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ruling class essay As over-leveraged investment houses began to fail in September 2008, the leaders of the Republican and Democratic parties, of essays major corporations, and opinion leaders stretching from the National Review magazine (and the Wall Street Journal ) on the right to the Nation magazine on papers of, the left, agreed that spending some $700 billion to buy the autumn leaves, investors’ “toxic assets” was the only alternative to the U.S. economy’s “systemic collapse.” In this, President George W. Bush and his would-be Republican successor John McCain agreed with the Democratic candidate, Barack Obama. Many, if not most, people around them also agreed upon the eventual commitment of some 10 trillion nonexistent dollars in ways unprecedented in America. They explained neither the ap english literature and composition essay, difference between the assets’ nominal and real values, nor precisely why letting the market find the leaves, latter would collapse America. The public objected immediately, by margins of three or four to one. When this majority discovered that virtually no one in a position of papers of power in either party or with a national voice would take their objections seriously, that decisions about leaves essays, their money were being made in bipartisan backroom deals with interested parties, and that the ap english and composition, laws on leaves, these matters were being voted by people who had not read them, the term “political class” came into use.
Then, after those in libor market, power changed their plans from buying toxic assets to buying up equity in banks and autumn essays major industries but refused to explain why, when they reasserted their right to decide ad hoc on ap english literature and composition essay questions, these and so many other matters, supposing them to be beyond the general public’s understanding, the American people started referring to those in and around government as the “ruling class.” And in fact Republican and Democratic office holders and their retinues show a similar presumption to dominate and fewer differences in tastes, habits, opinions, and sources of income among one another than between both and the rest of the country. Leaves. They think, look, and act as a class. Although after the papers of, election of autumn essays 2008 most Republican office holders argued against the Troubled Asset Relief Program, against the subsequent bailouts of the auto industry, against the several “stimulus” bills and further summary expansions of government power to benefit clients of representation government at the expense of ordinary citizens, the autumn leaves essays, American people had every reason to believe that many Republican politicians were doing so simply by the logic of partisan opposition. After all, Republicans had been happy enough to approve of similar things under Republican administrations. Differences between Bushes, Clintons, and Obamas are of degree, not kind.
Moreover, 2009-10 establishment Republicans sought only to modify the government’s agenda while showing eagerness to join the Democrats in essay on friendship, new grand schemes, if only they were allowed to. Sen. Autumn. Orrin Hatch continued dreaming of essay on friendship in of being Ted Kennedy, while Lindsey Graham set aside what is true or false about “global warming” for the sake of leaves essays getting on the right side of history. No prominent Republican challenged the ruling class’s continued claim of superior insight, nor its denigration of the American people as irritable children who must learn their place. The Republican Party did not disparage the libor model thesis, ruling class, because most of essays its officials are or would like to be part of it. Never has there been so little diversity within America’s upper crust. Always, in America as elsewhere, some people have been wealthier and more powerful than others. But until our own time America’s upper crust was a mixture of people who had gained prominence in ap english essay, a variety of ways, who drew their money and status from different sources and were not predictably of one mind on autumn leaves, any given matter. The Boston Brahmins, the New York financiers, the land barons of libor market model thesis California, Texas, and Florida, the autumn, industrialists of Pittsburgh, the Southern aristocracy, and the hardscrabble politicians who made it big in Chicago or Memphis had little contact with one another. Few had much contact with government, and “bureaucrat” was a dirty word for all.
So was “social engineering.” Nor had the schools and universities that formed yesterday’s upper crust imposed a single orthodoxy about the indenting long, origins of man, about American history, and about how America should be governed. All that has changed. Today’s ruling class, from Boston to San Diego, was formed by an educational system that exposed them to the same ideas and gave them remarkably uniform guidance, as well as tastes and habits. These amount to autumn, a social canon of ap english literature judgments about good and evil, complete with secular sacred history, sins (against minorities and autumn the environment), and saints. Using the right words and avoiding the wrong ones when referring to such matters — speaking the “in” language — serves as a badge of identity. Regardless of what business or profession they are in, their road up included government channels and government money because, as government has grown, its boundary with the rest of American life has become indistinct. Many began their careers in government and leveraged their way into the private sector. Some, e.g., Secretary of the Treasury Timothy Geithner, never held a non-government job. Hence whether formally in government, out of it, or halfway, America’s ruling class speaks the language and has the tastes, habits, and tools of bureaucrats.
It rules uneasily over the majority of Americans not oriented to government. The two classes have less in common culturally, dislike each other more, and embody ways of life more different from papers of one another than did the 19th century’s Northerners and Southerners — nearly all of whom, as Lincoln reminded them, “prayed to autumn leaves essays, the same God.” By contrast, while most Americans pray to the God “who created and doth sustain us,” our ruling class prays to itself as “saviors of the planet” and papers of improvers of autumn leaves essays humanity. Our classes’ clash is over “whose country” America is, over what way of life will prevail, over who is to defer to whom about what. The gravity of such divisions points us, as it did Lincoln, to Mark’s Gospel: “if a house be divided against itself, that house cannot stand.” Important as they are, our political divisions are the iceberg’s tip.
When pollsters ask the American people whether they are likely to vote Republican or Democrat in the next presidential election, Republicans win growing pluralities. But whenever pollsters add the preferences “undecided,” “none of the above,” or “tea party,” these win handily, the in an essay, Democrats come in second, and the Republicans trail far behind. Autumn Essays. That is because while most of the voters who call themselves Democrats say that Democratic officials represent them well, only a fourth of the papers of, voters who identify themselves as Republicans tell pollsters that Republican officeholders represent them well. Hence officeholders, Democrats and Republicans, gladden the hearts of some one-third of the leaves essays, electorate — most Democratic voters, plus a few Republicans. This means that Democratic politicians are the ruling class’s prime legitimate representatives and that because Republican politicians are supported by only a fourth of their voters while the rest vote for them reluctantly, most are aspirants for a junior role in the ruling class. Papers Of. In short, the leaves, ruling class has a party, the Democrats. But some two-thirds of Americans — a few Democratic voters, most Republican voters, and all independents — lack a vehicle in electoral politics. Sooner or later, well or badly, that majority’s demand for representation will be filled. Whereas in 1968 Governor George Wallace’s taunt “there ain’t a dime’s worth of difference” between the Republican and Democratic parties resonated with only 13.5 percent of the American people, in 1992 Ross Perot became a serious contender for the presidency (at one point he was favored by 39 percent of Americans vs. 31 percent for ap english questions G.H.W.
Bush and 25 percent for Clinton) simply by speaking ill of the ruling class. Today, few speak well of the ruling class. Autumn Essays. Not only has it burgeoned in size and pretense, but it also has undertaken wars it has not won, presided over a declining economy and indenting long mushrooming debt, made life more expensive, raised taxes, and autumn leaves talked down to the American people. Plan. Americans’ conviction that the autumn, ruling class is as hostile as it is incompetent has solidified. Burden History. The polls tell us that only about a fifth of Americans trust the government to do the right thing. The rest expect that it will do more harm than good and are no longer afraid to autumn essays, say so.
While Europeans are accustomed to being ruled by presumed betters whom they distrust, the American people’s realization of being ruled like Europeans shocked this country into well nigh revolutionary attitudes. But only the quotes in an, realization was new. Leaves. The ruling class had sunk deep roots in America over decades before 2008. Machiavelli compares serious political diseases to the Aetolian fevers — easy to treat early on while they are difficult to discern, but virtually untreatable by the time they become obvious. Far from speculating how the quotes essay, political confrontation might develop between America’s regime class — relatively few people supported by no more than one-third of Americans — and a country class comprising two-thirds of the country, our task here is to understand the autumn leaves, divisions that underlie that confrontation’s unpredictable future. More on politics below. Who are these rulers, and by what right do they rule? How did America change from a place where people could expect to live without bowing to privileged classes to one in which, at best, they might have the chance to climb into them? What sets our ruling class apart from the rest of us? The most widespread answers — by such as the Times ‘s Thomas Friedman and David Brooks — are schlock sociology.
Supposedly, modern society became so complex and libor thesis productive, the technical skills to run it so rare, that it called forth a new class of highly educated officials and autumn leaves cooperators in an ever less private sector. Similarly fanciful is Edward Goldberg’s notion that America is now ruled by a “newocracy”: a “new aristocracy who are the true beneficiaries of globalization — including the multinational manager, the small plan, technologist and the aspirational members of the meritocracy.” In fact, our ruling class grew and set itself apart from the essays, rest of us by plan, its connection with ever bigger government, and leaves above all by a certain attitude. Other explanations are counterintuitive. Wealth? The heads of the papers of, class do live in our big cities’ priciest enclaves and suburbs, from Montgomery County, Maryland, to Palo Alto, California, to Boston’s Beacon Hill as well as in opulent university towns from Princeton to leaves essays, Boulder. But they are no wealthier than many Texas oilmen or California farmers, or than neighbors with whom they do not associate — just as the papers of, social science and humanities class that rules universities seldom associates with physicians and physicists. Rather, regardless of where they live, their social-intellectual circle includes people in the lucrative “nonprofit” and “philanthropic” sectors and public policy. What really distinguishes these privileged people demographically is autumn essays, that, whether in history photographies representation, government power directly or as officers in companies, their careers and fortunes depend on government. They vote Democrat more consistently than those who live on any of America’s Dr. Leaves. Martin Luther King Jr. Streets.
These socioeconomic opposites draw their money and orientation from the same sources as the millions of papers of teachers, consultants, and government employees in the middle ranks who aspire to autumn leaves essays, be the former and identify morally with what they suppose to plan, be the latter’s grievances. Professional prominence or position will not secure a place in autumn leaves, the class any more than mere money. In fact, it is possible to be an official of a major corporation or a member of the essay history photographies representation, U.S. Supreme Court (just ask Justice Clarence Thomas), or even president (Ronald Reagan), and not be taken seriously by the ruling class. Leaves Essays. Like a fraternity, this class requires above all comity — being in with the right people, giving the required signs that one is on the right side, and joining in despising the Outs. Once an official or professional shows that he shares the indenting essay, manners, the tastes, the interests of the class, gives lip service to its ideals and shibboleths, and is willing to autumn, accommodate the interests of libor thesis its senior members, he can move profitably among our establishment’s parts. If, for example, you are Laurence Tribe in 1984, Harvard professor of autumn leaves essays law, leftist pillar of the establishment, you can “write” your magnum opus by small bar business, using the products of autumn leaves your student assistant, Ron Klain. A decade later, after Klain admits to having written some parts of the book, and the other parts are found to be verbatim or paraphrases of a book published in 1974, you can claim (perhaps correctly) that your plagiarism was “inadvertent,” and you can count on the Law School’s dean, Elena Kagan, to appoint a committee including former and future Harvard president Derek Bok that issues a secret report that “closes” the incident. Market. Incidentally, Kagan ends up a justice of the Supreme Court. Not one of these people did their jobs: the professor did not write the book himself, the assistant plagiarized instead of researching, the dean and the committee did not hold the leaves essays, professor accountable, and all ended up rewarded. Essay Photographies Representation. By contrast, for example, learned papers and distinguished careers in leaves, climatology at MIT (Richard Lindzen) or UVA (S.
Fred Singer) are not enough for their questions about essay history photographies, “global warming” to be taken seriously. For our ruling class, identity always trumps. Much less does membership in the ruling class depend on high academic achievement. Leaves Essays. To see something closer to an academic meritocracy consider France, where elected officials have little power, a vast bureaucracy explicitly controls details from how babies are raised to small bar business, how to make cheese, and people get into and advance in that bureaucracy strictly by competitive exams . Hence for good or ill, France’s ruling class are bright people — certifiably. Autumn Leaves Essays. Not ours.
But didn’t ours go to Harvard and Princeton and Stanford? Didn’t most of them get good grades? Yes. But while getting into the Ecole Nationale d’Administration or the Ecole Polytechnique or the dozens of other entry points to France’s ruling class requires outperforming others in blindly graded exams, and graduating from such places requires passing exams that many fail, getting into America’s “top schools” is less a matter of passing exams than of showing up with acceptable grades and an attractive social profile. American secondary schools are generous with their As.
Since the 1970s, it has been virtually impossible to flunk out of American colleges. And it is an history open secret that “the best” colleges require the least work and leaves give out the highest grade point averages. No, our ruling class recruits and renews itself not through meritocracy but rather by taking into itself people whose most prominent feature is their commitment to fit in. The most successful neither write books and papers that stand up to criticism nor release their academic records. Thus does our ruling class stunt itself through negative selection. On Friendship In Of And Men. But the more it has dumbed itself down, the more it has defined itself by the presumption of intellectual superiority.
Its attitude is key to understanding our bipartisan ruling class. Its first tenet is that “we” are the best and brightest while the rest of Americans are retrograde, racist, and dysfunctional unless properly constrained. How did this replace the Founding generation’s paradigm that “all men are created equal”? The notion of human equality was always a hard sell, because experience teaches us that we are so unequal in autumn leaves, so many ways, and because making one’s self superior is so tempting that Lincoln called it “the old serpent, you work I’ll eat.” But human equality made sense to our Founding generation because they believed that all men are made in the image and on friendship and men likeness of God, because they were yearning for equal treatment under British law, or because they had read John Locke. It did not take long for their paradigm to be challenged by interest and by “science.” By the autumn leaves essays, 1820s, as J. C. Calhoun was reading in papers of, the best London journals that different breeds of animals and plants produce inferior or superior results, slave owners were citing the Negroes’ deficiencies to argue that they should remain slaves indefinitely. Lots of others were reading Ludwig Feuerbach’s rendition of Hegelian philosophy, according to which biblical injunctions reflect the leaves, fantasies of alienated human beings or, in the young Karl Marx’s formulation, that ethical thought is “superstructural” to material reality. By 1853, when Sen. John Pettit of Ohio called “all men are created equal” “a self-evident lie,” much of America’s educated class had already absorbed the “scientific” notion (which Darwin only popularized) that man is the essay, product of chance mutation and autumn leaves essays natural selection of the fittest. Accordingly, by nature, superior men subdue inferior ones as they subdue lower beings or try to improve them as they please.
Hence while it pleased the abolitionists to believe in papers of, freeing Negroes and improving them, it also pleased them to believe that Southerners had to leaves essays, be punished and reconstructed by force. As the 19th century ended, the educated class’s religious fervor turned to social reform: they were sure that because man is a mere part of evolutionary nature, man could be improved, and that they, the most highly evolved of all, were the improvers. Thus began the Progressive Era. When Woodrow Wilson in 1914 was asked “can’t you let anything alone?” he answered with, “I let everything alone that you can show me is essay on friendship in of mice and men, not itself moving in the wrong direction, but I am not going to let those things alone that I see are going down-hill.” Wilson spoke for the thousands of well-off Americans who patronized the spas at places like Chautauqua and leaves essays Lake Mohonk. By such upper-middle-class waters, progressives who imagined themselves the world’s examples and the world’s reformers dreamt big dreams of establishing order, justice, and peace at home and abroad. Neither were they shy about their desire for power.
Wilson was the first American statesman to argue that the Founders had done badly by depriving the U.S. government of the power to reshape American society. Nor was Wilson the last to invade a foreign country (Mexico) to “teach [them] to elect good men.” World War I and the chaos at home and abroad that followed it discredited the indenting long quotes, Progressives in the American people’s eyes. Their international schemes had brought blood and promised more. Their domestic management had not improved Americans’ lives, but given them a taste of arbitrary government, including Prohibition.
The Progressives, for their part, found it fulfilling to attribute the failure of their schemes to the American people’s backwardness, to something deeply wrong with America. The American people had failed them because democracy in its American form perpetuated the worst in humanity. Thus Progressives began to look down on the masses, to look on leaves, themselves as the papers of, vanguard, and to look abroad for examples to emulate. The cultural divide between the “educated class” and the rest of the country opened in the interwar years. Some Progressives joined the “vanguard of the proletariat,” the Communist Party. Many more were deeply sympathetic to Soviet Russia, as they were to leaves, Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany. Not just the Nation , but also the New York Times and National Geographic found much to be imitated in these regimes because they promised energetically to transcend their peoples’ ways and to build “the new man.” Above all, our educated class was bitter about America. In 1925 the American Civil Liberties Union sponsored a legal challenge to a Tennessee law that required teaching the biblical account of creation. The ensuing trial, radio broadcast nationally, as well as the subsequent hit movie Inherit the Wind , were the occasion for what one might have called the Chautauqua class to drive home the point that Americans who believed in the Bible were willful ignoramuses.
As World War II approached, some American Progressives supported the Soviet Union (and its ally, Nazi Germany) and others Great Britain and essay France. But Progressives agreed on one thing: the approaching war should be blamed on autumn essays, the majority of representation Americans, because they had refused to lead the League of Nations. Darryl Zanuck produced the critically acclaimed movie [Woodrow] Wilson featuring Cedric Hardwicke as Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, who allegedly brought on the war by autumn essays, appealing to American narrow-mindedness against libor market, Wilson’s benevolent genius. Franklin Roosevelt brought the Chautauqua class into his administration and began the process that turned them into rulers. FDR described America’s problems in technocratic terms. America’s problems would be fixed by a “brain trust” (picked by leaves, him). His New Deal’s solutions — the essay, alphabet-soup “independent” agencies that have run America ever since — turned many Progressives into powerful bureaucrats and then into lobbyists. As the leaves, saying goes, they came to Washington to do good, and stayed to do well.
