - Robert W. French Essayist? Baird. Okay. Thank you very much. Thank you.

We have no further questions at this time. Appic Essay 1? I will now turn the french essayist call back over to Mike Burke. Okay. Thank you, operator. Beautiful On Mother? Thank you every one for participating today. I want to remind everybody that we will be in New York on December 16th, for our Investor Day. And as Steve mentioned a couple of times, we look forward to spending more time giving you much more detail on our plans and french our synergies and frontier thesis even more detail than we have today. We’re only three weeks into this acquisition but by December, we’ll have even more information for you, little more certainty around the future and the details. So, we look forward to spending more time with you on December 16th. French Essayist? And for those of you that can't be available on that date, we’ll look forward to talking to you on our next quarterly earnings call. So, thank you and have a great day.

Thank you, ladies and gentlemen. This concludes today's conference. Thank you for participating. You may now disconnect. This article is for dad appreciation essay PRO members ONLY! Get Access to this article and 15,000 exclusive PRO articles from $200/m.

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2008-11 Draft budget submission (Corporate Business Plan) Date: 19 November 2007. By: Director of Strategic Finance, Director of french essayist Strategy, Modernisation and Performance for the Commissioner and the Treasurer. This report sets out the essay, MPA/MPS draft business plan and essayist, budget submission for 2008-11 in line with the Mayor of London€™s guidance. The Committees are asked to approve the draft corporate business plan, prior to consideration by the Full Authority, as suitable for submission to dad appreciation essay, the GLA on 27 November 2007. Joint-PPR Committee and Finance Committee. 1. To consider the attached report and recommend to the Full Authority on 22 November 2007 that the draft 2008-11 corporate business plan and french essayist, budget submission be submitted to appic essay 1, the GLA on 27 November 2007; 2. To agree, subject to consultation with the Treasurer, editing and other minor amendments be made by the Director of Strategic Finance as appropriate prior to submission to the GLA. 1. To consider any representations or comments by Joint PPR Committee and essayist, Finance Committee and agree the submission of the corporate business plan and budget submission to the GLA. 2. Agree the Prudential Indicators in Annex 4 of Appendix 2. 3. Agree the MPS-wide objectives as set out in, section one of the Policing London 2008-11 Business Plan. 1. The purpose of this report is to seek approval for the draft Business Plan and related budget submission for french essayist 2008-11, and the priorities proposed for the MPS for the period of the plan. The draft submission will be considered by the Full Authority on 22 November 2007.

2. The Business Plan will be amended following final decisions by the Mayor on the MPA budget for 2008/09, Government announcements on performance measures and the MPS/MPA€™s own performance process. 3. The Corporate Business Plan has three main purposes: To set out the strategic priorities contained within the corporate strategy, how they will be delivered over the next three years, and how the tomosynthesis a breast screening, Business Groups will contribute to their achievement. To ensure that the content of the plan meets the essayist, requirements of the Mayor of formal application for job London€™s guidance for the 2008/09 budget. To present to the MPA, the essayist, public and other stakeholders how the appic essay 1, corporate strategy will improve service delivery to Londoners, meet their needs and demonstrates that tax-payers€™ money is being appropriately spent. 4. Appendices 1 and french essayist, 2 fulfil the requirement of the GLA Group Budget Guidance for 2008-09, that requires the appic essay 1, MPS/MPA to produce a business and supporting budget plan that: Covers at least the period to 2010 €“ 11 Sets out french what is planned to be achieved in high level terms over the period, specifying profiled deliverables and appic essay 1, defining measures to french essayist, assess progress and beautiful marathi essay, impact Highlights in french essayist, high-level terms plans to mitigate and adapt to climate change, and to deliver other environmental improvements Demonstrates how the budgets and business plans will improve social inclusion and diversity and address health inequalities Includes budget estimates and borrowing and capital spending plans covering the plan period Includes an assessment and application, explanation of the quantified financial benefits expected to be secured by collaborative working with other members of the GLA group. 5. This information is provided as appendices to this report as follows: Appendix 1: MPS Corporate Business Plan 2008-11. Appendix 2: MPS Corporate Business Plan 2008-11 - Supporting Financial Submission. Key points regarding the content of the business plan: Section 1. The GLA ask for a business plan and related budget plans, including objectives and priorities. This section provides the context for french essayist the MPS-wide objectives and application letter for job, an overview of the budget.

Section 2. This outlines a rationale for the inclusion of each of the MPS-wide objectives within the plan. The GLA also request information on any significant initiatives as well as equalities, sustainable development and health information. These have all been included under the heading of €˜continuous improvement€™. French Essayist. Section 3. The revenue budget information has been presented in accordance with the GLA guidelines. A separate paper accompanies the business plan to fulfil all the budget requirements of the frontier, GLA. Section 4. The GLA requires analysis of the budget by service division, as well as €˜robust budgets which match planned outcomes€™.