As their number and libor thesis sense of importance grew, so did their distaste for common Americans. Believing itself “scientific,” this Progressive class sought to explain its differences from its neighbors in “scientific” terms. The most elaborate of these attempts was Theodor Adorno’s widely acclaimed The Authoritarian Personality (1948). It invented a set of autumn essays criteria by which to define personality traits, ranked these traits and their intensity in essay mice and men, any given person on leaves, what it called the “F scale” (F for fascist), interviewed hundreds of literature Americans, and concluded that most who were not liberal Democrats were latent fascists. This way of thinking about non-Progressives filtered down to autumn essays, college curricula. In 1963-64 for example, I was assigned Herbert McCloskey’s Conservatism and Personality (1958) at Rutgers’s Eagleton Institute of Politics as a paradigm of methodological correctness. The author had defined conservatism in terms of answers to certain questions, had defined a number of personality disorders in terms of other questions, and run a survey that proved “scientifically” that conservatives were maladjusted ne’er-do-well ignoramuses. (My class project, titled “Liberalism and Personality,” following the burden essay photographies, same methodology, proved just as scientifically that liberals suffered from the very same social diseases, and even more amusing ones.) The point is this: though not one in a thousand of today’s bipartisan ruling class ever heard of Adorno or McCloskey, much less can explain the autumn leaves essays, Feuerbachian-Marxist notion that human judgments are “epiphenomenal” products of spiritual or material alienation, the notion that the common people’s words are, like grunts, mere signs of pain, pleasure, and ap english literature essay questions frustration, is now axiomatic among our ruling class. Autumn. They absorbed it osmotically, second — or thirdhand, from their education and from companions.
Truly, after Barack Obama described his opponents’ clinging to “God and guns” as a characteristic of inferior Americans, he justified himself by pointing out he had said “what everybody knows is true.” Confident “knowledge” that “some of us, the ones who matter,” have grasped truths that the common herd cannot, truths that direct us, truths the grasping of which entitles us to discount what the ruled say and to ap english literature and composition questions, presume what they mean, made our Progressives into a class long before they took power. Our ruling class’s agenda is power for autumn essays itself. While it stakes its claim through intellectual-moral pretense, it holds power by in of and men, one of the autumn leaves essays, oldest and burden history photographies representation most prosaic of means: patronage and promises thereof. Like left-wing parties always and leaves essays everywhere, it is a “machine,” that is, based on providing tangible rewards to papers of, its members. Autumn Leaves. Such parties often provide rank-and-file activists with modest livelihoods and enhance mightily the burden history photographies, upper levels’ wealth. Because this is so, whatever else such parties might accomplish, they must feed the machine by transferring money or jobs or privileges — civic as well as economic — to leaves, the party’s clients, directly or indirectly. This, incidentally, is close to Aristotle’s view of democracy. Hence our ruling class’s standard approach to any and all matters, its solution to any and all problems, is to increase the power of the government — meaning of those who run it, meaning themselves, to profit those who pay with political support for privileged jobs, contracts, etc. Hence more power for the ruling class has been our ruling class’s solution not just for economic downturns and social ills but also for hurricanes and tornadoes, global cooling and global warming. And Composition Essay. A priori , one might wonder whether enriching and empowering individuals of autumn a certain kind can make Americans kinder and gentler, much less control the weather.
But there can be no doubt that such power and money makes Americans ever more dependent on those who wield it. Small Bar Business. Let us now look at what this means in our time. By taxing and parceling out more than a third of what Americans produce, through regulations that reach deep into American life, our ruling class is making itself the arbiter of autumn leaves essays wealth and poverty. While the economic value of anything depends on sellers and small buyers agreeing on that value as civil equals in the absence of force, modern government is about nothing if not tampering with civil equality. Autumn. By endowing some in society with power to force others to papers of, sell cheaper than they would, and forcing others yet to buy at leaves, higher prices — even to burden essay history photographies, buy in the first place — modern government makes valuable some things that are not, and devalues others that are. Thus if you are not among the favored guests at the table where officials make detailed lists of who is to receive what at whose expense, you are on the menu.
Eventually, pretending forcibly that valueless things have value dilutes the currency’s value for all. Laws and regulations nowadays are longer than ever because length is autumn leaves essays, needed to specify how people will be treated unequally. For example, the health care bill of 2010 takes more than 2,700 pages to make sure not just that some states will be treated differently from others because their senators offered key political support, but more importantly to codify bargains between the government and various parts of the health care industry, state governments, and large employers about who would receive what benefits (e.g., public employee unions and auto workers) and who would pass what indirect taxes onto the general public. The financial regulation bill of papers of 2010, far from leaves setting univocal rules for the entire financial industry in few words, spends some 3,000 pages (at this writing) tilting the history photographies representation, field exquisitely toward some and away from others. Even more significantly, these and other products of Democratic and Republican administrations and Congresses empower countless boards and commissions arbitrarily to protect some persons and companies, while ruining others . Thus in 2008 the essays, Republican administration first bailed out burden photographies, Bear Stearns, then let Lehman Brothers sink in the ensuing panic, but then rescued Goldman Sachs by infusing cash into autumn its principal debtor, AIG. Then, its Democratic successor used similarly naked discretionary power (and money appropriated for another purpose) to indenting quotes in an essay, give major stakes in the auto industry to leaves, labor unions that support it. Nowadays, the members of our ruling class admit that they do not read the laws. They don’t have to.
Because modern laws are primarily grants of discretion, all anybody has to know about them is whom they empower. By making economic rules dependent on discretion, our bipartisan ruling class teaches that prosperity is to be bought with the coin of political support. Thus in burden essay history photographies representation, the 1990s and 2000s, as Democrats and Republicans forced banks to make loans for houses to people and at rates they would not otherwise have considered, builders and autumn investors had every reason to make as much money as they could from the ensuing inflation of plan housing prices. When the bubble burst, only those connected with the ruling class at the bottom and at the top were bailed out. Essays. Similarly, by taxing the use of carbon fuels and essay subsidizing “alternative energy,” our ruling class created arguably the autumn leaves, world’s biggest opportunity for making money out of things that few if any would buy absent its intervention. The ethanol industry and its ensuing diversions of wealth exist exclusively because of subsidies.
The prospect of burden essay history photographies representation legislation that would put a price on carbon emissions and allot certain amounts to certain companies set off a feeding frenzy among large companies to show support for a “green agenda,” because such allotments would be worth tens of autumn leaves essays billions of and composition essay dollars. That is why companies hired some 2,500 lobbyists in 2009 to deepen their involvement in “climate change.” At the very least, such involvement profits them by making them into privileged collectors of carbon taxes. Any “green jobs” thus created are by definition creatures of subsidies — that is, of privilege. What effect creating such privileges may have on “global warming” is debatable. But it surely increases the autumn essays, number of people dependent on the ruling class, and indenting long quotes essay teaches Americans that satisfying that class is a surer way of making a living than producing goods and leaves services that people want to buy. Beyond patronage, picking economic winners and losers redirects the American people’s energies to model, tasks that the political class deems more worthy than what Americans choose for themselves. Essays. John Kenneth Galbraith’s characterization of America as “private wealth amidst public squalor” (The Affluent Society , 1958) has ever encapsulated our best and brightest’s complaint: left to indenting quotes, themselves, Americans use land inefficiently in suburbs and exurbs, making it necessary to use energy to transport them to jobs and shopping.
Americans drive big cars, eat lots of meat as well as other unhealthy things, and go to essays, the doctor whenever they feel like it. Ap English And Composition Essay Questions. Americans think it justice to spend the money they earn to satisfy their private desires even though the ruling class knows that justice lies in improving the community and the planet. Essays. The ruling class knows that Americans must learn to live more densely and long quotes essay close to work, that they must drive smaller cars and change their lives to use less energy, that their dietary habits must improve, that they must accept limits in how much medical care they get, that they must divert more of their money to support people, cultural enterprises, and plans for the planet that the essays, ruling class deems worthier. Essay Representation. So, ever-greater taxes and intrusive regulations are the main wrenches by which the American people can be improved (and, yes, by which the autumn essays, ruling class feeds and grows). The 2010 medical law is a template for the ruling class’s economic modus operandi: the government taxes citizens to papers of, pay for medical care and leaves essays requires citizens to purchase health insurance. The money thus taken and directed is money that the citizens themselves might have used to pay for medical care.
In exchange for the money, the government promises to provide care through its “system.” But then all the boards, commissions, guidelines, procedures, and “best practices” that constitute “the system” become the arbiters of what any citizen ends up getting. The citizen might end up dissatisfied with what “the system” offers. But when he gave up his money, he gave up the plan, power to choose, and became dependent on all the boards and commissions that his money also pays for and that raise the autumn, cost of questions care. Similarly, in 2008 the House Ways and Means Committee began considering a plan to force citizens who own Individual Retirement Accounts (IRAs) to transfer those funds into government-run “guaranteed retirement accounts.” If the government may force citizens to buy health insurance, by what logic can it not force them to trade private ownership and control of retirement money for a guarantee as sound as the government itself? Is it not clear that the autumn leaves, government knows more about managing retirement income than individuals? In Congressional Government (1885) Woodrow Wilson left no doubt: the essay, U.S. Constitution prevents the government from leaves essays meeting the country’s needs by essay in of mice, enumerating rights that the government may not infringe. (“Congress shall make no law…” says the essays, First Amendment, typically.) Our electoral system, based on single member districts, empowers individual voters at the expense of “responsible parties.” Hence the ruling class’s perpetual agenda has been to diminish the role of the bar business plan, citizenry’s elected representatives, enhancing that of leaves party leaders as well as of groups willing to partner in the government’s plans, and to craft a “living” Constitution in which restrictions on government give way to “positive rights” — meaning charters of government power. Consider representation.
Following Wilson, American Progressives have always wanted to papers of, turn the U.S. Congress from the role defined by leaves, James Madison’s Federalist #10 , “refine and enlarge the public’s view,” to something like the thesis, British Parliament, which ratifies government actions. Although Britain’s electoral system — like ours, single members elected in autumn leaves, historic districts by plurality vote — had made members of Parliament responsive to in of and men, their constituents in essays, ancient times, by Wilson’s time the growing importance of long quotes parties made MPs beholden to autumn essays, party leaders. Hence whoever controls the majority party controls both Parliament and indenting long quotes in an essay the government. In America, the process by which party has become (almost) as important began with the Supreme Court’s 1962 decision in Baker v. Carr which, by setting the autumn leaves, single standard “one man, one vote” for congressional districts, ended up legalizing the practice of “gerrymandering,” concentrating the opposition party’s voters into as few districts as possible while placing one’s own voters into as many as possible likely to yield victories. Republican and Democratic state legislatures have gerrymandered for a half century. That is why today’s Congress consists more and more of persons who represent their respective party establishments — not nearly as much as in Britain, but heading in that direction. Once districts are gerrymandered “safe” for one party or another, the voters therein count less because party leaders can count more on elected legislators to toe the party line. To the extent party leaders do not have to worry about voters, they can choose privileged interlocutors, representing those in on friendship in of mice and men, society whom they find most amenable. In America ever more since the 1930s — elsewhere in the world this practice is ubiquitous and long-standing — government has designated certain individuals, companies, and leaves essays organizations within each of society’s sectors as (junior) partners in elaborating laws and administrative rules for those sectors.
The government empowers the persons it has chosen over those not chosen, deems them the sector’s true representatives, and rewards them. Quotes In An Essay. They become part of the autumn leaves essays, ruling class. Thus in 2009-10 the American Medical Association (AMA) strongly supported the new medical care law, which the administration touted as having the support of “the doctors” even though the vast majority of America’s 975,000 physicians opposed it. Those who run the AMA, however, have a government contract as exclusive providers of the small bar business, codes by which physicians and hospitals bill the government for their services. The millions of dollars that flow thereby to the AMA’s officers keep them in line, while the essays, impracticality of doing without the essay representation, billing codes tamps down rebellion in the doctor ranks. When the administration wanted to bolster its case that the state of Arizona’s enforcement of federal immigration laws was offensive to Hispanics, the National Association of Chiefs of Police — whose officials depend on the administration for autumn their salaries — issued a statement that the laws would endanger all Americans by raising Hispanics’ animosity. This reflected conversations with the administration rather than a vote of the nation’s police chiefs. Similarly, modern labor unions are ever less bunches of workers banding together and ever more bundled under the aegis of an organization chosen jointly by employers and government. Prototypical is the Service Employees International Union, which grew spectacularly by libor market model, persuading managers of government agencies as well as of publicly funded private entities that placing their employees in the SEIU would relieve them of responsibility. Autumn Essays. Not by papers of, being elected by workers’ secret ballots did the leaves essays, SEIU conquer workplace after workplace, but rather by such deals, or by the union presenting what it claims are cards from workers approving of burden representation. The union gets 2 percent of the workers’ pay, which it recycles as contributions to the Democratic Party, which it recycles in greater power over autumn, public employees.
The union’s leadership is part of the ruling class’s beating heart. The point is that a doctor, a building contractor, a janitor, or a schoolteacher counts in today’s America insofar as he is part of the hierarchy of a sector organization affiliated with the ruling class. Less and less do such persons count as voters. Ordinary people have also gone a long way toward losing equal treatment under law. The America described in civics books, in which no one could be convicted or fined except by a jury of his peers for having violated laws passed by on friendship in of, elected representatives, started disappearing when the autumn essays, New Deal inaugurated today’s administrative state — in which bureaucrats make, enforce, and adjudicate nearly all the rules.
Today’s legal-administrative texts are incomprehensibly detailed and freighted with provisions crafted exquisitely to affect equal individuals unequally. Papers Of. The bureaucrats do not enforce the rules themselves so much as whatever “agency policy” they choose to autumn leaves, draw from them in any given case. If you protest any “agency policy” you will be informed that it was formulated with input from “the public.” But not from the indenting quotes in an, likes of you. Disregard for the text of laws — for the dictionary meaning of words and the intentions of those who wrote them — in favor of the decider’s discretion has permeated our ruling class from the Supreme Court to the lowest local agency. Ever since Oliver Wendell Holmes argued in 1920 ( Missouri v. Holland ) that presidents, Congresses, and judges could not be bound by the U.S. Constitution regarding matters that the people who wrote and ratified it could not have foreseen, it has become conventional wisdom among our ruling class that they may transcend the Constitution while pretending allegiance to it. Autumn Essays. They began by stretching such constitutional terms as “interstate commerce” and ap english literature “due process,” then transmuting others, e.g., “search and autumn seizure,” into “privacy.” Thus in 1973 the Supreme Court endowed its invention of “privacy” with a “penumbra” that it deemed “broad enough to indenting long quotes in an essay, encompass a woman’s decision whether or not to terminate her pregnancy.” The court gave no other constitutional reasoning, period . Perfunctory to the point of autumn essays mockery, this constitutional talk was to reassure the small plan, American people that the ruling class was acting within the autumn leaves, Constitution’s limitations. By the 1990s federal courts were invalidating amendments to and men, state constitutions passed by referenda to essays, secure the “positive rights” they invent, because these expressions of popular will were inconsistent with the constitution they themselves were construing. By 2010 some in the ruling class felt confident enough to dispense with the charade. Essay Mice. Asked what in the Constitution allows Congress and autumn essays the president to force every American to purchase health insurance, House Speaker Nancy Pelosi replied: “Are you serious?
Are you serious?” No surprise then that lower court judges and bureaucrats take liberties with laws, regulations, and contracts. That is why legal words that say you are in the right avail you less in today’s America than being on the right side of the persons who decide what they want those words to mean. As the discretionary powers of officeholders and of their informal entourages have grown, the importance of policy and of law itself is declining, citizenship is becoming vestigial, and the American people become ever more dependent. Disaggregating and ap english essay Dispiriting. The ruling class is keener to reform the American people’s family and spiritual lives than their economic and essays civic ones. In no other areas is the ruling class’s self-definition so definite, its contempt for opposition so patent, its Kulturkampf so open. It believes that the Christian family (and the Orthodox Jewish one too) is libor market model, rooted in and perpetuates the ignorance commonly called religion, divisive social prejudices, and repressive gender roles, that it is the greatest barrier to human progress because it looks to its very particular interest — often defined as mere coherence against outsiders who most often know better. Autumn Leaves. Thus the thesis, family prevents its members from playing their proper roles in social reform. Autumn. Worst of literature questions all, it reproduces itself. Since marriage is the family’s fertile seed, government at all levels, along with “mainstream” academics and media, have waged war on it. They legislate, regulate, and autumn exhort in papers of, support not of “the family” — meaning married parents raising children — but rather of “families,” meaning mostly households based on something other than marriage.
The institution of no-fault divorce diminished the distinction between cohabitation and marriage — except that husbands are held financially responsible for the children they father, while out-of-wedlock fathers are not. The tax code penalizes marriage and forces those married couples who raise their own children to subsidize “child care” for those who do not. Autumn. Top Republicans and ap english essay questions Democrats have also led society away from the very notion of marital fidelity by precept as well as by parading their affairs. For example, in 1997 the Democratic administration’s secretary of defense and the Republican Senate’s majority leader (joined by the New York Times et al.) condemned the military’s practice of punishing officers who had extramarital affairs. While the military had assumed that honoring marital vows is as fundamental to the integrity of autumn leaves its units as it is to papers of, that of society, consensus at the top declared that insistence on fidelity is “contrary to societal norms.” Not surprisingly, rates of autumn leaves marriage in America have decreased as out-of-wedlock births have increased. The biggest demographic consequence has been that about ap english literature and composition, one in five of all households are women alone or with children, in which case they have about a four in 10 chance of living in poverty. Autumn Leaves. Since unmarried mothers often are or expect to be clients of government services, it is bar business plan, not surprising that they are among the Democratic Party’s most faithful voters. While our ruling class teaches that relationships among men, women, and children are contingent, it also insists that the relationship between each of essays them and the state is fundamental. History Photographies Representation. That is why such as Hillary Clinton have written law review articles and books advocating a direct relationship between the government and children, effectively abolishing the presumption of parental authority. Hence whereas within living memory school nurses could not administer an aspirin to a child without the autumn, parents’ consent, the people who run America’s schools nowadays administer pregnancy tests and ship girls off to abortion clinics without the parents’ knowledge.
Parents are not allowed to object to what their children are taught. But the government may and burden history often does object to how parents raise children. The ruling class’s assumption is essays, that what it mandates for children is correct ipso facto, while what parents do is potentially abusive. It only bar business plan takes an anonymous accusation of abuse for parents to be taken away in handcuffs until they prove their innocence. Only sheer political weight (and in leaves essays, California, just barely) has preserved parents’ right to homeschool their children against the ruling class’s desire to accomplish what Woodrow Wilson so yearned: “to make young gentlemen as unlike their fathers as possible.” At stake are the most important questions: What is the right way for human beings to live? By what standard is essay photographies, anything true or good? Who gets to decide what? Implicit in Wilson’s words and explicit in our ruling class’s actions is the dismissal, as the ways of outdated “fathers,” of the essays, answers that most Americans would give to these questions. This dismissal of the American people’s intellectual, spiritual, and moral substance is the very heart of what our ruling class is bar business, about. Autumn Essays. Its principal article of papers of faith, its claim to essays, the right to decide for others, is libor model thesis, precisely that it knows things and operates by standards beyond others’ comprehension.
While the unenlightened ones believe that man is created in the image and likeness of God and that we are subject to His and to His nature’s laws, the enlightened ones know that we are products of evolution, driven by chance, the environment, and the will to primacy. While the un-enlightened are stuck with the antiquated notion that ordinary human minds can reach objective judgments about good and evil, better and worse through reason, the enlightened ones know that all such judgments are subjective and that ordinary people can no more be trusted with reason than they can with guns . Because ordinary people will pervert reason with ideology, religion, or interest, science is “science” only in the “right” hands. Consensus among the right people is the only standard of autumn leaves truth. Facts and logic matter only insofar as proper authority acknowledges them. That is why the ruling class is united and adamant about nothing so much as its right to pronounce definitive, “scientific” judgment on whatever it chooses. When the government declares, and its associated press echoes that “scientists say” this or that, ordinary people — or for that matter scientists who “don’t say,” or are not part of the ruling class — lose any right to see the information that went into what “scientists say.” Thus when Virginia’s attorney general subpoenaed the data by which Professor Michael Mann had concluded, while paid by the state of Virginia, that the earth’s temperatures are rising “like a hockey stick” from millennial stability — a conclusion on and composition, which billions of dollars’ worth of decisions were made — to investigate the possibility of autumn leaves essays fraud, the University of ap english essay questions Virginia’s faculty senate condemned any inquiry into “scientific endeavor that has satisfied peer review standards” claiming that demands for data “send a chilling message to scientists…and indeed scholars in any discipline.” The Washington Post editorialized that the attorney general’s demands for data amounted to “an assault on reason.” The fact that the “hockey stick” conclusion stands discredited and Mann and autumn leaves associates are on record manipulating peer review, the fact that science-by-secret-data is an oxymoron, the very distinction between truth and error, all matter far less to the ruling class than the distinction between itself and those they rule. By identifying science and reason with themselves, our rulers delegitimize opposition. Though they cannot prevent Americans from worshiping God, they can make it as socially disabling as smoking — to be done furtively and with a bad social conscience. Though they cannot make Americans wish they were Europeans, they continue to press upon essay history photographies this nation of leaves essays refugees from the rest of the world the notion that Americans ought to and men, live by “world standards .” Each day, the ruling class produces new “studies” that show that one or another of Americans’ habits is in need of reform, and that those Americans most resistant to reform are pitiably, perhaps criminally, wrong.
Thus does it go about disaggregating and dispiriting the ruled. America’s best and brightest believe themselves qualified and duty bound to direct the lives not only of Americans but of foreigners as well. George W. Bush’s 2005 inaugural statement that America cannot be free until the essays, whole world is free and hence that America must push and prod mankind to freedom was but an extrapolation of the sentiments of America’s Progressive class, first articulated by such as Princeton’s Woodrow Wilson and papers of Columbia’s Nicholas Murray Butler. But while the early Progressives expected the autumn leaves, rest of the world to follow peacefully, today’s ruling class makes decisions about photographies representation, war and peace at least as much forcibly to tinker with the autumn leaves, innards of foreign bodies politic as to protect America. Indeed, they conflate the two purposes in the face of the American people’s insistence to draw a bright line between war against our enemies and peace with non-enemies in plan, whose affairs we do not interfere. That is why, from Wilson to Kissinger, the ruling class has complained that the American people oscillate between bellicosity and “isolationism.” Because our ruling class deems unsophisticated the American people’s perennial preference for leaves essays decisive military action or none, its default solution to international threats has been to commit blood and indenting treasure to long-term, twilight efforts to reform the autumn leaves essays, world’s Vietnams, Somalias, Iraqs, and Afghanistans, believing that changing hearts and minds is the prerequisite of peace and that it knows how to change them. The apparently endless series of wars in which our ruling class has embroiled America, wars that have achieved nothing worthwhile at great cost in lives and treasure, has contributed to defining it, and to discrediting it — but not in its own eyes.
Rather, even as our ruling class has lectured, cajoled, and sometimes intruded violently to reform foreign countries in its own image, it has apologized to them for America not having matched that image — their private image. Woodrow Wilson began this double game in 1919, when he assured Europe’s peoples that America had mandated him to demand their agreement to Article X of the peace treaty (the League of Nations) and then swore to the American people that Article X was the Europeans’ non-negotiable demand. The fact that the U.S. government had seized control of transatlantic cable communications helped hide (for a while) that the League scheme was merely the American Progressives’ private dream. In our time, this double game is quotidian on the evening news. Notably, President Obama apologized to Europe because “the United States has fallen short of meeting its responsibilities” to reduce carbon emissions by taxation. But the American people never assumed such responsibility, and oppose doing so. Hence President Obama was not apologizing for anything that he or anyone he respected had done, but rather blaming his fellow Americans for not doing what he thinks they should do while glossing over the fact that the Europeans had done the taxing but not the reducing. Wilson redux.
Similarly, Obama “apologized” to papers of, Europeans because some Americans — not him and his friends — had shown “arrogance and been dismissive” toward them, and to the world because President Truman had used the atom bomb to end World War II. So President Clinton apologized to Africans because some Americans held African slaves until 1865 and others were mean to Negroes thereafter — not himself and his friends, of course. So assistant secretary of state Michael Posner apologized to Chinese diplomats for Arizona’s law that directs police to check immigration status. Republicans engage in that sort of thing as well: former Soviet dictator Mikhail Gorbachev tells us that in 1987 then vice president George H. W. Bush distanced himself from autumn leaves essays his own administration by telling him, “Reagan is a conservative, an long quotes essay extreme conservative. All the dummies and blockheads are with him…” This is all about a class of Americans distinguishing itself from its inferiors.
It recalls the Pharisee in the Temple: “Lord, I thank thee that I am not like other men…” In sum, our ruling class does not like the rest of America. Most of all does it dislike that so many Americans think America is substantially different from the rest of the world and like it that way. For our ruling class, however, America is a work in autumn leaves, progress, just like the rest the quotes essay, world, and they are the engineers. Describing America’s country class is autumn, problematic because it is long in an essay, so heterogeneous. It has no privileged podiums, and speaks with many voices, often inharmonious. It shares above all the desire to be rid of rulers it regards inept and haughty. It defines itself practically in terms of reflexive reaction against the rulers’ defining ideas and proclivities — e.g., ever higher taxes and expanding government, subsidizing political favorites, social engineering, approval of abortion, etc. Autumn Essays. Many want to restore a way of essay questions life largely superseded.
Demographically, the country class is the other side of the ruling class’s coin: its most distinguishing characteristics are marriage, children, and religious practice. While the autumn essays, country class, like the ap english literature and composition essay questions, ruling class, includes the professionally accomplished and the mediocre, geniuses and dolts, it is essays, different because of papers of its non-orientation to government and its members’ yearning to rule themselves rather than be ruled by autumn leaves, others. Even when members of the country class happen to be government officials or officers of major corporations, their concerns are essentially private; in their view, government owes to its people equal treatment rather than action to correct what anyone perceives as imbalance or grievance. Hence they tend to small bar business plan, oppose special treatment, whether for corporations or for essays social categories. Rather than gaming government regulations, they try to stay as far from papers of them as possible. Thus the Supreme Court’s 2005 decision in Kelo , which allows the private property of some to be taken by others with better connections to government, reminded the autumn leaves, country class that government is not its friend. Negative orientation to essay in of mice and men, privilege distinguishes the essays, corporate officer who tries to keep his company from ap english literature and composition joining the Business Council of autumn essays large corporations who have close ties with government from the fellow in the next office. The first wants the on friendship mice and men, company to essays, grow by producing. The second wants it to grow by moving to the trough. Long In An Essay. It sets apart the schoolteacher who resents the union to autumn, which he is forced to belong for putting the union’s interests above those of parents who want to choose their children’s schools. In general, the country class includes all those in stations high and low who are aghast at how relatively little honest work yields, by comparison with what just a little connection with the right bureaucracy can get you.
It includes those who take the on friendship in of mice and men, side of outsiders against insiders, of leaves small institutions against photographies, large ones, of local government against autumn leaves essays, the state or federal. The country class is convinced that big business, big government, and big finance are linked as never before and that ordinary people are more unequal than ever. Members of the country class who want to rise in their profession through sheer competence try at once to avoid the ruling class’s rituals while guarding against infringing its prejudices. Averse to wheedling, they tend to think that exams should play a major role in getting or advancing in jobs, that records of bar business performance — including academic ones — should be matters of public record, and that professional disputes should be settled by autumn, open argument. For such people, the Supreme Court’s 2009 decision in Ricci , upholding the right of firefighters to be promoted according to the results of a professional exam, revived the hope that competence may sometimes still trump political connections. Nothing has set the country class apart, defined it, made it conscious of itself, given it whatever coherence it has, so much as the ruling class’s insistence that people other than themselves are intellectually and hence otherwise humanly inferior. Persons who were brought up to believe themselves as worthy as anyone, who manage their own lives to burden essay, their own satisfaction, naturally resent politicians of autumn both parties who say that the issues of modern life are too complex for any but themselves. Most are insulted by the ruling class’s dismissal of history photographies opposition as mere “anger and frustration” — an imputation of stupidity — while others just scoff at the claim that the ruling class’s bureaucratic language demonstrates superior intelligence. Leaves. A few ask the fundamental question: Since when and by what right does intelligence trump human equality?
Moreover, if the politicians are so smart, why have they made life worse? The country class actually believes that America’s ways are superior to the rest of the model thesis, world’s, and regards most of mankind as less free, less prosperous, and less virtuous. Thus while it delights in croissants and thinks Toyota’s factory methods are worth imitating, it dislikes the idea of autumn adhering to “world standards.” This class also takes part in burden essay photographies representation, the U.S. Leaves. armed forces body and soul: nearly all the enlisted, non-commissioned officers and officers under flag rank belong to this class in every measurable way. Few vote for small the Democratic Party. You do not doubt that you are amidst the country class rather than with the ruling class when the American flag passes by or “God Bless America” is autumn essays, sung after seven innings of baseball, and small bar business most people show reverence. The same people wince at the National Football League’s plaintive renditions of the “Star Spangled Banner.” Unlike the ruling class, the country class does not share a single intellectual orthodoxy, set of tastes, or ideal lifestyle. Its different sectors draw their notions of human equality from leaves essays different sources: Christians and papers of Jews believe it is God’s law. Autumn. Libertarians assert it from ap english and composition questions Hobbesian and Darwinist bases. Many consider equality the foundation of essays Americanism.
Others just hate snobs. Some parts of the country class now follow the stars and on friendship in of and men the music out of Nashville, Tennessee, and Branson, Missouri — entertainment complexes larger than Hollywood’s — because since the 1970s most of Hollywood’s products have appealed more to the mores of the ruling class and leaves essays its underclass clients than to those of large percentages of Americans. The same goes for “popular music” and television. For some in essay in of mice and men, the country class Christian radio and TV are the lodestone of sociopolitical taste, while the very secular Fox News serves the same purpose for others. While symphonies and opera houses around the country, as well as the stations that broadcast them, are firmly in the ruling class’s hands, a considerable part of the country class appreciates these things for their own sake. Autumn Essays. By that very token, the country class’s characteristic cultural venture — the homeschool movement — stresses the classics across the board in science, literature, music, and history even as the ruling class abandons them. Each of the country class’s diverse parts has its own agenda, which flows from the peculiar ways in burden essay, which the ruling class impacts its concerns. Independent businesspeople are naturally more sensitive to the growth of privileged relations between government and their competitors. Persons who would like to lead their community rue the advantages that Democratic and Republican party establishments are accruing. Parents of young children and autumn leaves young women anxious about marriage worry that cultural directives from on high are dispelling their dreams.
The faithful to God sense persecution. All resent higher taxes and loss of freedom. More and more realize that their own agenda’s advancement requires concerting resistance to the ruling class across the burden essay history, board. Not being at autumn essays, the table when government makes the plan, rules about how you must run your business, knowing that you will be required to autumn leaves, pay more, work harder, and burden essay history photographies representation show deference for the privilege of making less money, is the leaves essays, independent businessman’s nightmare. But what to do about it? In our time the interpenetration of government and business — the network of subsidies, preferences, and regulations — is so thick and literature and composition essay deep, the people “at the table” receive and recycle into politics so much money, that independent businesspeople cannot hope to undo any given regulation or grant of privilege. Just as no manufacturer can hope to reduce the subsidies that raise his fuel costs, no set of autumn essays doctors can shield themselves from the bar business, increased costs and bureaucracy resulting from government mandates.
Hence independent business’s agenda has been to resist the autumn, expansion of government in general, and of course to papers of, reduce taxes. Pursuit of this agenda with arguments about economic efficiency and autumn essays job creation — and through support of the Republican Party — usually results in enough relief to discourage more vigorous remonstrance. Sometimes, however, the economic argument is framed in small bar business plan, moral terms: “The sum of essays good government,” said Thomas Jefferson, is not taking “from the mouth of labor the on friendship in of mice, bread it has earned.” For government to advantage some at others’ expense, said he, “is to violate arbitrarily the first principle of association.” In our time, more and autumn more independent businesspeople have come to think of their economic problems in moral terms. But few realize how revolutionary that is. As bureaucrats and teachers’ unions disempowered neighborhood school boards, while the governments of towns, counties, and papers of states were becoming conduits for federal mandates, as the ruling class reduced the autumn, number and papers of importance of things that American communities could decide for themselves, America’s thirst for self-governance reawakened.
The fact that public employees are almost always paid more and autumn leaves essays have more generous benefits than the private sector people whose taxes support them only sharpened the sense among many in the country class that they now work for public employees rather than the other way around. But how to reverse the roles? How can voters regain control of government? Restoring localities’ traditional powers over schools, including standards, curriculum, and prayer, would take repudiating two generations of questions Supreme Court rulings. So would the restoration of traditional “police” powers over behavior in public places. Bringing public employee unions to leaves essays, heel is only incidentally a matter of cutting pay and benefits. As self-governance is crimped primarily by the powers of government personified in essay on friendship, its employees, restoring it involves primarily deciding that any number of functions now performed and autumn leaves the professional specialties who perform them, e.g., social workers, are superfluous or worse. Explaining to one’s self and small neighbors why such functions and personnel do more harm than good, while the ruling class brings its powers to bear to discredit you, is a very revolutionary thing to do. America’s pro-family movement is a reaction to the ruling class’s challenges: emptying marriage of legal sanction, promoting abortion, and progressively excluding parents from their children’s education. Americans reacted to autumn, these challenges primarily by sorting themselves out.
Close friendships and above all marriages became rarer between persons who think well of divorce, abortion, and government authority over children and those who do not. Quotes Essay. The homeschool movement, for autumn leaves which the Internet became the great facilitator, involves not only each family educating its own children, but also extensive and growing social, intellectual, and spiritual contact among like-minded persons. In short, the long in an, part of the country class that is most concerned with family matters has taken on something of a biological identity. Few in this part of the country class have any illusion, however, that simply retreating into private associations will long save their families from societal influences made to order to leaves essays, discredit their ways. But stopping the ruling class’s intrusions would require discrediting its entire conception of literature and composition questions man, of right and leaves essays wrong, as well as of the role of courts in popular government. That revolutionary task would involve far more than legislation. The ruling class’s manifold efforts to discredit and history photographies drive worship of God out of public life — not even the Soviet Union arrested students for wearing crosses or praying, or reading the Bible on autumn leaves essays, school property, as some U.S. localities have done in response to Supreme Court rulings — convinced many among the vast majority of long in an Americans who believe and autumn essays pray that today’s regime is ap english literature questions, hostile to the most important things of all. Every December, they are reminded that the ruling class deems the very word “Christmas” to be offensive.
Every time they try to manifest their religious identity in public affairs, they are deluged by accusations of autumn essays being “American Taliban” trying to set up a “theocracy.” Let members of the country class object to anything the ruling class says or does, and likely as not their objection will be characterized as “religious,” that is to say irrational, that is to say not to be considered on a par with the “science” of which the ruling class is the sole legitimate interpreter. Because aggressive, intolerant secularism is the moral and intellectual basis of the ruling class’s claim to rule, resistance to that rule, whether to and composition essay questions, the immorality of economic subsidies and privileges, or to the violation of the principle of equal treatment under equal law, or to its seizure of children’s education, must deal with secularism’s intellectual and moral core. This lies beyond the boundaries of leaves essays politics as the term is papers of, commonly understood. The ruling class’s appetite for deference, power, and perks grows. Essays. The country class disrespects its rulers, wants to curtail their power and reduce their perks. The ruling class wears on its sleeve the view that the rest of market model Americans are racist, greedy, and above all stupid.
The country class is ever more convinced that our rulers are corrupt, malevolent, and inept. The rulers want the ruled to shut up and obey. Leaves. The ruled want self-governance. The clash between the two is indenting long, about which side’s vision of essays itself and of the other is right and which is small, wrong. Leaves. Because each side — especially the ruling class — embodies its views on the issues, concessions by one side to another on any issue tend to discredit that side’s view of itself. One side or the other will prevail. The clash is as sure and momentous as its outcome is unpredictable. In this clash, the long essay, ruling class holds most of the cards: because it has established itself as the fount of autumn authority, its primacy is based on habits of deference. Breaking them, establishing other founts of bar business authority, other ways of doing things, would involve far more than electoral politics. Though the country class had long argued along with Edmund Burke against making revolutionary changes, it faces the uncomfortable question common to all who have had revolutionary changes imposed on autumn leaves, them: are we now to accept what was done to us just because it was done?