For the MPS, this means business groups. In order to align delivery of the objectives to the budget, it is therefore necessary to present the information by business group accompanied by their contribution to the objectives with measures of success. Section 5. The capital budget information is also required by french the GLA and this has been presented in accordance with those guidelines. Appendix A. The GLA request performance information on key deliverables. This appendix outlines the delivery plans including top-level measures. Appendix B. This appendix outlines the work on improving efficiency, including planned savings, as requested by the GLA. 6. The MPS/MPA€™s 2008/09 performance development process is complicated by the emerging assessment framework that the essayist, Government is in the process of implementing for the 2008/11 planning session. This includes APACS, Public Service Agreements (PSAs) and LAAs that will be agreed with Local Strategic Partnerships (LSPs). This is a shift in emphasis from frontier thesis quizlet central Government, from targets set at a corporate level to locally agreed priorities and targets with some associated funding. 7. The draft national indicators for LAAs are currently out to consultation and the release of draft APACS indicators for essayist consultation, expected on 12 November, has now been delayed once again, to 20 November. 8. Within this environment, the appic essay 1, MPS and MPA must proceed with the identification and negotiation of targets, in order to ensure that the statutory requirement to publish a policing plan by 31 March 2008, including all Statutory Performance Indicators (which will come from APACS) is fulfilled.

However, the timing of this process means that the majority of essayist our measures will not be included within the attached draft business plan submission to the Mayor. 9. Following a meeting held on frontier, 19 September between the MPS and all external stakeholders involved in developing and implementing the APACS/LAA process, a process was agreed with the MPA for to manage the development of our performance challenge for 2008/09. 10. It is recognised though that APACS/LAAs are not the only drivers of french our targets and performance. The MPS/MPA must ensure that the MPS-wide objectives are monitored to delivery. This is in addition to formal application letter, fulfilling the external performance requirements, whilst also trying to minimise the number of targets that business groups and OCUs are required to french essayist, deliver.

11. Financial implications will arise as a result of the frontier thesis, development of LAAs and the funding intended to be associated with these, the detail of which has not yet been released by GOL or the Home Office. 12. In order to ensure that the MPS/MPA manages this process, work is being undertaken between SMPD, Finance Directorate and TP to support Boroughs and other OCUs in understanding their responsibilities and developing/negotiating their performance framework as appropriate. 13. A report will be taken to french, the PPR Committee on 13 December that will provide more detail regarding the LAA/APACS, critical performance areas and associated financial issues. 14. Public consultation forms a critical part of the thesis, MPS planning cycle and french, enables the MPS and MPA to ensure that public concerns are being addressed by the MPS-wide objectives. During 2007/08 public consultation has involved two major elements: Consultation with Safer Neighbourhood Panels Based on previous years€™ consultation results, consultation was focused on the 10 issues. that have proved to be of most concern to the people of London.

16. Frontier. The MPA is also responsible for carrying out consultation on the 2008/09 budget and the process was undertaken in October 2007. The responses are shown in Annex 7 to the supporting financial submission. 17. The Corporate Business Plan is a fundamental element of the framework established for french the delivery of the MPS policies and strategies. It also supports the delivery of the MPA€™s statutory functions.

18. The MPS-wide objectives are set against the outcome of frontier quizlet a refreshed Corporate Strategic Assessment (CSA) process that analysed the performance and intelligence picture for the MPS, including business risks, emerging external issues and an assessment of the internal capabilities of the Service. The requirements of external stakeholders have also been taken into consideration. 19. Risk issues have been identified during the corporate planning process and will be managed in french essayist, line with the MPS risk management framework. In addition, specific risks which impact on the medium term financial plan have been highlighted within the summary financial submission. Environmental and health implications. 20. Environmental and health implications are integral to marathi essay on mother, the MPA/MPS business planning process. Environmental and health objectives are summarised in essayist, the draft corporate business plan and more detail on MPS activity is included in frontier quizlet, Appendix 2 (section 21).

Equality and diversity implications are integral to french essayist, the MPA/MPS business planning process and work is underway to ensure that equalities impact assessments are undertaken as appropriate throughout the business planning process. Diversity objectives are summarised in the draft corporate business plan and more detail on dad appreciation essay, MPS activity is included in Appendix 2 (section 20). Essayist. 1. Financial implications are wholly contained within the 2008/09 budget submission. 2. Officers are currently considering a letter received on 9 November 2007 from the Mayor consulting the Authority before he prepares a draft component budget for the MPA in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 2 of schedule 6 of the Greater London Act 1999. A copy of the letter and the Authority's proposed response will be available to the joint meeting on 19 November 2007.

Mayor€™s Budget Guidance. Interim Budget Response. Report authors: Anne McMeel €“ Director of Strategic Finance and Stephen Rimmer €“ Director of Strategy, Modernisation and Performance. For more information contact: MPA general: 020 7202 0202. Media enquiries: 020 7202 0217/18.

MPA/MPS Draft Corporate Business Plan 2008-11 - Supporting Financial.

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compulsory essay How public education cripples our kids, and why. I taught for thirty years in some of the worst schools in Manhattan, and in some of the french best, and formal application letter during that time I became an expert in boredom. Boredom was everywhere in my world, and french essayist if you asked the kids, as I often did, why they felt so bored, they always gave the same answers: They said the work was stupid, that it made no sense, that they already knew it. They said they wanted to be doing something real, not just sitting around.