Sweeping away a half century’s accretions of bad habits — taking care to preserve the good among them — is hard enough. Establishing, even reestablishing, a set of better institutions and habits is much harder, especially as the country class wholly lacks organization. By contrast, the ruling class holds strong defensive positions and is well represented by the Democratic Party. But a two to bar business, one numerical disadvantage augurs defeat, while victory would leave it in control of a people whose confidence it cannot regain. Certainly the country class lacks its own political vehicle — and autumn leaves perhaps the small bar business, coherence to establish one. In the short term at least, the essays, country class has no alternative but to channel its political efforts through the Republican Party, which is eager for its support. But the Republican Party does not live to represent the country class. For it to do so, it would have to papers of, become principles-based, as it has not been since the mid-1860s.
The few who tried to make it so the party treated as rebels: Barry Goldwater and Ronald Reagan. The party helped defeat Goldwater. When it failed to autumn, stop Reagan, it saddled his and subsequent Republican administrations with establishmentarians who, under the Bush family, repudiated Reagan’s principles as much as they could. Barack Obama exaggerated in charging that Republicans had driven the country “into the ditch” all alone. But they had a hand in it. Essay Questions. Few Republican voters, never mind the larger country class, have confidence that the party is on their side.
Because, in the long run, the country class will not support a party as conflicted as today’s Republicans, those Republican politicians who really want to represent it will either reform the party in an unmistakable manner, or start a new one as Whigs like Abraham Lincoln started the Republican Party in the 1850s. The name of the party that will represent America’s country class is autumn leaves, far less important than what, precisely, it represents and how it goes about representing it because, for the foreseeable future, American politics will consist of confrontation between what we might call the Country Party and the ruling class. The Democratic Party having transformed itself into a unit with near-European discipline, challenging it would seem to require empowering a rival party at least as disciplined. What other antidote is there to government by one party but government by another party? Yet this logic, though all too familiar to most of the world, has always been foreign to America and naturally leads further in the direction toward which the ruling class has led.
Any country party would have to be wise and skillful indeed not to become the Democrats’ mirror image. Yet to defend the country class, to break down the ruling class’s presumptions, it has no choice but to imitate the papers of, Democrats, at least in autumn essays, some ways and for a while. Consider: The ruling class denies its opponents’ legitimacy. Seldom does a Democratic official or member of the libor market thesis, ruling class speak on public affairs without reiterating the litany of his class’s claim to authority, contrasting it with opponents who are either uninformed, stupid, racist, shills for business, violent, fundamentalist, or all of the leaves, above. They do this in essay history photographies, the hope that opponents, hearing no other characterizations of themselves and autumn essays no authoritative voice discrediting the ruling class, will be dispirited.
For the essay in of mice, country class seriously to contend for self-governance, the political party that represents it will have to discredit not just such patent frauds as ethanol mandates, the pretense that taxes can control “climate change,” and the outrage of banning God from public life. More important, such a serious party would have to attack the ruling class’s fundamental claims to its superior intellect and morality in ways that dispirit the target and hearten one’s own . The Democrats having set the rules of modern politics, opponents who want electoral success are obliged to follow them. Suppose that the Country Party (whatever its name might be) were to capture Congress, the presidency, and leaves most statehouses. What then would it do? Especially if its majority were slim, it would be tempted to follow the Democrats’ plan of 2009-2010, namely to write its wish list of reforms into market model law regardless of the autumn leaves, Constitution and essay enact them by autumn essays, partisan majorities supported by interest groups that gain from them, while continuing to vilify the other side. Whatever effect this might have, it surely would not be to essay in of and men, make America safe for self-governance because by carrying out leaves, its own “revolution from above” to reverse the in an, ruling class’s previous “revolution from above,” it would have made that ruinous practice standard in America. Leaves Essays. Moreover, a revolution designed at party headquarters would be antithetical to burden history, the country class’s diversity as well as to the American Founders’ legacy. Achieving the autumn leaves essays, country class’s inherently revolutionary objectives in a manner consistent with the Constitution and with its own diversity would require the Country Party to use legislation primarily as a tool to remove obstacles, to instruct, to reintroduce into American life ways and habits that had been cast aside. Passing national legislation is easier than getting people to take up the responsibilities of citizens, fathers, and entrepreneurs.
Reducing the taxes that most Americans resent requires eliminating the on friendship in of and men, network of subsidies to millions of other Americans that these taxes finance, and eliminating the leaves essays, jobs of government employees who administer them. Eliminating that network is practical, if at all, if done simultaneously, both because subsidies are morally wrong and economically counterproductive, and because the country cannot afford the practice in general. Indenting Long Quotes In An Essay. The electorate is likely to cut off millions of government clients, high and low, only autumn essays if its choice is between no economic privilege for anyone and market ratifying government’s role as the arbiter of all our fortunes. The same goes for government grants to and contracts with so-called nonprofit institutions or non-governmental organizations. The case against all arrangements by which the government favors some groups of citizens is easier to make than that against any such arrangement. Without too much fuss, a few obviously burdensome bureaucracies, like the Department of Education, can be eliminated, while money can be cut off to partisan enterprises such as the National Endowments and public broadcasting.
That sort of leaves thing is as necessary to the American body politic as a weight reduction program is essential to papers of, restoring the health of any human body degraded by obesity and lack of autumn leaves essays exercise. Yet shedding fat is the easy part. Restoring atrophied muscles is harder. Reenabling the body to do elementary tasks takes yet more concentration. The grandparents of today’s Americans (132 million in 1940) had opportunities to ap english literature, serve on 117,000 school boards. To exercise responsibilities comparable to their grandparents’, today’s 310 million Americans would have radically to decentralize the mere 15,000 districts into which public school children are now concentrated. Autumn Leaves. They would have to take responsibility for curriculum and administration away from questions credentialed experts, and they would have to explain why they know better.
This would involve a level of political articulation of the autumn leaves, body politic far beyond voting in papers of, elections every two years. If self-governance means anything, it means that those who exercise government power must depend on autumn, elections. Libor Thesis. The shorter the electoral leash, the likelier an official to have his chain yanked by voters, the leaves, more truly republican the on friendship in of mice and men, government is. Autumn Leaves. Yet to subject the essay in of mice and men, modern administrative state’s agencies to autumn leaves essays, electoral control would require ordinary citizens to take an interest in any number of technical matters. Law can require environmental regulators or insurance commissioners, or judges or auditors to bar business plan, be elected. But only citizens’ discernment and vigilance could make these officials good. Only citizens’ understanding of and autumn essays commitment to law can possibly reverse the patent disregard for essay history photographies the Constitution and statutes that has permeated American life. Unfortunately, it is autumn, easier for papers of anyone who dislikes a court’s or an official’s unlawful act to counter it with another unlawful one than to draw all parties back to the foundation of truth.
How, for example, to remind America of, and to drive home to autumn essays, the ruling class, Lincoln’s lesson that trifling with the Constitution for the most heartfelt of motives destroys its protections for all? What if a country class majority in both houses of Congress were to co-sponsor a “Bill of Attainder to deprive Nancy Pelosi, Barack Obama, and other persons of liberty and property without further process of essay photographies law for autumn leaves having violated the following ex post facto law…” and larded this constitutional monstrosity with an essay on friendship mice and men Article III Section 2 exemption from federal court review? When the autumn, affected members of the ruling class asked where Congress gets the authority to pass a bill every word of which is contrary to the Constitution, they would be confronted, publicly, with House Speaker Nancy Pelosi’s answer to a question on the Congress’s constitutional authority to mandate individuals to purchase certain kinds of market model insurance: “Are you kidding? Are you kidding?” The point having been made, the Country Party could lead public discussions around the country on why even the noblest purposes (maybe even Title II of the autumn leaves, Civil Rights Bill of 1964?) cannot be allowed to trump the Constitution. How the country class and ruling class might clash on each item of their contrasting agendas is beyond my scope. Suffice it to say that the ruling class’s greatest difficulty — aside from being outnumbered — will be to argue, against the grain of reality, that the revolution it continues to press upon America is sustainable.
For its part, the country class’s greatest difficulty will be to enable a revolution to take place without imposing it. America has been imposed on enough. Editor’s Note: This version corrects an small bar business error that appears the print edition of this article, which incorrectly lists Barack Obama as a research assistant to Laurence Tribe in 1984. He in fact was an assistant to Tribe in 1988-89. Update: The article has also been changed to correct a quote from Nancy Pelosi.
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WHAT IS BISEXUALITY? WHO IS BISEXUAL? Many people are 100% gay or lesbian, and are drawn sexually and leaves essays, emotionally only to burden history photographies representation partners of the same sex. Others are completely heterosexual, bonding in sexual and intimate relationships only with people of another sex. Leaves Essays! But what about ap english literature and composition questions, everybody else? A significant percentage of people do not fit neatly into either of these categories, because they experience sexual and emotional attractions and autumn leaves essays, feelings for papers of people of different genders at some point during their lives.
For lack of a better term, they are called bisexuals, although many people prefer to call themselves pansexual, non-preferential, sexually fluid, ambisexual, or omni-sexual. The Kinsey scale of zero to six was developed by leaves sex researchers to describe sexual orientation as a continuum. Heterosexual people are at small bar business zero on autumn leaves essays, the scale, gay and essay on friendship, Lesbian people are at six at essays the other end of the scale, and everyone in between, from one to five, is bisexual. People who fall at one or two on the scale have primarily heterosexual sexual and affectional relationships and desires, but have some attraction and experiences with same -sex partners as well. People at three on small bar business, the scale are approximately equally attracted to autumn essays both men and women. People at libor thesis four and five on the Kinsey scale choose primarily same-sex partners, but are not completely gay or lesbian and autumn leaves essays, have some heterosexual tendencies and relationships as well. As you can see, there is no simple definition of bisexuality, and bisexual people are a very diverse group. There are several theories about different models of indenting long quotes in an essay bisexual behavior. J. R. Little identifies at least 13 types of bisexuality, as defined by sexual desires and experiences.
They are: Alternating bisexuals: may have a relationship with a man, and then after that relationship ends, may choose a female partner for a subsequent relationship, and many go back to a male partner next. Circumstantial bisexuals: primarily heterosexual, but will choose same sex partners only in situations where they have no access to other-sex partners, such as when in leaves jail, in the military, or in a gender-segregated school. Concurrent relationship bisexuals: have primary relationship with one gender only but have other casual or secondary relationships with people of another gender at the same time. Conditional bisexuals: either straight or gay/lesbian, but will switch to a relationship with another gender for financial or career gain or for a specific purpose, such as young straight males who become gay prostitutes or lesbians who get married to men in essay on friendship order to gain acceptance from essays family members or to have children. Papers Of! Emotional bisexuals: have intimate emotional relationships with both men and women, but only have sexual relationships with one gender. Integrated bisexuals: have more than one primary relationship at the same time, one with a man and one with a woman.
Exploratory bisexuals: either straight or gay/lesbian, but have sex with another gender just to satisfy curiosity or see what it's like. Hedonistic bisexuals: primarily straight or gay/lesbian but will sometimes have sex with another gender primarily for fun or purely sexual satisfaction. Autumn Leaves! Recreational bisexuals: primarily heterosexual but engage in gay or lesbian sex only papers of when under the influence of drugs and/or alcohol. Isolated bisexuals: 100% straight or gay/lesbian now but has had at one or more sexual experience with another gender in the past. Latent bisexuals: completely straight or gay lesbian in behavior but have strong desire for sex with another gender, but have never acted on it. Motivational bisexuals: straight women who have sex with other women only because a male partner insists on it to titillate him. Leaves Essays! Transitional bisexuals: temporarily identify as bisexual while in the process of moving from being straight to indenting long quotes essay being gay or lesbian, or going from autumn leaves essays being gay or lesbian to indenting long being heterosexual. Many of autumn essays these people might not call themselves bisexual, but because they are attracted to burden essay history representation and have relationships with both men and women, they are in fact bisexual. While literally millions of leaves people are bisexual, most keep their sexual orientation secret, so bisexual people as a group are nearly invisible in society. Gay men and lesbian women have long recognized the need to join together, create community, and to market organize politically. Leaves! Long years of hard work have led to significant gains in political and human rights, as well as a visible and essay history photographies, thriving gay and lesbian community.
Bisexual people have been much slower to come out leaves of the closet, create community, and on friendship, form political and social networks to gain visibility and political clout. Many bisexual people have spent decades working in gay and autumn essays, lesbian organizations, and in recent years, bisexuals have become more accepted as part of the Gay/Lesbian/Bisexual/Transgender community. Indenting Long Essay! However, the rigid dichotomy between gay and straight has caused many bisexuals to feel alienated and autumn leaves essays, rejected by gay men and lesbian women, and in recent years many independent bisexual political and social groups have sprung up. Many bisexual people complain that they feel like outsiders in both the papers of, straight and gay/lesbian worlds, and that they can't fit in anywhere, feeling isolated and autumn leaves essays, confused. Studies have shown that bisexual people suffer from social isolation even more than gay men or lesbians because they lack any community where they can find acceptance and role models. Many gay men feel that bisexual men are really gay, that they are just in denial about being Gay, and that they should just get over it. Many straight men are homophobic and hate and fear both bisexual and papers of, gay men, often victimizing them with harassment and physical violence. Many straight women reject bisexual men out of misguided fears that they have AIDS, and admonish them to stop sitting on the fence and make up their minds.
Bisexual women are often distrusted by lesbians for sleeping with the enemy, hanging onto heterosexual privileges through relationships with men, and betraying their allegiance to women and autumn leaves essays, feminism. Straight women often reject bisexual women out of fear they will make sexual overtures and try to convert them to being bisexual. Both the straight and gay/lesbian communities seem to mice and men have only leaves two possible models of bisexuality, neither of burden history representation which represents bisexual people accurately. The first is the transitional model of bisexuality, believing that all bisexuals are actually gay or lesbian but are just on essays, the way to eventually coming out as gay. Papers Of! The other is the pathological model, that bisexuals are neurotic or mentally unstable because they are in conflict trying to decide whether they are straight or gay/lesbian, and that they just can't make a decision. Both models see bisexuality as a temporary experience or a phase born out of confusion rather than an authentic sexual orientation equally as valid as heterosexuality or homosexuality. Some people see bisexuality as inherently subversive because it blurs the boundaries, confronting both heterosexuals and gay men and lesbian women with sexual ambiguity. As a result, bisexuality challenges concepts of autumn essays sexuality, traditional relationship and family structures, monogamy, gender, and history photographies representation, identity. Bisexuals cannot conform to the ethics of either the gay or straight world or they would not be bisexual. Instead they must re-invent personal ethics and values for themselves, and create responsible lifestyles and relationships that serve their needs even though they don't fit anyone else's rules.
Some researchers have note that being bisexual is in some ways similar to autumn being bi-racial. Mixed-race persons generally don't feel comfortable or accepted by people of either ethnic group, feeling that they don't belong or fit in anywhere, as their existence challenges the very concept of race. Like bisexual people, they spend most of their lives moving between two communities that don't really understand or accept them. Like biracial people, bisexual people must struggle to invent their own identities to correspond to their own experience. Forming a bisexual identity helps bisexual people to structure, to make sense of , and to give meaning and definition to their reality. Most bisexual people start out feeling very confused about their attraction towards people of both sexes, questioning their own reality, and wondering Is something wrong with me/Some spend their entire lives in this stage, hiding their sexual orientation, feeling isolated and libor market model thesis, alone with the inner turmoil over essays, their dual attractions. Ap English Questions! Many go through life identifying as straight or gay/lesbian in order to autumn leaves be accepted and make sense of in of and men their sexual orientation. Because their own experience does not conform to either community, they feel intense external pressure to autumn essays choose one and identify with it. Indenting Quotes Essay! Without any language to frame their own reality, and no visible role models or community available to autumn them, bisexual people must have sufficient self-confidence and belief in their own identity in order to indenting long eventually transcend this stage. Discovery of the bisexual label and choosing to identify as bisexual. Almost all bisexual people acknowledge that discovering the label bisexual was pivotal in understanding and accepting their sexual orientation.
Most experience extreme relief when they hear the word bisexual for the first time, because they finally have a word that mirrors their experience and leaves essays, feelings. For some, the negative stereotypes of bisexuals as promiscuous fence sitters, neurotic, or vectors of indenting long quotes in an essay AIDS prevent them from identifying with the label or claiming it for themselves, but most agree that it comes closer than any other language to describing their lives. Instead of rejecting the leaves, label, many bisexuals invent their own definition and create bisexual lifestyles that fit their individual lives. Settling into long quotes and maintaining a bisexual identity. For many bisexual people, this step is the most difficult. Autumn Leaves Essays! Intellectually, they feel good about being bisexual, but emotionally, they experience extreme conflict living in the real world as bisexual. Indenting Long Essay! Often scorned by family and friends and rejected by spouses or potential partners for being bisexual, they find that to develop and maintain a bisexual identity requires inner strength, self-reliance, confidence, and independence. Many overcome these obstacles by forming their own community, finding accepting friends and lovers, and staying out of the autumn, closet despite the consequences. For most bisexuals, coming out and staying out in of mice of the closet is an on-going process which must be repeated with every new social situation, workplace, friend, and lover.
Many see this process as the most important form of political action, creating visible role models and autumn essays, a cohesive bisexual community. Because most bisexuals have suffered through the small plan, first three stages alone and in essays silence, they want to make it easier for other bisexuals to recognize and burden essay history representation, embrace their sexual orientation without years of inner turmoil and leaves, loneliness. Many also get involved in bisexual political organizations as a way to increase bisexual visibility and promote bisexuality as a viable identity. Just as gay men and lesbians were only essay in of able to win some rights through fighting in autumn leaves essays both the papers of, social and political arenas, bisexuals will only win political and human rights through coming out of the closet and developing political clout. Does any of this sound familiar? Are you struggling with ambivalence or confusion over your sexual orientation? Or are you ready to embrace a bisexual orientation? Are you seeking community to share your developing identity with others?
If so, reach out for support now. Check out one of the many bisexual and questioning support groups listed on the back of this pamphlet, to find a safe place to express your feelings and meet others who are going through similar experiences. One to leaves essays one counseling or therapy can also be helpful in sorting out feelings and gaining clarity and history photographies, self-confidence. Be careful to seek out a non-judgmental therapist who is supportive of leaves bisexuality and has expertise in bisexual issues. And joining bisexual social or political groups is also a great way to bar business see visible role models and to allow your bisexual identity to evolve in autumn leaves a way that fits you. and last, but certainly not least, there are now many excellent books on libor market, bisexuality which may help you understand and fully embrace your sexual orientation. BISEXUAL RESOURCES IN THE BAY AREA.
Political and social organizations: Bay Area Bisexual Network (BABN) (415)-703-7977. Information, social groups and events, political action, sponsors Fencesitter's Lounge dance parties for bisexuals, publishes Anything That Moves, the leaves essays, magazine for the card-carrying bisexual. Bi-Pol (415)-821-3534. Political action and advocacy organization Bi-Friendly (415)-703-7977, box 4.
Social group which holds discussion/support groups in SF, East Bay, Marin, San Jose, Palo Alto, and Santa Cruz; sponsors social events, parties, and trips, and publishes monthly newsletter listing all bisexual events in the Bay Area. Support Groups/Discussion Groups for Bisexuals: Pacific Center For Human Growth (Berkeley) (510)-548-8283 Rainbow Community Center (Pleasant Hill) (510)-927-8705 Bi-Friendly East Bay (Berkeley) (415)-703-7977, box 4. SF Women's Bi Group (415)-775-2620 3 x 3 Bi People of Color Caucus (415)-703-7977, ext. 3 Bi Men of Color Group (510)-540-0869 Bi Men's Rap Group (510)-658-0192 BLUR for bisexual and burden history photographies representation, questioning youth age 23 and under 1-800-246-PRIDE Jewish Bi Caucus (415)-337-4566 European/Latin Bi Group (415)-668-9900. Counselors and Psychotherapists with expertise in bisexual issues: Mary Bradford, PhD, MFCC (510)-843-5508 Kim Hraca, MFCC (510)-601-1859 Kathy Labriola, Counselor/Nurse (510)-841-5307 or 464-4652 Pacific Center for autumn essays Human Growth (510)-548-8283 low-fee counseling Gaylesta (888)-869-4993 (toll-free) therapist referral network. Maggie Rubenstein PhD (415)-584-0172 Ron Fox PhD (415)-751-6714 William Henken, PhD (415)-923-1150 Little, J.R. (1989) Contemporary Female Bisexuality: A Psychosocial Phenomenon; unpublished doctoral dissertation Bradford, M. (1997) The Bisexual Experience: Living in a Dichotomous Culture; doctoral dissertation; The Fieldings Institute; Santa Barbara. Kathy Labriola provides low-fee counseling for indenting long in an individuals, couples, and groups.
She has extensive experience assisting people with the challenges of non-traditional relationships, health problems and disabilities, HIV/AIDS, sexual orientation crises, political activism, and class struggle. Autumn Leaves Essays! She also facilitates discussion and support groups on open relationships, health and disabilities, and essay in of, political activism and burnout. For further information, or to receive free educational pamphlets, call (510)464-4652.
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1 Oracle Text SQL Statements and Operators. This chapter describes the SQL statements and Oracle Text operators for creating and managing Text indexes and performing Text queries. The following statements are described in this chapter: This section describes the ALTER INDEX statement as it pertains to managing a Text domain index. For a complete description of the ALTER INDEX statement, see Oracle Database SQL Reference . Use ALTER INDEX to make changes to, or perform maintenance tasks for a CONTEXT , CTXCAT , or CTXRULE index. All Index Types. Use ALTER INDEX to perform the following tasks on all Oracle Text index types: Rename the autumn essays index or index partition.
See ALTER INDEX RENAME Syntax. Rebuild the index using different preferences. Some restrictions apply for the CTXCAT index type. See ALTER INDEX REBUILD Syntax. CONTEXT and CTXRULE Index Types. Use ALTER INDEX to perform the following tasks on CONTEXT and CTXRULE index types: Resume a failed index operation (creation/optimization). Add sections and stop sections to the index.
Replace index metadata. ALTER INDEX REBUILD Syntax to learn more about performing these tasks. Overview of ALTER INDEX Syntax. The syntax for ALTER INDEX is fairly complex. The major divisions are covered in the following sections: ALTER INDEX PARAMETERS Syntaxuse this to modify the parameters of essay and men a non-partitioned index, or to modify all partitions of a local partitioned index, without rebuilding the autumn index.
ALTER INDEX RENAME Syntaxuse this to rename an index or index partition. ALTER INDEX REBUILD Syntaxuse this to rebuild an papers of index or index partition. With this command, you can also replace index metadata; add stopwords, sections, and stop sections to an index; and resume a failed operation. The parameters for ALTER INDEX REBUILD have their own syntax, which is a subset of the syntax for ALTER INDEX . For example, the autumn essays ALTER INDEX REBUILD PARAMETERS command can take either REPLACE or RESUME as an argument, and ALTER INDEX REBUILD PARAMETERS ('REPLACE') can take several arguments. Valid examples of papers of ALTER INDEX REBUILD include the following statements: ALTER INDEX MODIFY PARTITION Syntax. Use the following syntax to modify the autumn leaves metadata of an index partition: Specify the name of the index whose partition metadata you want to literature essay questions, modify. Specify the autumn essays name of the bar business index partition whose metadata you want to leaves, modify. Papers Of? The only valid argument here is ' REPLACE METADATA '. This follows the same syntax as ALTER INDEX REBUILD PARTITION PARAMETERS ('REPLACE METADATA') ; refer to autumn, the REPLACE METADATA subsection of the ALTER INDEX REBUILD Syntax section for more information. (The two commands are equivalent.
ALTER INDEX MODIFY PARTITION is offered for ease of use, and is the recommended syntax.) ALTER INDEX PARAMETERS Syntax. Use the following syntax for modifying the parameters of a either non-partitioned or local partitioned indexes, without rebuilding the index. For partitioned indexes, this command works at the index level, not at the partition level. This command changes information for the entire index, including all partitions. ALTER INDEX PARAMETERS accepts the following arguments for paramstring ; Replaces current metadata. Refer to photographies representation, the REPLACE METADATA subsection of the ALTER INDEX REBUILD Syntax section for more information.
Dynamically adds a stopword to autumn leaves essays, an index. Refer to the ADD STOPWORD subsection of the ALTER INDEX REBUILD Syntax section for mice and men, more information. ' ADD FIELD SECTION ' Dynamically adds a field section to an index. Refer to the ADD FIELD subsection of the ALTER INDEX REBUILD Syntax section for more information. ' ADD ZONE SECTION ' Dynamically adds a zone section to an index. Refer to the ADD ZONE subsection of the autumn essays ALTER INDEX REBUILD Syntax section for ap english literature questions, more information. ' ADD ATTR SECTION ' Dynamically adds an attribute section to an index Refer to autumn essays, the ADD ATTR subsection of the ALTER INDEX REBUILD Syntax section for more information.
Each of the above commands has an equivalent ALTER INDEX REBUILD PARAMETERS version. For example, ALTER INDEX PARAMETERS ('REPLACE METADATA') is equivalent to ALTER INDEX REBUILD PARAMETERS ('REPLACE METADATA') . However, the ALTER INDEX PARAMETERS versions work on either partitioned or non-partitioned indexes, whereas the in of mice ALTER INDEX REBUILD PARAMETERS versions work only on non-partitioned indexes. ALTER INDEX RENAME Syntax. Use the following syntax to rename an index or index partition: Specify the name of the index to rename. Specify the essays new name for schema.index. Market Model Thesis? The new_index_name parameter can be no more than 25 bytes, and 21 bytes for a partitioned index. If you specify a name longer than 25 bytes (or longer than 21 bytes for a partitioned index), then Oracle Text returns an error and the renamed index is no longer valid. When new_index_name is more than 25 bytes (21 for local partitioned index) and less than 30 bytes, Oracle Text renames the index, even though the system returns an error. To drop the index and associated tables, you must drop new_index_name with the DROP INDEX statement and then re-create and essays drop index_name . Specify the name of the index partition to on friendship mice and men, rename.
Specify the new name for partition. Autumn Leaves Essays? ALTER INDEX REBUILD Syntax. Use ALTER INDEX REBUILD to rebuild an index, rebuild an market index partition, resume a failed operation, replace index metadata, add stopwords to an index, or add sections and stop sections to an index. ALTER INDEX REBUILD has its own sub-syntax. That is, its parameters have their own syntax.
For example, the ALTER INDEX REBUILD PARAMETERS command can take either REPLACE or RESUME as an argument, and ALTER INDEX REBUILD PARAMETERS ('REPLACE') has several arguments it can take. Valid examples of autumn leaves essays ALTER INDEX REBUILD include the indenting in an following statements: This is the syntax for autumn leaves essays, ALTER INDEX REBUILD : Rebuilds the index partition partname . Only one index partition can be built at a time. When you rebuild a partition you can specify only RESUME or REPLACE in paramstring. These operations work only on the partname you specify. With the REPLACE operation, you can only specify MEMORY and STORAGE for each index partition. Adding Partitions To add a partition to libor market thesis, the base table, use the ALTER TABLE SQL statement. When you add a partition to an indexed table, Oracle Text automatically creates the metadata for essays, the new index partition. The new index partition has the same name as the new table partition. Model? Change the index partition name with ALTER INDEX RENAME . Splitting or Merging Partitions Splitting or merging a table partition with ALTER TABLE renders the index partition(s) invalid. You must rebuild them with ALTER INDEX REBUILD . ONLINE enables you to continue to leaves essays, perform updates, inserts, and on friendship in of mice and men deletes on a base table.
It does not enable you to query the autumn essays base table. You can specify REPLACE or RESUME when rebuilding an index or an index partition ONLINE . Optionally specify paramstring . If you do not specify paramstring , then Oracle Text rebuilds the index with existing preference settings. The syntax for paramstring is long quotes, as follows: Rebuilds an index. You can optionally specify preferences: your own or system-defined. You can only replace preferences that are supported for that index type. For instance, you cannot replace index set for autumn leaves, a CONTEXT or CTXRULE index. Similarly, for the CTXCAT index type, you can replace lexer, wordlist, storage index set, and memory preferences.
POPULATE is the default and does not need to be specified. If you want to empty the index of its contents, then specify NOPOPULATE . Clear an index of its contents when you need to rebuild your index incrementally. The NOPOPULATE choice is available for a specific partition of the index, and not just for the entire index. Plan? If you are rebuilding a partitioned index with REPLACE , then you can only specify STORAGE , MEMORY , and NOPOPULATE . Chapter 2, Oracle Text Indexing Elements for autumn essays, more information about creating and setting preferences, including information about system-defined preferences. Replaces the existing preference class settings, including SYNC parameters, of the index with the settings from new_preference . Only index preferences and attributes are replaced. The index is not rebuilt. This command is useful for when you want to replace a preference and its attribute settings after the index is built, without reindexing all data. Reindexing data can require significant time and small plan computing resources. This command is also useful for leaves, changing the libor model type of SYNC , which can be automatic, manual, or on-commit. ALTER INDEX REBUILD PARAMETER ('REPLACE METADATA') does not work for autumn leaves essays, a local partitioned index at essay, the global level for leaves essays, the index. You cannot, for example, use this syntax to small, change a global preference, such as filter or lexer type, without rebuilding the index.
Use ALTER INDEX PARAMETERS instead to autumn leaves, change the metadata of an index at the global level, including all partitions. Long Essay? Refer to ALTER INDEX PARAMETERS Syntax. When should I use the leaves METADATA keyword? REPLACE METADATA should be used only when the change in index metadata will not lead to an inconsistent index, which can lead to incorrect query results. Plan? For example, use this command in the following instances: To go from a single-language lexer to a multi-lexer in anticipation of multilingual data. For an example, see Replacing Index Metadata: Changing Single-lexer to Multi-lexer.
To change the WILDCARD_MAXTERMS setting in BASIC_WORDLIST. To change the type of SYNC , which can be automatic, manual, or on-commit. These changes are safe and will not lead to an inconsistent index that might adversely affect your query results. The REPLACE METADATA command can result in inconsistent index data, which can lead to incorrect query results. As such, Oracle does not recommend using this command, unless you carefully consider the effect it will have on autumn leaves the consistency of your index data and subsequent queries. There can be many instances when changing metadata can result in inconsistent index data. For example, Oracle recommends against using the METADATA keyword after doing the following procedures: Changing the USER_DATASTORE procedure to on friendship, a new PL/SQL stored procedure that has different output. Changing the BASIC_WORDLIST attribute PREFIX_INDEX from NO to YES because no prefixes have been generated for autumn leaves, already-existing documents. Changing it from YES to NO is safe. Adding or changing BASIC_LEXER printjoin and skipjoin characters, because new queries with these characters would be lexed differently from how these characters were lexed at index time.
In these unsafe cases, Oracle recommends rebuilding the index. REPLACE [METADATA] SYNC (MANUAL | EVERY interval-string | ON COMMIT) Specify SYNC for automatic synchronization of the CONTEXT index when a DML change has occurred to the base table. You can specify one of the SYNC methods shown in small Table 1-1, ALTER INDEX Sync Methods. Table 1-1 ALTER INDEX Sync Methods. No automatic synchronization. This is the default. Autumn? You must manually synchronize the index with CTX_DDL.SYNC_INDEX . Use MANUAL to disable ON COMMIT and EVERY synchronization. Automatically synchronize the index at a regular interval specified by the value of interval-string . Ap English Questions? interval-string takes the same syntax as that for scheduler jobs.
Automatic synchronization using EVERY requires that the index creator have CREATE JOB privileges. Make sure that interval-string is set to autumn leaves, a long enough period so that any previous sync jobs will have completed. Otherwise, the sync job may hang. Essay? interval-string must be enclosed in double quotes ('' ''). Synchronize the index immediately after a commit. The commit does not return until the sync is complete. (Because the essays synchronization is performed as a separate transaction, there may be a time period, usually small, when the data is committed but index changes are not.) The operation uses the memory specified with the memory parameter.
Note that the sync operation has its own transaction context. If this operation fails, the data transaction still commits. Index synchronization errors are logged in the CTX_USER_INDEX_ERRORS view. See Viewing Index Errors under CREATE INDEX . And Men? Each partition of a locally partitioned index can have its own type of sync: ( ON COMMIT , EVERY , or MANUAL ). The type of sync specified in master parameter strings applies to all index partitions unless a partition specifies its own type. Autumn Essays? With automatic ( EVERY ) synchronization, you can specify memory size and libor parallel synchronization. The syntax is: ON COMMIT synchronizations can only be executed serially and at the same memory size as what was specified at index creation. Autumn? This command rebuilds the model thesis index. Leaves? When you want to change the SYNC setting without rebuilding the ap english essay index, use the REBUILD REPLACE METADATA SYNC (MANUAL | ON COMMIT) operation. This parameter enables you to turn the TRANSACTIONAL property on or off.
For more information, see TRANSACTIONAL. Using this parameter only succeeds if there are no rows in the DML pending queue. Therefore, you may need to sync the index before issuing this command. To turn on the TRANSACTIONAL index property: To turn off the TRANSACTIONAL index property: RESUME [MEMORY memsize ] Resumes a failed index operation. You can optionally specify the amount of memory to use with memsize . This ALTER INDEX operation applies only to CONTEXT and CTXRULE indexes. It does not apply to CTXCAT indexes. This ALTER INDEX operation will not be supported in autumn future releases.
To optimize your index, use CTX_DDL.OPTIMIZE_INDEX. Optimizes the index. Specify token , fast, or full optimization. You typically optimize after you synchronize the on friendship index. When you optimize in essays token mode, Oracle Text optimizes only index_token . Use this method of optimization to papers of, quickly optimize index information for specific words. Leaves Essays? When you optimize in fast mode, Oracle Text works on the entire index, compacting fragmented rows. However, in papers of fast mode, old data is essays, not removed. When you optimize in full mode, you can optimize the whole index or a portion. This method compacts rows and removes old data (deleted rows).
Optimizing in full mode runs even when there are no deleted document rows. This is useful when you need to ap english and composition essay questions, optimize time-limited batches with the maxtime parameter. Autumn? Use the maxtime parameter to specify in long quotes in an essay minutes the time Oracle Text is to autumn leaves, spend on the optimization operation. Oracle Text starts the optimization where it left off and model optimizes until complete or until the time limit has been reached, whichever comes first. Specifying a time limit is autumn essays, useful for automating index optimization, where you set Oracle Text to burden essay representation, optimize the autumn leaves essays index for a specified time on a regular basis. When you specify maxtime unlimited , the entire index is optimized. This is the default.
When you specify 0 for maxtime , Oracle Text performs minimal optimization. Log the progress of in an essay optimization by writing periodic progress updates to the CTX_OUTPUT log. An event for CTX_OUTPUT.ADD_EVENT , called CTX_OUTPUT.EVENT_OPT_PRINT_TOKEN , prints each token as it is being optimized. This ALTER INDEX operation applies only to autumn leaves essays, CONTEXT and CTXRULE indexes. It does not apply to CTXCAT indexes. Papers Of? This ALTER INDEX operation will not be supported in future releases. Autumn Leaves Essays? To synchronize your index, use CTX_DDL.SYNC_INDEX. Synchronizes the index. You can optionally specify the amount of runtime memory to papers of, use with memsize . Synchronize the index when you have DML operations on autumn essays your base table.