They said teachers didn't seem to know much about their subjects and clearly weren't interested in thesis quizlet, learning more. And the essayist kids were right: their teachers were every bit as bored as they were. Boredom is the a breast screening tool common condition of schoolteachers, and anyone who has spent time in a teachers' lounge can vouch for the low energy, the essayist whining, the dispirited attitudes, to be found there. Appic Essay 1! When asked why they feel bored, the teachers tend to blame the kids, as you might expect. Essayist! Who wouldn't get bored teaching students who are rude and breast screening interested only in grades? If even that. Of course, teachers are themselves products of the same twelve-year compulsory school programs that so thoroughly bore their students, and french as school personnel they are trapped inside structures even more rigid than those imposed upon the children. Who, then, is to blame? We all are. Essayist! My grandfather taught me that. Appic Essay 1! One afternoon when I was seven I complained to french essayist, him of boredom, and he batted me hard on the head.

He told me that I was never to use that term in his presence again, that if I was bored it was my fault and no one else's. The obligation to amuse and instruct myself was entirely my own, and people who didn't know that were childish people, to be avoided if possible. Certainly not to be trusted. That episode cured me of boredom forever, and here and there over the years I was able to dad appreciation, pass on the lesson to some remarkable student. For the french most part, however, I found it futile to challenge the formal letter official notion that boredom and childishness were the natural state of affairs in essayist, the classroom. Often I had to defy custom, and tomosynthesis cancer tool even bend the law, to help kids break out of this trap. The empire struck back, of course; childish adults regularly conflate opposition with disloyalty. I once returned from a medical leave to discover that all evidence of my having been granted the leave had been purposely destroyed, that my job had been terminated, and that I no longer possessed even a teaching license. After nine months of tormented effort I was able to retrieve the french license when a school secretary testified to witnessing the plot unfold. In the meantime my family suffered more than I care to remember. By the appic essay 1 time I finally retired in 1991, I had more than enough reason to think of our schools - with their long-term, cell-block-style, forced confinement of both students and teachers - as virtual factories of childishness.

Yet I honestly could not see why they had to be that way. My own experience had revealed to me what many other teachers must learn along the way, too, yet keep to themselves for fear of reprisal: if we wanted to we could easily and inexpensively jettison the old, stupid structures and help kids take an education rather than merely receive a schooling. We could encourage the best qualities of youthfulness - curiosity, adventure, resilience, the capacity for surprising insight - simply by being more flexible about time, texts, and tests, by introducing kids to truly competent adults, and by giving each student what autonomy he or she needs in french essayist, order to take a risk every now and then. But we don't do that. And the more I asked why not, and persisted in thinking about the frontier problem of essayist, schooling as an engineer might, the more I missed the point: What if there is no problem with our schools? What if they are the way they are, so expensively flying in the face of common sense and long experience in how children learn things, not because they are doing something wrong but because they are doing something right? Is it possible that George W. Bush accidentally spoke the dad appreciation truth when he said we would leave no child behind? Could it be that our schools are designed to make sure not one of them ever really grows up? D o we really need school?

I don't mean education, just forced schooling: six classes a day, five days a week, nine months a year, for twelve years. Is this deadly routine really necessary? And if so, for what? Don't hide behind reading, writing, and arithmetic as a rationale, because 2 million happy homeschoolers have surely put that banal justification to french essayist, rest. Even if they hadn't, a considerable number of well-known Americans never went through the twelve-year wringer our kids currently go through, and they turned out all right. George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln? Someone taught them, to be sure, but they were not products of a school system, and not one of essayist, them was ever graduated from a secondary school. Formal Application Letter! Throughout most of American history, kids generally didn't go to essayist, high school, yet the unschooled rose to be admirals, like Farragut; inventors, like Edison; captains of industry, like Carnegie and Rockefeller; writers, like Melville and Twain and Conrad; and even scholars, like Margaret Mead. In fact, until pretty recently people who reached the age of thirteen weren't looked upon as children at all.

Ariel Durant, who co-wrote an enormous, and very good, multivolume history of the formal application for job world with her husband, Will, was happily married at fifteen, and who could reasonably claim that Ariel Durant was an uneducated person? Unschooled, perhaps, but not uneducated. We have been taught (that is, schooled) in this country to think of success as synonymous with, or at least dependent upon, schooling, but historically that isn't true in either an intellectual or a financial sense. And plenty of people throughout the world today find a way to educate themselves without resorting to french, a system of compulsory secondary schools that all too often resemble prisons. Why, then, do Americans confuse education with just such a system? What exactly is the purpose of our public schools? Mass schooling of a compulsory nature really got its teeth into the United States between 1905 and 1915, though it was conceived of much earlier and pushed for throughout most of the tomosynthesis a breast screening nineteenth century.

The reason given for french essayist this enormous upheaval of family life and cultural traditions was, roughly speaking, threefold: 1) To make good people. 2) To make good citizens. 3) To make each person his or her personal best. These goals are still trotted out today on a regular basis, and most of us accept them in one form or another as a decent definition of breast tomosynthesis a breast cancer tool, public education's mission, however short schools actually fall in achieving them.

But we are dead wrong. French Essayist! Compounding our error is the fact that the national literature holds numerous and surprisingly consistent statements of compulsory schooling's true purpose. We have, for example, the great H. L. Mencken, who wrote in The American Mercury for beautiful April 1924 that the aim of public education is not. to fill the young of the species with knowledge and awaken their intelligence. . . . Nothing could be further from the truth. The aim.. . is simply to reduce as many individuals as possible to the same safe level, to breed and train a standardized citizenry, to put down dissent and originality. That is its aim in the United States . . . and that is its aim everywhere else. Because of Mencken's reputation as a satirist, we might be tempted to french, dismiss this passage as a bit of hyperbolic sarcasm. His article, however, goes on to trace the template for our own educational system back to the now vanished, though never to be forgotten, military state of formal application letter, Prussia. And although he was certainly aware of the irony that we had recently been at war with Germany, the heir to Prussian thought and french essayist culture, Mencken was being perfectly serious here. Our educational system really is Prussian in formal application, origin, and that really is cause for concern.

The odd fact of a Prussian provenance for french essayist our schools pops up again and frontier quizlet again once you know to look for it. William James alluded to essayist, it many times at the turn of the appic essay 1 century. Orestes Brownson, the hero of Christopher Lasch's 1991 book, The True and Only Heaven , was publicly denouncing the Prussianization of American schools back in the 1840s. French Essayist! Horace Mann's Seventh Annual Report to the Massachusetts State Board of frontier quizlet, Education in 1843 is essentially a paean to the land of Frederick the Great and a call for french its schooling to be brought here. That Prussian culture loomed large in America is hardly surprising, given our early association with that utopian state. A Prussian served as Washington's aide during the Revolutionary War, and so many German- speaking people had settled here by 1795 that Congress considered publishing a German-language edition of the federal laws. But what shocks is that we should so eagerly have adopted one of the very worst aspects of essay on mother, Prussian culture: an educational system deliberately designed to produce mediocre intellects, to hamstring the inner life, to deny students appreciable leadership skills, and to ensure docile and incomplete citizens - all in order to render the populace manageable. I t was from James Bryant Conant - president of Harvard for twenty years, WWI poison-gas specialist, WWII executive on french the atomic-bomb project, high commissioner of the American zone in Germany after WWII, and truly one of the french essayist most influential figures of the twentieth century - that I first got wind of the real purposes of American schooling. Without Conant, we would probably not have the same style and degree of cancer screening, standardized testing that we enjoy today, nor would we be blessed with gargantuan high schools that warehouse 2,000 to french, 4,000 students at formal application for job a time, like the famous Columbine High in Littleton, Colorado.

Shortly after I retired from french essayist, teaching I picked up Conant's 1959 book-length essay, The Child the Parent and the State , and was more than a little intrigued to see him mention in passing that the modern schools we attend were the result of a revolution engineered between 1905 and 1930. A revolution? He declines to elaborate, but he does direct the curious and the uninformed to Alexander Inglis's 1918 book, Principles of Secondary Education , in which one saw this revolution through the eyes of appic essay 1, a revolutionary. Inglis, for whom a lecture in education at Harvard is named, makes it perfectly clear that compulsory schooling on this continent was intended to be just what it had been for french essayist Prussia in the 1820s: a fifth column into the burgeoning democratic movement that threatened to give the peasants and dad appreciation the proletarians a voice at the bargaining table. Modern, industrialized, compulsory schooling was to make a sort of essayist, surgical incision into the prospective unity of these underclasses. On Mother! Divide children by subject, by age-grading, by french, constant rankings on appic essay 1 tests, and by french, many other more subtle means, and it was unlikely that the ignorant mass of mankind, separated in essay, childhood, would ever reintegrate into essayist a dangerous whole. Inglis breaks down the purpose - the actual purpose - of modem schooling into six basic functions, any one of which is enough to curl the hair of those innocent enough to believe the three traditional goals listed earlier:

1) The adjustive or adaptive function. Schools are to establish fixed habits of reaction to authority. This, of course, precludes critical judgment completely. It also pretty much destroys the idea that useful or interesting material should be taught, because you can't test for reflexive obedience until you know whether you can make kids learn, and do, foolish and boring things. 2) The integrating function.

This might well be called the conformity function, because its intention is to make children as alike as possible. People who conform are predictable, and this is of great use to those who wish to harness and french manipulate a large labor force. 3) The diagnostic and directive function. School is meant to determine each student's proper social role. This is done by logging evidence mathematically and anecdotally on cumulative records. As in your permanent record. Yes, you do have one. 4) The differentiating function. Once their social role has been diagnosed, children are to be sorted by role and trained only so far as their destination in the social machine merits - and not one step further.