This ALTER INDEX operation applies only to CONTEXT and CTXRULE indexes. It does not apply to CTXCAT indexes. Memory Considerations The memory parameter memsize specifies the amount of memory Oracle Text uses for the ALTER INDEX operation before flushing the ap english and composition questions index to autumn essays, disk. Specifying a large amount of small plan memory improves indexing performance because there is less I/O and improves query performance and maintenance because there is less fragmentation. Specifying smaller amounts of memory increases disk I/O and index fragmentation, but might be useful if you want to track indexing progress or when run-time memory is scarce. Autumn? ADD STOPWORD word [language language ] Dynamically adds a stopword word to the index. Index entries for word that existed before this operation are not deleted. However, subsequent queries on word are treated as though it has always been a stopword. When your stoplist is a multi-language stoplist, you must specify language . The index is not rebuilt by this statement. ADD ZONE SECTION section_name tag tag.
Dynamically adds the zone section section_name identified by tag to the existing index. Burden History Photographies Representation? The added section section_name applies only to documents indexed after this operation. For the change to take effect, you must manually re-index any existing documents that contain the tag. The index is not rebuilt by this statement. This ALTER INDEX operation applies only to CONTEXT and CTXRULE indexes. It does not apply to ctxcat indexes. Dynamically adds the field section section_name identified by tag to the existing index. Optionally specify VISIBLE to essays, make the burden essay photographies field sections visible. The default is INVISIBLE . CTX_DDL.ADD_FIELD_SECTION for more information on visible and leaves essays invisible field sections. The added section section_name applies only to documents indexed after this operation.
For the change to affect previously indexed documents, you must explicitly re-index the documents that contain the tag. This statement does not rebuild the index. Essay History? This ALTER INDEX operation applies only to CONTEXT CTXRULE indexes. It does not apply to autumn, CTXCAT indexes. Dynamically adds an attribute section section_name to the existing index.
You must specify the XML tag and attribute in small plan the form tag@attr . You can add attribute sections only to XML section groups. The added section section_name applies only to documents indexed after this operation. Thus for the change to autumn leaves essays, take effect, you must manually re-index any existing documents that contain the tag. Burden Essay Photographies Representation? The index is not rebuilt by this statement. This ALTER INDEX operation applies only to autumn, CONTEXT CTXRULE indexes. It does not apply to CTXCAT indexes. Dynamically adds the stop section identified by tag to the existing index.
As stop sections apply only to literature essay questions, automatic sectioning of XML documents, the index must use the AUTO_SECTION_GROUP section group. The tag you specify must be case sensitive and unique within the automatic section group or else ALTER INDEX raises an leaves error. The added stop section tag applies only to documents indexed after this operation. For the change to affect previously indexed documents, you must explicitly re-index the documents that contain the tag. The text within a stop section is always searchable. The number of stop sections you can add is unlimited. The index is not rebuilt by this statement. This ALTER INDEX operation applies only to CONTEXT indexes. It does not apply to bar business plan, CTXCAT indexes. Optionally specify with n the parallel degree for parallel indexing. This parameter is autumn leaves, supported only when you use SYNC , REPLACE , and RESUME in paramstring . The actual degree of parallelism might be smaller depending on indenting long essay your resources.
Parallel indexing can speed up indexing when you have large amounts of data to index and when your operating system supports multiple CPUs. ALTER INDEX Examples. Resuming Failed Index. The following statement resumes the indexing operation on newsindex with 2 megabytes of memory: Rebuilding an leaves Index. The following statement rebuilds the papers of index, replacing the stoplist preference with new_stop . Rebuilding a Partitioned Index.
The following example creates a partitioned text table, populates it, and creates a partitioned index. It then adds a new partition to the table and then rebuilds the index with ALTER INDEX as follows: The following statement rebuilds the index in the newly populated partition. In general, the index partition name for a newly added partition is the same as the table partition name, unless the name has already been used. In this case, Oracle Text generates a new name. The following statement queries the table for leaves, the two hits in the newly added partition: Replacing Index Metadata: Changing Single-lexer to Multi-lexer. The following example demonstrates how an application can migrate from single-language documents (English) to multi-language documents (English and papers of Spanish) by essays replacing the index metadata for ap english literature and composition, the lexer. Optimizing the Index. To optimize your index, use CTX_DDL.OPTIMIZE_INDEX. Synchronizing the Index. To synchronize your index, use CTX_DDL.SYNC_INDEX.
Adding a Zone Section. Autumn? To add to in of and men, the index the zone section author identified by the tag author , enter the following statement: Adding a Stop Section. Essays? To add a stop section identified by tag fluff to the index that uses the AUTO_SECTION_GROUP , enter the following statement: Adding an Attribute Section. Assume that the following text appears in an XML document: and that you want to create a separate section for the title attribute and essay on friendship mice you want to name the new attribute section booktitle . To do so, enter the following statement: Using Flashback Queries. If a Text query is flashed back to a point before an essays ALTER INDEX statement was issued on the Text index for which the query is being run, then: The query optimizer will not choose the index access path for that given index because the index is treated according to its creation time with ALTER INDEX . Therefore, to the query optimizer, the index is perceived not to exist. The functional processing of the essay in of and men Text operator will fail with ORA-01466 or ORA-08176 errors if the ALTER INDEX statement involves re-creation of DR$ index tables.
To work around this issue, use the DBMS_FLASHBACK package. For example: In previous releases, flashback Text queries using AS OF predicates with Text operators such as CONTAINS and autumn leaves essays CATSEARCH are not supported. Using DBMS_FLASHBACK Package in Oracle Database Application Developer's Guide - Fundamentals. Add Section Constraints. Before altering the index section information, Oracle Text checks the new section against the existing sections to ensure that all validity constraints are met. These constraints are the same for adding a section to a section group with the questions CTX_DDL PL/SQL package and are as follows:
You cannot add zone, field, or stop sections to a NULL_SECTION_GROUP . You cannot add zone, field, or attribute sections to an automatic section group. You cannot add attribute sections to anything other than XML section groups. Leaves? You cannot have the papers of same tag for autumn leaves essays, two different sections. Section names for zone, field, and attribute sections cannot intersect. You cannot exceed 64 fields per on friendship mice and men section. You cannot add stop sections to basic, HTML, XML, or news section groups. SENTENCE and PARAGRAPH are reserved section names. Leaves? ALTER TABLE: Supported Partitioning Statements. This section describes the ALTER TABLE statement as it pertains to adding and modifying a partitioned text table with a context domain index. Small Plan? For a complete description of the ALTER TABLE statement, see Oracle Database SQL Reference . Autumn Leaves Essays? Use ALTER TABLE to add, modify, split, merge, exchange, or drop a partitioned text table with a context domain index. The following sections describe some of the ALTER TABLE operations.
Modify Partition Syntax. Indenting Quotes In An Essay? Unusable Local Indexes. Marks the index partition corresponding to the given table partition UNUSABLE . You might mark an index partition unusable before you rebuild the index partition as described in Rebuild Unusable Local Indexes. If the index partition is autumn leaves essays, not marked unusable, then the rebuild command returns without actually rebuilding the local index partition. Rebuild Unusable Local Indexes. Rebuilds the in an essay index partition corresponding to the specified table partition that has an UNUSABLE status. If the index partition status is already VALID before you enter this command, then this command does not rebuild the index partition. Do not depend on autumn essays this command to rebuild the essay history photographies index partition unless the index partition status is autumn, UNUSABLE . Quotes In An Essay? Add Partition Syntax. Adds a new partition to leaves essays, the high end of a range partitioned table. To add a partition to papers of, the beginning or to the middle of the table, use ALTER TABLE SPLIT PARTITION . The newly added table partition is always empty, and the context domain index (if any) status for this partition is autumn, always VALID . Burden History Representation? After doing DML, if you want to synchronize or optimize this newly added index partition, then you must look up the index partition name and autumn essays enter the ALTER INDEX REBUILD PARTITION statement. For this newly added partition, index partition name is in an essay, usually the same as the table partition name, but if the leaves table partition name is in of, already used by another index partition, the system assigns a name in the form of SYS_Pn . By querying the USER_IND_PARTITIONS view and comparing the HIGH_VALUE field, you can determine the index partition name for the newly added partition.
Merge Partition Syntax. Applies only to a range partition. This command merges the contents of two adjacent partitions into autumn a new partition and then drops the original two partitions. If the resulting partition is quotes in an, non-empty, then the corresponding local domain index partition is marked UNUSABLE . You can use ALTER TABLE MODIFY PARTITION to rebuild the partition index. For a global, non-partitioned index, if you perform the leaves merge operation without an UPDATE GLOBAL INDEXES clause, then the papers of resulting index (if not NULL ) will be invalid and must be rebuilt. If you specify the UPDATE GLOBAL INDEXES clause after the operation and the sync type is manual, then the index will be valid, but you will still need to synchronize the index with CTX_DDL.SYNC_INDEX for the update to take place. The naming convention for the resulting index partition is the same as in ALTER TABLE ADD PARTITION . Split Partition Syntax. Applies only to range partition. This command divides a table partition into two partitions, thus adding a new partition to the table.
The local corresponding index partitions will be marked UNUSABLE if the corresponding table partitions are non-empty. Use ALTER TABLE MODIFY PARTITION to rebuild the autumn leaves essays partition indexes. For a global, non-partitioned index, if you perform the split operation without an UPDATE GLOBAL INDEXES clause, then the papers of resulting index (if not NULL ) will be invalid and must be rebuilt. If you specify the UPDATE GLOBAL INDEXES clause after the operation and the sync type is manual, then the autumn essays index will be valid, but you will still need to synchronize the index with CTX_DDL.SYNC_INDEX for the update to papers of, take place. The naming convention for the two resulting index partition is the same as in ALTER TABLE ADD PARTITION . Autumn Essays? Exchange Partition Syntax. Converts a partition to small plan, a non-partitioned table, and converts a table to a partition of a partitioned table by exchanging their data segments.
Rowids are preserved. If EXCLUDING INDEXES is specified, all the context indexes corresponding to the partition and all the indexes on autumn essays the exchanged table are marked as UNUSABLE . To rebuild the new index partition in this case, enter ALTER TABLE MODIFY PARTITION . If INCLUDING INDEXES is specified, then for every local domain index on the partitioned table, there must be a non-partitioned domain index on the non-partitioned table. The local index partitions are exchanged with the corresponding regular indexes. For a global, non-partitioned index, if you perform the indenting long quotes in an exchange operation without an UPDATE GLOBAL INDEXES clause, then the resulting index (if not NULL ) will be invalid and must be rebuilt. If you specify the UPDATE GLOBAL INDEXES clause after the operation and the sync type is manual, then the leaves index will be valid, but you will still need to synchronize the index with CTX_DDL.SYNC_INDEX for the update to take place. Field section queries might not work the same if the non-partitioned index and local index use different section IDs for the same field section. Storage is not changed. So if the index on the non-partitioned table $I table was in tablespace XYZ, then after the exchange partition, it will still be in tablespace XYZ, but now it is the $I table for an index partition. Papers Of? Storage preferences are not switched, so if you switch and autumn then rebuild the index, then the table may be created in a different location. Both indexes must be equivalent.
They must use the same objects and the same settings for each object. Note that Oracle Text only checks that the indexes are using the same object. But they should use the same exact everything. No index object can be partitioned, that is, when the user has used the storage object to papers of, partition the $I, $N tables. If either index or index partition does not meet all these restrictions an error is leaves essays, raised and ap english literature both the autumn index and index partition will be INVALID . The user needs to manually rebuild both index and index partition using ALTER INDEX REBUILD . Truncate Partition Syntax. Removes all rows from a partition in a table. Corresponding CONTEXT index partitions are also removed. For a global, non-partitioned index, if you perform the papers of truncate operation without an UPDATE GLOBAL INDEXES clause, then the resulting index (if not NULL ) will be invalid and must be rebuilt. If you specify the UPDATE GLOBAL INDEXES clause after the operation, the index will be valid.
ALTER TABLE Examples. Leaves Essays? Global Index on Partitioned Table Examples. The following example creates a range-partitioned table with three partitions. Each partition is populated with two rows. A global, non-partitioned CONTEXT index is essay in of mice, then created. Autumn? To demonstrate the UPDATE GLOBAL INDEXES clause, the partitions are split and merged with an index synchronization. Essay In Of And Men? Use the CATSEARCH operator to search CTXCAT indexes. Use this operator in the WHERE clause of autumn leaves essays a SELECT statement. The CATSEARCH operator also supports database links. Essay In Of Mice And Men? You can identify a remote table or materialized view by essays appending @dblink to the end of its name. The dblink must be a complete or partial name for essay and men, a database link to the database containing the remote table or materialized view. (Indexing of remote views is not supported.) The grammar of this operator is leaves essays, called CTXCAT . You can also use the burden photographies representation CONTEXT grammar if your search criteria requires special functionality, such as thesaurus, fuzzy matching, proximity searching or stemming.
To utilize the CONTEXT grammar, use the Query Template Specification in the text_query parameter as described in this section. Use the CATSEARCH operator with a CTXCAT index mainly to improve mixed query performance. Specify your text query condition with text_query and your structured condition with structured_query . Internally, Oracle Text uses a combined b-tree index on autumn essays text and structured columns to quickly produce results satisfying the query. Long? If the optimizer chooses to use the functional query invocation, then your query will fail. The optimizer might choose functional invocation when your structured clause is autumn, highly selective. The structured_query argument of the CATSEARCH operator must reference columns used during CREATE INDEX sets; otherwise, error DRG-10845 will be raised.
For example, the error will be raised if you issue a CATSEARCH query on libor model a view created on top of a table with CTXCAT index on leaves essays it, and the name of the logical column on the view is different from the actual column name on long quotes the physical table. Autumn Leaves Essays? The columns referenced by the structured_query argument of CATSEARCH operator must be the physical column name used during CREATE INDEX sets, not the logical column on the view. Specify the text column to on friendship in of and men, be searched on. This column must have a CTXCAT index associated with it. Specify one of the following to define your search in column . CATSEARCH query operations. The CATSEARCH operator supports only the following query operations: The following table provides the syntax for autumn leaves, these operators. Table 1-2 CATSEARCH Query Operators. Essay In Of Mice? Returns rows that contain a, b and c. Returns rows that contain a, b, or c.
Returns rows that contain a and not b. Hyphen with no space. Hyphen treated as a regular character. For example, if the hyphen is defined as skipjoin, words such as web-site are treated as the single query term website . Likewise, if the hyphen is defined as a printjoin, words such as web-site are treated as web-site in the CTXCAT query language. Returns rows that contain the phrase a b c. For example, entering Sony CD Player means return all rows that contain this sequence of words. Parentheses group operations. This query is equivalent to the CONTAINS query (A B) | C. Autumn Leaves? (right and double truncated) The wildcard character matches zero or more characters. For example, do* matches dog , and essay mice gl*s matches glass . Left truncation not supported. Note: Oracle recommends that you create a prefix index if your application uses wildcard searching. Leaves Essays? Set prefix indexing with the BASIC_WORDLIST preference. Market? The following limitations apply to these operators: The left-hand side (the column name) must be a column named in at leaves, least one of the indexes of the index set.
The left-hand side must be a plain column name. Functions and expressions are not allowed. The right-hand side must be composed of literal values. Functions, expressions, other columns, and subselects are not allowed. Multiple criteria can be combined with AND . Note that OR is not supported.
When querying a remote table through a database link, the database link must be specified for CATSEARCH as well as for the table being queried. For example, these expressions are supported: And these expressions are not supported: Query Template Specification. Specify a marked-up string that specifies a query template. Specify one of the burden essay history following templates: Query rewrite, used to autumn leaves, expand a query string into different versions. Progressive relaxation, used to progressively enter less restrictive versions of a query to increase recall. Alternate grammar, used to specify CONTAINS operators (See CONTEXT Query Grammar Examples) Alternate language, used to specify alternate query language. Alternate scoring, used to essay photographies, specify alternate scoring algorithms. Autumn Leaves Essays? The text_query parameter description for CONTAINS for more information about the syntax for these query templates. Specify the structured conditions and small bar business plan the ORDER BY clause.
There must exist an index for any column you specify. For example, if you specify 'category_id=1 order by bid_close' , you must have an index for autumn leaves, 'category_id, bid_close' as specified with CTX_DDL . ADD_INDEX . With structured_query , you can use standard SQL syntax with only the bar business following operators: AND (to combine two or more clauses) You cannot use parentheses () in the structured_query parameter. Autumn Essays? Create the Table. The following statement creates the table to be indexed. The following table inserts the values into market model thesis the table: Create the CTXCAT Index. The following statements create the CTXCAT index:
Query the Table. Autumn? A typical query with CATSEARCH might include a structured clause as follows to find all rows that contain the word camera ordered by bid_close : The following query finds all rows that contain the phrase Sony CD Player and that have a bid close date of February 20, 2000: The following query finds all rows with the terms Sony and CD and essay history photographies representation Player : The following query finds all rows with the essays term CD and not Player : The following query finds all rows with the terms CD or DVD or Speaker : The following query finds all rows that are about indenting quotes in an, audio equipment : CONTEXT Query Grammar Examples. The following examples show how to specify the autumn essays CONTEXT grammar in burden essay history photographies CATSEARCH queries using the template feature. The following example shows a field section search against a CTXCAT index using CONTEXT grammar by autumn means of a query template in a CATSEARCH query. Use the CONTAINS operator in the WHERE clause of a SELECT statement to specify the query expression for a Text query. The CONTAINS operator also supports database links. You can identify a remote table or materialized view by appending @dblink to the end of its name. The dblink must be a complete or partial name for a database link to the database containing the remote table or materialized view. (Querying of remote views is not supported.) CONTAINS returns a relevance score for every row selected. Ap English Essay? Obtain this score with the SCORE operator. The grammar for this operator is called the CONTEXT grammar. You can also use CTXCAT grammar if your application works better with simpler syntax.
To do so, use the Query Template Specification in the text_query parameter as described in this section. The CONTEXT Grammar topic in Oracle Text Application Developer's Guide. Specify the text column to be searched on. This column must have a Text index associated with it. Specify one of the following: The query expression that defines your search in column . A marked-up document that specifies a query template. Use one of the following templates: Query Rewrite Template. Use this template to automatically write different versions of a query before you submit the query to Oracle Text.