So much for making kids their personal best. 5) The selective function. This refers not to essay on mother, human choice at french all but to appic essay 1, Darwin's theory of natural selection as applied to essayist, what he called the favored races. In short, the idea is to help things along by consciously attempting to breast tomosynthesis a breast cancer screening tool, improve the breeding stock. Schools are meant to essayist, tag the unfit - with poor grades, remedial placement, and other punishments - clearly enough that their peers will accept them as inferior and effectively bar them from the reproductive sweepstakes. That's what all those little humiliations from first grade onward were intended to do: wash the dirt down the drain. 6) The propaedeutic function. The societal system implied by these rules will require an elite group of caretakers. Dad Appreciation! To that end, a small fraction of the kids will quietly be taught how to manage this continuing project, how to watch over and control a population deliberately dumbed down and declawed in order that government might proceed unchallenged and corporations might never want for french essayist obedient labor.

That, unfortunately, is the purpose of mandatory public education in this country. And lest you take Inglis for an isolated crank with a rather too cynical take on the educational enterprise, you should know that he was hardly alone in championing these ideas. Conant himself, building on the ideas of application letter, Horace Mann and others, campaigned tirelessly for an American school system designed along the same lines. French Essayist! Men like George Peabody, who funded the cause of french, mandatory schooling throughout the dad appreciation South, surely understood that the essayist Prussian system was useful in creating not only a harmless electorate and a servile labor force but also a virtual herd of, mindless consumers. In time a great number of industrial titans came to recognize the enormous profits to be had by french, cultivating and tending just such a herd via public education, among them Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeller. T here you have it. Now you know.

We don't need Karl Marx's conception of appic essay 1, a grand warfare between the classes to see that it is in the interest of complex management, economic or political, to french essayist, dumb people down, to demoralize them, to divide them from one another, and to discard them if they don't conform. Class may frame the proposition, as when Woodrow Wilson, then president of Princeton University, said the following to the New York City School Teachers Association in 1909: We want one class of persons to have a liberal education, and we want another class of persons, a very much larger class, of french essayist, necessity, in every society, to appic essay 1, forgo the privileges of a liberal education and fit themselves to perform specific difficult manual tasks. But the motives behind the disgusting decisions that bring about french these ends need not be class-based at thesis all. French Essayist! They can stem purely from fear, or from the by now familiar belief that efficiency is the paramount virtue, rather than love, liberty, laughter, or hope. Above all, they can stem from simple greed. There were vast fortunes to be made, after all, in an economy based on mass production and breast a breast tool organized to favor the large corporation rather than the french small business or the family farm. But mass production required mass consumption, and at a breast cancer the turn of the twentieth century most Americans considered it both unnatural and unwise to french essayist, buy things they didn't actually need. Mandatory schooling was a godsend on formal application for job that count.

School didn't have to french essayist, train kids in any direct sense to think they should consume nonstop, because it did something even better: it encouraged them not to think at all. And that left them sitting ducks for another great invention of the modem era - marketing. Now, you needn't have studied marketing to know that there are two groups of people who can always be convinced to consume more than they need to: addicts and children. School has done a pretty good job of turning our children into thesis quizlet addicts, but it has done a spectacular job of turning our children into children. Again, this is no accident.

Theorists from Plato to Rousseau to our own Dr. Inglis knew that if children could be cloistered with other children, stripped of responsibility and french essayist independence, encouraged to develop only the trivializing emotions of, greed, envy, jealousy, and fear, they would grow older but never truly grow up. In the 1934 edition of his once well-known book Public Education in the United States , Ellwood P. Cubberley detailed and praised the way the french strategy of successive school enlargements had extended childhood by marathi essay, two to six years, and forced schooling was at that point still quite new. This same Cubberley - who was dean of Stanford's School of french, Education, a textbook editor at Houghton Mifflin, and Conant's friend and correspondent at Harvard - had written the following in the 1922 edition of his book Public School Administration : Our schools are . Thesis Quizlet! . . factories in which the raw products (children) are to be shaped and fashioned.. . . And it is the business of the school to build its pupils according to the specifications laid down. It's perfectly obvious from our society today what those specifications were.

Maturity has by now been banished from essayist, nearly every aspect of our lives. Easy divorce laws have removed the frontier thesis need to essayist, work at relationships; easy credit has removed the need for fiscal self-control; easy entertainment has removed the need to learn to entertain oneself; easy answers have removed the need to ask questions. Beautiful Marathi Essay On Mother! We have become a nation of children, happy to surrender our judgments and our wills to political exhortations and commercial blandishments that would insult actual adults. We buy televisions, and then we buy the things we see on essayist the television. We buy computers, and then we buy the things we see on the computer. We buy $150 sneakers whether we need them or not, and when they fall apart too soon we buy another pair. We drive SUVs and believe the frontier thesis lie that they constitute a kind of life insurance, even when we're upside-down in them. And, worst of french, all, we don't bat an eye when Ari Fleischer tells us to be careful what you say, even if we remember having been told somewhere back in school that America is the land of the free. We simply buy that one too. Our schooling, as intended, has seen to it. N ow for the good news.

Once you understand the logic behind modern schooling, its tricks and traps are fairly easy to avoid. School trains children to letter for job, be employees and consumers; teach your own to be leaders and adventurers. School trains children to obey reflexively; teach your own to french, think critically and independently. Well-schooled kids have a low threshold for boredom; help your own to develop an inner life so that they'll never be bored. Urge them to take on the serious material, the grown-up material, in history, literature, philosophy, music, art, economics, theology - all the stuff schoolteachers know well enough to frontier, avoid. Essayist! Challenge your kids with plenty of solitude so that they can learn to formal application letter for job, enjoy their own company, to conduct inner dialogues. Well-schooled people are conditioned to dread being alone, and they seek constant companionship through the TV, the computer, the cell phone, and through shallow friendships quickly acquired and quickly abandoned. Your children should have a more meaningful life, and essayist they can. First, though, we must wake up to what our schools really are: laboratories of experimentation on young minds, drill centers for the habits and attitudes that corporate society demands.

Mandatory education serves children only incidentally; its real purpose is to turn them into frontier thesis quizlet servants. Don't let your own have their childhoods extended, not even for a day. If David Farragut could take command of a captured British warship as a preteen, if Thomas Edison could publish a broadsheet at essayist the age of twelve, if Ben Franklin could apprentice himself to a printer at the same age (then put himself through a course of study that would choke a Yale senior today), there's no telling what your own kids could do. After a long life, and thirty years in breast tomosynthesis cancer screening tool, the public school trenches, I've concluded that genius is as common as dirt. French! We suppress our genius only because we haven't yet figured out how to manage a population of frontier quizlet, educated men and french essayist women. Breast A Breast Tool! The solution, I think, is simple and glorious. Let them manage themselves. * John Taylor Gatto is french essayist a former New York State and New York City Teacher of the Year and the author, most recently, of The Underground History of American Education . He was a participant in the Harper's Magazine forum School on a Hill, which appeared in quizlet, the September 2001 issue.

You can find his web site here.

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Who are some of the best French essayists today? - Quora

Laura Kipnis’s Endless Trial by essayist Title IX. September 20, 2017. Students and educators now live in a world where expressing an opinion about sexual harassment can be sincerely perceived as sexual harassment. In 2015, Laura Kipnis, a film-studies professor at Northwestern University, published a polemic in dad appreciation essay The Chronicle of Higher Education titled “ Sexual Paranoia Strikes Academe .” Kipnis argued that students’ sense of vulnerability on campus was expanding to essayist, an unwarranted degree, partly owing to new enforcement policies around Title IX, which prohibits sex discrimination at educational institutions that receive federal funds. Appic Essay 1! The new Title IX policies on sexual misconduct which were then sweeping campuses perpetuated “myths and fantasies about power,” Kipnis wrote, which enlarged the invasive power of institutions while undermining the french goal of educating students in critical thinking and resilience. “If you wanted to produce a pacified, cowering citizenry, this would be the method,” she concluded.! Kipnis wrote of french essayist, a philosophy professor, Peter Ludlow, whom Northwestern disciplined for sexual harassment; Kipnis questioned the logic of the accusations against letter for job him. One of Ludlow’s accusers, a graduate student (unnamed in Kipnis’s essay), then joined a fellow graduate student in the philosophy department in essayist filing Title IX complaints against Kipnis, under Northwestern’s sexual-misconduct policy. Through her essay and a subsequent tweet about the essay, Kipnis was alleged to have violated the part of the sexual-misconduct policy prohibiting “retaliation”; additionally, she was alleged to have created a “hostile environment” and a “chilling effect” on complaints. Northwestern launched a formal Title IX investigation of Kipnis. Most people under Title IX investigation don’t speak publicly about it, even to defend themselves. But Kipnis responded by tomosynthesis publishing a follow-up essay in essayist the Chronicle , called “ My Title IX Inquisition ,” decrying the investigation as a misuse of Title IX that allowed “intellectual disagreement to be redefined as retaliation.” On the same day, Northwestern cleared Kipnis of wrongdoing, finding that “viewpoint expression” is not retaliation, and that a “reasonable person” in the complainant’s position “would not suffer a hostile environment on account of” the essay and the tweet.

Earlier this month, Betsy DeVos, the Secretary of Education, delivered a policy speech on Title IX that focussed on the need for breast tomosynthesis cancer tool, fair process for both accusers and essayist, the accused. She also stated that “schools have been compelled by tomosynthesis a breast cancer Washington to enforce ambiguous and incredibly broad definitions of assault and harassment,” stemming from over-compliance with the french Department’s 2011 “Dear Colleague” letter, which DeVos has made clear will be replaced by new regulations after a formal rulemaking process. Individuals “have faced investigation and dad appreciation essay, punishment simply for speaking their minds or teaching their classes,” she said. The investigation of Kipnis helped to fuel the debate on Title IX and academic freedom. In the meantime, Kipnis told me something that had only essayist just been made public in a court filing.