This is useful when you need to maximize the recall of a user query. For example, you can program your application to expand a single phrase query of 'cat dog' into the following queries: These queries are submitted as one query and results are returned with no duplication. In this example, the query returns documents that contain the phrase cat dog as well as documents in which cat is near dog , and documents that have cat and dog . This is autumn leaves, done with the literature essay following template: The operator TRANSFORM is used to specify the autumn leaves rewrite rules and has the following syntax (note that it uses double parentheses): Table 1-3 TRANSFORM Parameters. Specify the type of terms to be produced from the original query. Specify either TOKENS or THEMES . Specifying THEMES requires an installed knowledge base.
A knowledge base may or may not have been installed with Oracle Text. For more information, see the Oracle Text Application Developer's Guide . Specify the literal string to be prepended to all terms. Specify the literal string to be appended to all terms. Specify the literal string to connect all terms after applying prefix and small bar business suffix. Query Relaxation Template. Use this template to progressively relax your query. Progressive relaxation is when you increase recall by leaves essays progressively issuing less restrictive versions of a query, so that your application can return an plan appropriate number of autumn essays hits to the user. For example, the query of black pen can be progressively relaxed to:
This is done with the following template. Alternate Grammar Template. Use this template to specify an papers of alternate grammar, such as CONTEXT or CATSEARCH . Specifying an alternate grammar enables you to enter queries using different syntax and operators. Leaves Essays? For example, with CATSEARCH , enter ABOUT queries using the CONTEXT grammar. Likewise with CONTAINS , enter logical queries using the ap english essay simplified CATSEARCH syntax. The phrase 'dog cat mouse' is interpreted as a phrase in CONTAINS . However, with CATSEARCH this is equivalent to a AND query of 'dog AND cat AND mouse' . To specify that CONTAINS use the alternate grammar, enter the following template: Alternate Language Template. Use this template to specify an alternate language.
Alternative Scoring Template. Use this template to specify an alternative scoring algorithm. The following example specifies that the query use the CONTEXT grammar and return integer scores using the COUNT algorithm. This algorithm returns score as the autumn leaves essays number of in of mice and men query occurrences in the document. The following example uses the normalization_expr attribute to add SDATA ( price ) into the score returned by the query, and leaves essays uses it as the final score. The normalization_expr attribute is used only with the alternate scoring template, and is an bar business plan arithmetic expression that consists of: Arithmetic operators: + - * /. The operator precedence is the same as that for SQL operator precedence. Grouping operators: (). Parentheses can be used to alter the leaves precedence of the libor market arithmetic operators. Absolute function: ABS(n) returns the absolute value of n; where n is any expression that returns a number. Logarithmic function: LOG(n): returns the base-10 logarithmic value of n ; where n is any expression that returns a number. Predefined components: The doc_score predefined component can be used to autumn leaves essays, return the initial query score of a particular document.
SDATA component: SDATA (name) returns the value of the SDATA with the specified name as the score. Only SDATA with NUMBER or DATE datatype is allowed. An error is papers of, raised otherwise. The sdata string and the SDATA name are case-insensitive. Numeric literals: Any number literal that conforms to SQL's pattern of NUMBER literal and leaves essays is within the range of the double precision floating point ( -3.4e38 to 3.4e38 ). Papers Of? Date Literals: Date literals must be enclosed with DATE (). Only the following format is allowed: YYYY-MM-DD or YYYY-MM-DD HH24:MI:SS . For example: DATE(2005-11-08) .Consistent with SQL, if no time is specified, then 00:00:00 is assumed. DATE Literal Restrictions. Only the minus ( - ) operator is allowed between date-type data ( DATE literals and date-type SDATA ). Using other operators will result in an error. Subtracting two date-type data will produce a number (float) that represents the autumn leaves essays difference in number of days between the two dates.
For example, the following expression is allowed: and the following expression is not allowed: The plus ( + ) and minus ( - ) operators are allowed between numeric data and date type of data. The number operand is interpreted as the number or fraction of ap english day(s). For example, the following expression is leaves essays, allowed: and the following expression is not allowed: Template Attribute Values. Table 1-4 gives the possible values for template attributes: Table 1-4 Template Attribute Values.
Specify the grammar of the query. Ap English And Composition Questions? Specify the type of number returned as score. Returns score as integer between 0 and 100. Returns score as its high precision floating point number between 0 and 100. Specify the scoring algorithm to use. Returns scores as the number of occurrences in document. Leaves Essays? Specify the language name. Template Grammar Definition. The query template interface is an XML document. Its grammar is defined with the following XML DTD: All tags and attributes values are case-sensitive. Chapter 3, Oracle Text CONTAINS Query Operators for more information about the indenting long quotes operators in query expressions.
Optionally, specify the label that identifies the leaves score generated by the CONTAINS operator. For each row selected, CONTAINS returns a number between 0 and 100 that indicates how relevant the document row is to on friendship in of mice, the query. The number 0 means that Oracle Text found no matches in the row. You must use the autumn leaves essays SCORE operator with a label to literature and composition, obtain this number. The following example searches for all documents in autumn leaves essays the in the text column that contain the libor thesis word oracle . The score for leaves, each row is model, selected with the autumn SCORE operator using a label of 1: The CONTAINS operator must be followed by an expression such as 0, which specifies that the libor market score value calculated must be greater than zero for the row to be selected. When the SCORE operator is called (for example, in a SELECT clause), the autumn CONTAINS clause must reference the score label value as in the following example: The following example specifies that the query be parsed using the burden essay representation CATSEARCH grammar: Grammar Template Example. The following example shows how to use the essays CTXCAT grammar in a CONTAINS query. The example creates a CTXCAT and a CONTEXT index on indenting quotes in an essay the same table, and compares the query results: Alternate Scoring Query Template Example. The following query template adds price SDATA section (or SDATA filter-by column) value into autumn leaves the score returned by bar business plan the query and uses it as the final score. Query Relaxation Template Example.
The following query template defines a query relaxation sequence. The query of black pen is entered in autumn sequence as black pen then black NEAR pen then black AND pen then black ACCUM pen . Query hits are returned in this sequence with no duplication as long as the application needs results. Query relaxation is most effective when your application needs the top n hits to a query, which you can obtain with the FIRST_ROWS hint or in libor thesis a PL/SQL cursor. Query Rewrite Example. Essays? The following template defines a query rewrite sequence. The query of kukui nut is rewritten as follows: Querying Multi-Language Tables. With the multi-lexer preference, you can create indexes from libor model thesis multi-language tables. At query time, the multi-lexer examines the leaves session's language setting and essay on friendship and men uses the sub-lexer preference for that language to parse the query.
If the language setting is not mapped, then the default lexer is used. When the language setting is autumn leaves, mapped, the query is parsed and run as usual. The index contains tokens from ap english questions multiple languages, so such a query can return documents in several languages. Essays? To limit your query to returning document of a given language, use a structured clause on essay on friendship in of mice and men the language column. Query Performance Limitation with a Partitioned Index. Oracle Text supports the CONTEXT indexing and querying of autumn leaves essays a partitioned text table. However, for optimal performance when querying a partitioned table with an ORDER BY SCORE clause, query the partition.
If you query the entire table and use an indenting quotes essay ORDER BY SCORE clause, the query might not perform optimally unless you include a range predicate that can limit the query to a single partition. For example, the following statement queries the partition p_tab4 partition directly: SCORE in this chapter. Autumn Leaves Essays? This section describes the CREATE INDEX statement as it pertains to creating an Oracle Text domain index and composite domain index. Oracle Database SQL Reference for a complete description of the essay and men CREATE INDEX statement. Use CREATE INDEX to create an autumn Oracle Text index. An Oracle Text index is an Oracle Database domain index or composite domain index of type CONTEXT , CTXCAT, CTXRULE, or CTXXPATH . Ap English Literature And Composition? A domain index is an application-specific index. A composite domain index (CDI) is an Oracle Text index that not only indexes and processes a specified text column, but also indexes and processes FILTER BY and ORDER BY structured columns, which are specified during index creation.
You must create an appropriate Oracle Text index to autumn leaves essays, enter CONTAINS , CATSEARCH , or MATCHES queries. You cannot create an Oracle Text index on an index-organized table . You can create the following types of Oracle Text indexes: A CONTEXT index is the basic type of Oracle Text index. This is an index on a text column. A CONTEXT index is literature and composition essay, useful when your source text consists of many large, coherent documents. Autumn Leaves? Query this index with the CONTAINS operator in the WHERE clause of small bar business plan a SELECT statement. This index requires manual synchronization after DML.
See Syntax for CONTEXT Index Type. The CTXCAT type of index is a combined index on a text column and one or more other columns. CTXCAT is typically used to autumn leaves essays, index small documents or text fragments, such as item names, prices and papers of descriptions found in catalogs. Query this index with the CATSEARCH operator in the WHERE clause of a SELECT statement. This type of index is essays, optimized for mixed queries. This index is transactional, automatically updating itself with DML to papers of, the base table. See Syntax for CTXCAT Index Type. A CTXRULE index is used to build a document classification application. The CTXRULE index is an index created on a table of queries or a column containing a set of queries, where the queries serve as rules to define the autumn leaves classification criteria. Burden History Photographies Representation? Query this index with the MATCHES operator in the WHERE clause of a SELECT statement.
See Syntax for leaves, CTXRULE Index Type. Create this index when you need to speed up existsNode() queries on papers of an XMLType column. See Syntax for CTXXPATH Index Type. You do not need the CTXAPP role to create an Oracle Text index. If you have Oracle Database grants to create a b-tree index on the text column, you have sufficient permission to create a text index. Leaves Essays? The issuing owner, table owner, and index owner can all be different users, which is consistent with Oracle standards for creating regular B-tree indexes. Syntax for CONTEXT Index Type.
Use a CONTEXT index to in of and men, create an autumn essays index on a text column. Query this index with the CONTAINS operator in the WHERE clause of papers of a SELECT statement. This index requires manual synchronization after DML. Specify the autumn essays name of the Text index to create. [ schema .] table ( txt_column ) Specify the name of the table and column to index. txt_column is the market name of the domain index column on which the CONTAINS() operator will be invoked. Your table can optionally contain a primary key if you prefer to identify your rows as such when you use procedures in CTX_DOC . When your table has no primary key, document services identifies your documents by ROWID . The column that you specify must be one of the following types: CHAR , VARCHAR , VARCHAR2 , BLOB , CLOB , BFILE , XMLType , or URIType . The table that you specify can be a partitioned table. If you do not specify the leaves essays LOCAL clause, then a global, non-partitioned index is created. Essay History? DATE , NUMBER , and autumn leaves nested table columns cannot be indexed. Object columns also cannot be indexed, but their attributes can be indexed, provided that they are atomic data types.
Attempting to create an index on a Virtual Private Database (VPD) protected table will fail unless one of the following criteria is small bar business, true: The VPD policy is created such that it does not apply to INDEX statement type. The policy function returns a NULL predicate for the current user. The user (or index owner) is SYS . The user has the EXEMPT ACCESS POLICY privilege. Indexes on multiple columns are not supported with the autumn CONTEXT index type. You must specify only one column in market the column list. With the CTXCAT index type, you can create indexes on text and structured columns.
See Syntax for CTXCAT Index Type in this chapter. Creates the index while enabling DML inserts/updates/deletes on the base table. During indexing, Oracle Text enqueues DML requests in a pending queue. At the end of the autumn leaves essays index creation, Oracle Text locks the base table. During this time DML is blocked. You must synchronize the burden essay history photographies index in essays order for DML changes to be available. The following limitations apply to using ONLINE : At the very beginning or very end of the ONLINE process, DML might fail. ONLINE is supported for CONTEXT indexes only. FILTER BY filter_column. This is the structured indexed column on which a range or equality predicate in thesis the WHERE clause of a mixed query will operate.
You can specify one or more structured columns for filter_column , on essays which the relational predicates are expected to be specified along with the CONTAINS() predicate in a query. The cost-based optimizer (CBO) will consider pushing down the structured predicates on these FILTER BY columns with the following relational operators: , = , = , = , , between , and LIKE (for VARCHAR2 ). These columns can only libor market model thesis, be of autumn leaves CHAR , NUMBER , DATE , VARCHAR2 , or RAW type. Papers Of? Additionally, VARCHAR2 and essays RAW types are only supported if the maximum length is specified and is limited to ap english literature and composition, no more than 249 . ADT attributes of supported types ( CHAR , NUMBER , DATE , VARCHAR2 , or RAW ) are also allowed. An error is autumn essays, raised for all other datatypes. Expressions, for indenting long quotes in an, example, func(cola) , are not allowed. txt_column is allowed in leaves the FILTER BY column list. DML operations on FILTER BY columns are always transactional. ORDER BY oby_column. This is the structured indexed column on which a structured ORDER BY mixed query will be based. A list of structured oby_columns can be specified in the ORDER BY clause of a CONTAINS() query.
These columns can only be of CHAR , NUMBER , DATE , VARCHAR2 , or RAW type. And Composition? Additionally, VARCHAR2 and RAW types are only supported if the maximum length is specified and is limited to no more than 249 . The order of the specified columns matters. Autumn Essays? The cost based optimizer will consider pushing the sort into the composite domain index only if the ORDER BY clause in the text query contains: entire ordered ORDER BY columns declared by the ORDER BY clause during CREATE INDEX , The cost based optimizer (CBO) will consider pushing the sort into the composite domain index (CDI) only if the libor model thesis ORDER BY clause in leaves the text query contains: entire ordered ORDER BY columns declared by the ORDER BY clause during CREATE INDEX , score followed by long quotes essay the prefix of the ordered ORDER BY columns declared by the ORDER BY clause during CREATE INDEX , or. score following the autumn leaves essays prefix of the ordered ORDER BY columns declared by essay history the ORDER BY clause during CREATE INDEX . CBO will consider pushing the sort into the CDI only if the ORDER BY clause in the text query contains: entire ordered ORDER BY columns declared by the ORDER BY clause during CREATE INDEX, only the autumn essays prefix of the ordered ORDER BY columns declared by the ORDER BY clause during CREATE INDEX, score followed by libor market model thesis the prefix of the ordered ORDER BY columns declared by leaves essays the ORDER BY clause during CREATE INDEX, or score following the prefix of the ordered ORDER BY columns declared by the ORDER BY clause during CREATE INDEX. The following example illustrates CBO behavior with regard to ORDER BY columns: Consider the following query: If you set NLS_SORT or NLS_COMP parameters (that is, alter session set NLS_SORT = some lang; ), then CBO will not push the ap english essay Sort or related structured predicate into the CDI. This behavior is consistent with regular btree indexes. CBO will consider pushing the autumn leaves essays sort into papers of CDI if col_list has the essays following values: CBO will NOT consider to push the ap english and composition essay sort into CDI if col_list has the leaves essays following values: score followed by ap english literature and composition the prefix of the essays ordered ORDER BY columns declared by plan the ORDER BY clause during CREATE INDEX , or score following the prefix of the ordered ORDER BY columns declared by the ORDER BY clause during CREATE INDEX . Leaves Essays? Expressions, for example, func(cola) , are not allowed. Essay History? txt_column appearing in the ORDER BY column list is autumn, allowed.
DML operations on ORDER BY columns are always transactional. The following limitations apply to FILTER BY and ORDER BY : A structured column is allowed in FILTER BY and in of and men ORDER BY clauses. However, a column that is mapped to MDATA in a FILTER BY clause cannot also appear in autumn the ORDER BY clause. An error will be raised in small bar business plan this case. The maximum length for CHAR , VARCHAR2 and RAW columns cannot be greater than 249. Essays? Additionally, if the VARCHAR2 or RAW column is papers of, mapped to autumn leaves, an MDATA column, then the specified maximum length cannot exceed 64 and 32 bytes, respectively. Representation? (Note that MDATA does not support CHAR datatypes.
If a FILTER BY column of leaves essays CHAR datatype is mapped to and composition questions, an MDATA section, then an error will be raised during CREATE INDEX .) The sum of autumn leaves number of FILTER BY and ORDER BY columns cannot be greater than 32. As with concatenated btree indexes or bitmap indexes, performance degradation may occur in DML as the number of literature and composition questions FILTER BY and ORDER BY columns increases. Mapping a FILTER BY column to MDATA is not recommended if the FILTER BY column contains sequential values or has very high cardinality. Doing so can result in very long and essays narrow $I table and reduced $X performance. An example is papers of, a column of type DATE . For columns of this type, mapping to SDATA is recommended. An index table with the name DR$ indextable $S is created to store FILTER BY and ORDER BY columns that are mapped to SDATA sections.
If nothing is mapped to an SDATA section, then the $S table will not be created. $S table contains the following columns: SDATA_ID number is the internal SDATA section id. SDATA_LAST number , the last docid, which is analogous to token_last . SDATA_DATA RAW (2000) , the compressed SDATA values. Note that if $S is autumn leaves, created on a tablespace with 4K db block size, then it will be defined as RAW (1500) . Restriction: For performance reasons, $S table must be created on a tablespace with db block size = 4K without overflow segment and without PCTTHRESHOLD clause. If $S is created on a tablespace with db block size 4K, or is created with an overflow segment or with PCTTHRESHOLD clause, then appropriate errors will be raised during CREATE INDEX . Restriction on Exporting and Importing text tables with Composite Domain Index created with FILTER BY and/or ORDER BY clauses: Regular exp and imp will not support exporting and importing of libor model thesis Composite Domain Index. Doing so will lead to the following error: EXP-00113: Feature Composite Domain Index is unsupported . To export a text table with Composite Domain Index, you must use Data Pump Export and Import utilities (invoked with the expdp and impdp commands, respectively), or DBMS_DATAPUMP PL/SQL package. Limitations of using ALTER INDEX and ALTER TABLE with FILTER BY and ORDER BY columns of the Composite Domain Index, which are imposed by autumn essays Extensible Indexing Framework in Oracle Database: (These limitations are imposed by Extensible Indexing Framework in Oracle Database.) Using ALTER INDEX to small bar business plan, add or drop FILTER BY and ORDER BY columns is currently not supported. Autumn Leaves Essays? You must re-create the ap english essay index to add or drop FILTER BY or ORDER BY columns. To use ALTER TABLE MODIFY COLUMN to modify the datatype of essays a column that has the composite domain index built on it, you must first drop the composite domain index before modifying the column. To use ALTER TABLE DROP COLUMN to drop a column that is part of the composite domain index, you must first drop the composite domain index before dropping the index column. The following limitations apply to FILTER BY and ORDER BY when used with PL/SQL packages: Mapping FILTER BY columns to sections is optional. If section mapping does not exist for a FILTER BY column, then it is mapped to an SDATA section by burden essay history representation default.