Her 2015 Title IX investigation, she said, was not her last; she was investigated again, just this past summer. Back in marathi essay 2015, the first investigation of Kipnis immediately triggered several other complaints. A professor whom Kipnis brought to her interview as her “support person” also had a Title IX retaliation complaint filed against him, after he spoke to the faculty senate about his concerns that the Kipnis investigation threatened academic freedom. An additional Title IX complaint at the same time also accused Kipnis of “involvement in and/or approval of” the french essayist faculty support person’s statement to application letter, the faculty senate. Essayist! (Both of those complaints were eventually dropped.) Drawing on her experience, Kipnis wrote the book “Unwanted Advances,” which was published in April.! After Northwestern terminated Ludlow’s employment, he gave Kipnis access to confidential records in french the graduate student’s successful Title IX complaint against him, along with thousands of texts and e-mails between them. Kipnis writes that “the more I learned about his situation, the more I saw his case as a lens through which the excesses and hypocrisies of the current campus hysteria came into focus.” Kipnis devotes a chapter of “Unwanted Advances” to her theory that Ludlow was falsely accused. In a letter to the editor in the Daily Northwestern , the french essayist Northwestern Philosophy Graduate Student Association objected that Kipnis “unfairly portrayed our colleague,” the graduate student. In May, the graduate student sued Kipnis and her publisher, HarperCollins, for defamation. (A HarperCollins representative told me that the marathi company does not comment on french pending litigation.) The suit alleges that the book falsely suggests that the graduate student and Ludlow had a consensual dating relationship, falsely insinuates that her allegation of rape was untrue, and falsely claims that she is tomosynthesis a breast screening, a “serial Title IX filer.” It also makes an essayist, invasion-of-privacy claim, alleging that Kipnis’s book publicly disclosed private facts, including the plaintiff’s prior relationship with a married professor at another school, and details intimate conversations from her relationship with Ludlow. It’s puzzling that the plaintiff is tomosynthesis screening, staking part of her lawsuit on the alleged falsehood of the statement that she is a “serial Title IX filer.” Kipnis mentions in the book that the graduate student was a complainant in six Title IX complaints; in the suit, the plaintiff acknowledges two, one against Ludlow and one against Kipnis. But days before filing the defamation suit, in May, the graduate student joined four Northwestern faculty members and five other graduate students as a complainant in essayist yet another Title IX complaint against Kipnis, this time based on the publication of application, “Unwanted Advances.”

Kipnis told me that she was surprised when Northwestern once again launched a formal Title IX investigation of her writing. (A spokesperson from Northwestern did not respond to a request for comment by press time.) Kipnis said that investigators presented her with a spreadsheet laying out dozens of quotations from her book, along with at least eighty written questions, such as “What do you mean by this statement?,” “What is the source/are the sources for essayist, this information?,” and “How do you respond to tomosynthesis a breast cancer screening, the allegation that this detail is not necessary to your argument and that its inclusion is essayist, evidence of retaliatory intent on your part?” Kipnis chose not to tomosynthesis, answer any questions, following the standard advice of counsel defending the french court case. She did submit a statement saying that “these complaints seem like an attempt to, bend the campus judicial system to punish someone whose work involves questioning the campus judicial system, just as bringing Title IX complaints over french essayist, my first Chronicle essay attempted to do two years ago.” In other words, the process was the punishment. Possible evidence of retaliatory purpose, she learned, included statements in beautiful marathi on mother the book that aggressively staked out her refusal to keep quiet, expressed in her trademark hyperbole. Her prior Title IX investigation, she writes, “has made me a little mad and possibly a little dangerous. French! . Marathi Essay! . . I mean, having been hauled up on complaints once, what do I have to lose? ‘Confidentiality’? ‘Conduct befitting a professor’? Kiss my ass. In other words, thank you to my accusers: unwitting collaborators, accidental muses.” Also presented as possible evidence was her Facebook post quoting a book review—“Kipnis doesn’t seem like the sort of enemy you’d want to attract, let alone help create”—on which Kipnis had commented, “I love that.” If Kipnis did engage in retaliation or violate confidentiality, those infractions would be impossible to untangle from her book’s performance of her protest. “Unwanted Advances” sharply criticizes both the use of Title IX to silence political opponents and the secrecy that can enable abuse and overreach in campus Title IX processes. The latest iteration of Northwestern’s investigation of Kipnis took a month to complete, and again ruled in her favor. The university concluded that she did not retaliate or engage in french sexual harassment by for job discussing mostly public information about essayist, pseudonymous students in a book meant to, critique the Title IX landscape, including false accusations and the use of Title IX to punish those critical of Title IX.

Though she didn’t honor the french essayist confidentiality of university investigations, Northwestern recognized that confidentiality is a request rather than a requirement in its sexual-misconduct policy. Northwestern’s decision letter did suggest, however, that the dean of Kipnis’s school might still choose to sanction her for dad appreciation essay, possible violations of the university’s policy on “civility and mutual respect.” The evidence: her statements after the book’s publication, in e-mails, on social media, and in talks, in which she questioned the veracity and reliability of the graduate student’s account and hoped that “the book will cause a bit of a shit storm.” The university said that these “behaviors could be interpreted as demeaning and/or intimidating.” Kipnis objected that her statements rebutting charges of inaccuracy in french her book could not legitimately be construed as “incivility.” The dean ultimately found that Kipnis did not violate the civility policy, and that was the end of the matter. The U.S. Supreme Court has remarked, in Oncale v. Sundowner Offshores Services, in 1998, that sexual-harassment law is not intended to become a “general civility code.” But lack of “civility” can easily serve as a fallback accusation when a Title IX complaint doesn’t pan out. And Title IX can be deployed to make life difficult for quizlet, a person one despises, for whatever reasons—good or bad.

Two professors I spoke to said that they have experienced this phenomenon firsthand. Nicholas Wolfinger, a professor of family and consumer studies, said that he was on essayist the receiving end of this dynamic at, the University of essayist, Utah, where he has been at application for job, odds with his colleagues for years. He told me it is because he has been openly contemptuous of colleagues who are “dead wood” and french essayist, do not produce scholarship. Wolfinger was accused last year, under the school’s Title IX policy, of appic essay 1, “being aggressive, rude, or dismissive of female faculty members” and “making unwelcome/unwanted sexual jokes or comments to french essayist, other faculty members in the department” over the previous twelve-year period.! Examples included his reference to menstruation as “riding the cotton pony,” exclaiming “Fuck!” at a faculty meeting, and french essayist, recounting stories of proposing to his wife at a strip club.

The university’s investigation found him not responsible for Title IX sexual harassment and frontier thesis, gender discrimination, but his dean still decided to impose an french essayist, administrative reprimand and suspension for “unprofessional behavior,” specifically with reference to his use of profanity and the “constant stream of dad appreciation, insults that you direct at others, particularly those berating and belittling your colleagues.” (Wolfinger has written about french, his Title IX process, but his piece did not mention the quizlet reprimand and suspension for unprofessional behavior.) It seems that the wish to knock off unlikable and ill-behaving colleagues can lead to illegitimate use of the Title IX process to punish them, even if there is no finding of responsibility. Ultimately, Wolfinger made a deal to work part-time without giving up tenure, a result that he says both he and his colleagues were happy with. A professor who previously taught at a small college in California told me a related story. He was an outspoken critic of the school’s president, administration, and board, asking “too many questions” and calling for transparency regarding the essayist school’s management, curricular, and financial problems. The administration demanded that he resign or face termination for violation of Title IX.

When he didn’t resign, the school launched a Title IX investigation, with no complainant, that accused him of sexually harassing a former student five years earlier—but the former student sent the school a signed affidavit saying that the charges were baseless. The college decided to appic essay 1, drop the french essayist Title IX charges, but it terminated the professor anyway for not living up to its standard of, conduct, citing an alleged instance of public drunkenness (which he denies), his use of profanity (an e-mail in essayist which he used the term “bullshit”), and what the college deemed to be immoral correspondence with a woman who had no connection to the school. (The professor has managed to find a new position at a breast tool, a foreign university.) For many, Title IX has become synonymous with the imperative to address sexual assault among students. But Title IX can also be used to discourage disagreement, deter dissent, deflect scrutiny, or register disapproval of people whom colleagues find loathsome. French Essayist! The problem is not with Title IX itself, much less the generic capacity of any rule to be used as a pretext for unrelated ends. Rather, it is the growing tendency to try, in appic essay 1 the words of essayist, Kipnis’s book, “to bend Title IX into an all-purpose bludgeon.” This warping is made possible by ambiguous and undisciplined understandings—misunderstandings—of sexual harassment and its harms. Kipnis’s rebuke of common slippages and conflations, whereby “gropers become rapists and accusers become Survivors,” anticipated a situation in which expression of thesis, her opinions about a sexual-harassment allegation could be sincerely perceived as an act of sexual harassment. French! Perhaps, in this environment, the complaint that followed the publication of “Unwanted Advances” was inevitable. Kipnis implied as much in “My Title IX Inquisition”: “by writing these sentences,” she was “risking more” complaints.

That risk is now built into tomosynthesis cancer, the professional life of those of us in universities who engage on subjects related to gender and sexuality. Essayist! Like Kipnis, I routinely hear from appic essay 1, teachers who say they are refraining from teaching and writing on such topics for fear of attracting Title IX complaints, which bring possibilities of french essayist, termination, demotion, pay cuts, and tens of thousands of dollars in legal fees, especially for the swelling ranks of teachers who, unlike Kipnis and me, do not have tenure. Yet debate on dad appreciation these topics is crucial to the pursuit of sex equality, as much as participants may disagree on what that means. As the essayist Education Department under Secretary DeVos undertakes new rulemaking under Title IX, it will be important to formal, be more explicit about how it may better protect the french core educational activity of a campus: the frontier quizlet production of knowledge and the expression of ideas. At this moment, Title IX is french essayist, too often conscripted to serve purposes antithetical to the education of breast screening, citizens in a democracy, in which disagreement, dissent, or disapproval should lead to argument, not to french essayist, an infinite loop of institutional investigation. Jeannie Suk Gersen is a contributing writer for, and a professor at tool, Harvard Law School. Ginsburg Slaps Gorsuch in Gerrymandering Case.

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In Georgia, undocumented immigrants, who are banned from the top public universities, have a school of their own.