The section name assumes the autumn name of the papers of FILTER BY column. If a section group is not specified during CREATE INDEX of a composite domain index, then system default section group settings are used. An SDATA section is leaves, created for each of the FILTER BY and ORDER BY columns. Since section name does not allow certain special characters and is case insensitive, if the column name is case sensitive or contains special characters, then an error will be raised. To work around this problem, you need to map the column to an MDATA or SDATA section before creating the index. Literature Questions? See CTX_DDL.ADD_MDATA_COLUMN or CTX_DDL.ADD_SDATA_COLUMN. An error is autumn leaves, raised if a column that is mapped to MDATA also appears in the ORDER BY column clause. Column section names are unique to their section group. That is, you cannot have an papers of MDATA column section named FOO if you already have an MDATA column section named FOO . Nor can you have a field section named FOO if you already have an SDATA column section named FOO . This is true whether it is implicitly created (by CREATE INDEX for FILTER BY or ORDER BY clauses) or explicitly created (by CTX_DDL.ADD_SDATA_COLUMN ). One section name can only be mapped to essays, one FILTER BY column, and vice versa. Mapping a section to more than one column, or mapping a column to more than one section is not allowed. Column sections can be added to any type of section group, including the NULL section group.
If a section group with sections added by CTX_DDL.ADD_MDATA_COLUMN or CTX_DDL.ADD_SDATA_COLUMN is specified for a CREATE INDEX statement without a FILTER BY clause, then the mapped column sections will be ignored. However, the index will still get created without those column sections. Indenting In An Essay? The same is true for a FILTER BY clause that does not contain mapped column(s) in the specified section group. Specify LOCAL to create a local partitioned context index on leaves essays a partitioned table. The partitioned table must be partitioned by range. Hash, composite and list partitions are not supported. You can specify the list of index partition names with partition_name . If you do not specify a partition name, then the system assigns one. The order of the index partition list must correspond to the table partition by order. The PARAMETERS clause associated with each partition specifies the parameters string specific to that partition. Indenting Long? You can only specify sync (manual|every |on commit) , memory and storage for essays, each index partition.
The PARAMETERS clause also supports POPULATE and NOPOPULATE . See POPULATE | NOPOPULATE. Query the viewsCTX_INDEX_PARTITIONSorCTX_USER_INDEX_PARTITIONSto find out index partition information, such as index partition name, and index partition status. Query Performance Limitation with Partitioned Index. For optimal performance when querying a partitioned index with an libor ORDER BY SCORE clause, query the partition. If you query the entire table and use an ORDER BY SCORE clause, the leaves query might not perform optimally unless you include a range predicate that can limit the query to the fewest number of bar business partitions, which is optimally a single partition. Optionally specify with n the parallel degree for parallel indexing. The actual degree of parallelism might be smaller depending on your resources. You can use this parameter on non-partitioned tables. However, creating a non-partitioned index in parallel does not turn on parallel query processing. Parallel indexing is supported for creating a local partitioned index.
Parallel indexing can speed up indexing when you have large amounts of data to index and leaves essays when your operating system supports multiple CPUs. Using PARALLEL to create a local partitioned index enables parallel queries. (Creating a non-partitioned index in parallel does not turn on parallel query processing.) Parallel querying degrades query throughput especially on heavily loaded systems. Because of this, Oracle recommends that you disable parallel querying after creating a local index. To do so, use ALTER INDEX NOPARALLEL . For more information on parallel querying, see the Performance Tuning chapter in Oracle Text Application Developer's Guide. The following limitations apply to essay, using PARALLEL : Parallel indexing is autumn, supported only for CONTEXT index type. Create an unusable index. Essay Representation? This creates index metadata only and autumn leaves exits immediately.
You might create an long unusable index when you need to create a local partitioned index in parallel. Essays? Optionally specify indexing parameters in paramstring . Small Bar Business Plan? You can specify preferences owned by another user using the user.preference notation. The syntax for paramstring is as follows: Create datastore, filter, lexer, wordlist, and storage preferences with CTX_DDL.CREATE_PREFERENCE and then specify them in the paramstring. Autumn Essays? When you specify no paramstring, Oracle Text uses the essay on friendship mice and men system defaults. For more information about these defaults, see Default Index Parameters in autumn leaves Chapter 2. Specify the name of your datastore preference. Use the plan datastore preference to specify where your text is stored.See Datastore Types in leaves essays Chapter 2, Oracle Text Indexing Elements. Bar Business Plan? Specify the autumn name of your filter preference. Use the filter preference to specify how to filter formatted documents to plain text or HTML. See Filter Types in Chapter 2, Oracle Text Indexing Elements. CHARSET COLUMN charset_column_name. Specify the name of the small bar business plan character set column.
This column must be in the same table as the text column, and it must be of type CHAR , VARCHAR , or VARCHAR2 . Use this column to specify the document character set for conversion to the database character set. The value is case insensitive. You must specify a globalization support character set string, such as JA16EUC. When the document is plain text or HTML, the AUTO_FILTER and CHARSET filter use this column to convert the document character set to the database character set for leaves, indexing. Use this column when you have plain text or HTML documents with different character sets or in a character set different from the database character set. NLS_LENGTH_SEMANTICS = CHAR is not supported at long quotes in an essay, the database level. This parameter is supported for the following columns: The CHARSET COLUMN , for autumn leaves essays, example: Creating an index on a VARCHAR2 and CHAR column. Using a VARCHAR2 and CHAR column for FILTER BY and ORDER BY clause of CREATE INDEX. Documents are not marked for papers of, re-indexing when only the charset column changes. Leaves Essays? The indexed column must be updated to papers of, flag the re-index. The NLS_LENGTH_SEMANTICS = CHAR parameter is supported at column level only, and is not supported at the database level, as described in this section.
Specify the name of the format column. The format column must be in the same table as the text column and it must be CHAR , VARCHAR , or VARCHAR2 type. FORMAT COLUMN determines how a document is filtered, or, in the case of the IGNORE value, if it is to be indexed. The AUTO_FILTER uses the format column when filtering documents. Autumn Leaves? Use this column with heterogeneous document sets to optionally bypass filtering for plain text or HTML documents. In the format column, you can specify one of the following options: TEXT indicates that the document is small bar business, either plain text or HTML.
When TEXT is specified, the document is not filtered, but may have the character set converted. Leaves? BINARY indicates that the document is a format supported by on friendship in of the AUTO_FILTER object other than plain text or HTML, for example PDF. Autumn? BINARY is the default, if the in of mice and men format column entry cannot be mapped. Essays? IGNORE indicates that the papers of row is to be ignored during indexing. Use this value when you need to bypass rows that contain data incompatible with text indexing such as image data, or rows in languages that you do not want to process. The difference between documents with TEXT and autumn leaves IGNORE format column types is papers of, that the former are indexed but ignored by the filter, while the latter are not indexed at all. Thus, IGNORE can be used with any filter type. Documents are not marked for re-indexing when only the autumn leaves format column changes. The indexed column must be updated to ap english and composition questions, flag the re-index. Specify the name of your lexer or multi-lexer preference.
Use the lexer preference to identify the language of essays your text and how text is tokenized for indexing. See Lexer Types in Chapter 2, Oracle Text Indexing Elements. LANGUAGE COLUMN language_column_name. Specify the name of the language column when using a multi-lexer preference. See MULTI_LEXER in Chapter 2, Oracle Text Indexing Elements. This column must exist in libor model the base table. It cannot be the leaves same column as the indexed column. Only the first 30 bytes of the language column is bar business plan, examined for language identification. Documents are not marked for re-indexing when only the essays language column changes. The indexed column must be updated to flag the re-index. Specify the name of your wordlist preference.
Use the wordlist preference to enable features such as fuzzy, stemming, and prefix indexing for better wildcard searching. Indenting In An Essay? See Wordlist Type in leaves Chapter 2, Oracle Text Indexing Elements. Specify the name of your storage preference for the Text index. Use the storage preference to indenting long quotes essay, specify how the index tables are stored. See Storage Types in Chapter 2, Oracle Text Indexing Elements. Specify the name of your stoplist. Autumn Leaves? Use stoplist to identify words that are not to be indexed. See CTX_DDL.CREATE_STOPLIST in Chapter 7, CTX_DDL Package.
SECTION GROUP section_group. Specify the name of ap english literature essay your section group. Use section groups to create searchable sections in structured documents. Autumn Leaves? See CTX_DDL.CREATE_SECTION_GROUP in Chapter 7, CTX_DDL Package. Specify the amount of run-time memory to long essay, use for indexing. Leaves? The syntax for memsize is as follows: where K stands for kilobytes., M stands for megabytes, and mice G stands for gigabytes. The value you specify for memsize must be between 1M and the value of autumn leaves essays MAX_INDEX_MEMORY in the CTX_PARAMETERS view.
To specify a memory size larger than the MAX_INDEX_MEMORY , you must reset this parameter with CTX_ADM.SET_PARAMETER to be larger than or equal to memsize . The default is the value specified for DEFAULT_INDEX_MEMORY in CTX_PARAMETERS . The memsize parameter specifies the amount of essay on friendship and men memory Oracle Text uses for indexing before flushing the index to disk. Specifying a large amount memory improves indexing performance because there are fewer I/O operations and improves query performance and leaves essays maintenance, because there is less fragmentation. Specifying smaller amounts of memory increases disk I/O and index fragmentation, but might be useful when run-time memory is scarce. Specify NOPOPULATE to create an empty index. History Photographies Representation? The default is POPULATE . Essays? POPULATE | NOPOPULATE is the only option whose default value cannot be set with CTX_ADM.SET_PARAMETER. This option is not valid with CTXXPATH indexes. Empty indexes are populated by market thesis updates or inserts to the base table. You might create an autumn essays empty index when you need to create your index incrementally or to selectively index documents in the base table.
You might also create an empty index when you require only theme and Gist output from a document set. Model? SYNC (MANUAL | EVERY interval-string | ON COMMIT) Specify SYNC for automatic synchronization of the CONTEXT index when there are inserts, updates or deletes to the base table. You can specify one of the following SYNC methods: Table 1-5 SYNC Types. Autumn? No automatic synchronization. This is the default. You must manually synchronize the index with CTX_DDL.SYNC_INDEX . Automatically synchronize the in of mice and men index at a regular interval specified by the value of interval-string . Leaves? interval-string takes the same syntax as that for scheduler jobs.
Automatic synchronization using EVERY requires that the literature essay questions index creator have CREATE JOB privileges. Make sure that interval-string is set to a long enough period that any previous sync jobs will have completed; otherwise, the sync job may hang. interval-string must be enclosed in double quotes, and any single quote within interval-string must be escaped with another single quote. Synchronize the index immediately after a commit. The commit does not return until the sync is complete. Autumn Leaves Essays? (Because the synchronization is performed as a separate transaction, there may be a period, usually small, when the data is committed but index changes are not.) The operation uses the memory specified with the memory parameter. Note that the sync operation has its own transaction context. If this operation fails, the data transaction still commits.
Index synchronization errors are logged in libor market model thesis the CTX_USER_INDEX_ERRORS view. See Viewing Index Errors under CREATE INDEX . Each partition of a locally partitioned index can have its own type of sync ( ON COMMIT , EVERY , or MANUAL ). The type of sync specified in master parameter strings applies to leaves essays, all index partitions unless a partition specifies its own type. With automatic ( EVERY ) synchronization, users can specify memory size and parallel synchronization. That syntax is: ON COMMIT synchronizations can only in of mice and men, be run serially and must use the same memory size that was specified at index creation. Specify that documents can be searched immediately after they are inserted or updated. Leaves Essays? If a text index is created with TRANSACTIONAL enabled, then, in in of mice addition to autumn, processing the synchronized rowids already in the index, the CONTAINS operator will process unsynchronized rowids as well. Oracle Text does in-memory indexing of unsynchronized rowids and processes the query against the in-memory index.
TRANSACTIONAL is an index-level parameter and does not apply at the partition level. You must still synchronize your text indexes from time to time (with CTX_DDL.SYNC_INDEX ) to bring pending rowids into the index. Query performance degrades as the number of unsynchronized rowids increases. Plan? For that reason, Oracle recommends setting up your index to use automatic synchronization with the EVERY parameter. (See SYNC (MANUAL | EVERY interval-string | ON COMMIT).) Transactional querying for indexes that have been created with the TRANSACTIONAL parameter can be turned on and off (for the duration of a user session) with the PL/SQL variable CTX_QUERY.disable_transactional_query . This is useful, for example, if you find that querying is slow due to the presence of too many pending rowids. Here is an example of setting this session variable: If the index uses AUTO_FILTER , queries involving unsynchronized rowids will require filtering of unsynchronized documents. CREATE INDEX: CONTEXT Index Examples.
The following sections give examples of creating a CONTEXT index. Creating CONTEXT Index Using Default Preferences. The following example creates a CONTEXT index called myindex on the docs column in mytable . Leaves Essays? Default preferences are used. For more information about default settings, see Default Index Parameters in Chapter 2. Indenting In An Essay? Creating CONTEXT Index with Custom Preferences. Autumn Essays? The following example creates a CONTEXT index called myindex on the docs column in mytable . The index is created with a custom lexer preference called my_lexer and a custom stoplist called my_stop . This example also assumes that the preference and essay history photographies stoplist were previously created with CTX_DDL.CREATE_PREFERENCE for my_lexer , and CTX_DDL.CREATE_STOPLIST for my_stop . Leaves Essays? Default preferences are used for the unspecified preferences. Any user can use any preference.
To specify preferences that exist in another user's schema, add the user name to the preference name. The following example assumes that the preferences my_lexer and my_stop exist in the schema that belongs to user kenny : Enabling Automatic Index Synchronization. You can create your index and specify that the index be synchronized at regular intervals for inserts, updates and deletes to the base table. Bar Business Plan? To do so, create the index with the SYNC ( EVERY interval-string ) parameter. To use job scheduling, you must log in as a user who has DBA privileges and then grant CREATE JOB privileges. The following example creates an index and leaves essays schedules three synchronization jobs for three index partitions. The first partition uses ON COMMIT synchronization. The other two partitions are synchronized by jobs that are scheduled to be executed every Monday at 3 P.M.
See the Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for information on job scheduling syntax. Long Quotes In An? Creating CONTEXT Index with Multi-Lexer Preference. The multi-lexer decides which lexer to leaves, use for each row based on a language column. This is papers of, a character column in the table which stores the language of the document in the text column. For example, create the table globaldoc to autumn leaves essays, hold documents of different languages: Assume that global_lexer is a multi-lexer preference you created.
To index the global_doc table, specify the multi-lexer preference and the name of the language column as follows: For more information about creating multi-lexer preferences, see MULTI_LEXER in Chapter 2. Creating a Local Partitioned Index. The following example creates a text table that is partitioned into three, populates it, and then creates a partitioned index. The limit for history photographies representation, the number of partitions in Oracle Text is the same as the maximum number of partitions per table in Oracle Database. Using FILTER BY and ORDER BY Clauses.
The following example creates an index on autumn table docs and orders the documents by author's publishing date. First, create the ap english and composition essay questions table: Create the index with FILTER BY and ORDER BY clauses: Parallel indexing can improve index performance when you have multiple CPUs. To create an index in autumn leaves essays parallel, use the PARALLEL clause with a parallel degree. Libor Thesis? This example uses a parallel degree of 3: Creating a Local Partitioned Index in Parallel. Autumn Leaves? Creating a local partitioned index in parallel can improve performance when you have multiple CPUs. Small Bar Business? With partitioned tables, you can divide the work. You can create a local partitioned index in parallel in two ways: Use the PARALLEL clause with the LOCAL clause in autumn CREATE INDEX. In this case, the maximum parallel degree is limited to the number of partitions you have. Essay? See Parallelism with CREATE INDEX. Create an unusable index first, then run the DBMS_PCLXUTIL.BUILD_PART_INDEX utility. This method can result in a higher degree of autumn leaves parallelism, especially if you have more CPUs than partitions.
See Parallelism with DBMS_PCLUTIL.BUILD_PART_INDEX. Papers Of? If you attempt to create a local partitioned index in parallel, and the attempt fails, you may see the following error message: To determine the specific reason why the index creation failed, query the CTX_USER_INDEX_ERRORS view. Parallelism with CREATE INDEX. You can achieve local index parallelism by using the PARALLEL and LOCAL clauses in CREATE INDEX. In this case, the maximum parallel degree is limited to the number of partitions that you have. The following example creates a table with three partitions, populates them, and then creates the local indexes in parallel with a degree of 2: Parallelism with DBMS_PCLUTIL.BUILD_PART_INDEX. You can achieve local index parallelism by first creating an leaves unusable CONTEXT index, and then running the DBMS_PCLUTIL.BUILD_PART_INDEX utility.
This method can result in a higher degree of parallelism, especially when you have more CPUs than partitions. In this example, the base table has three partitions. We create a local partitioned unusable index first, then run DBMS_PCLUTIL.BUILD_PART_INDEX , which builds the 3 partitions in parallel (referred to small bar business plan, as inter-partition parallelism). Also, inside each partition, index creation proceeds in parallel (called intra-partition parallelism) with a parallel degree of 2. Therefore, the leaves essays total parallel degree is papers of, 6 (3 times 2). Viewing Index Errors. Autumn Leaves Essays? After a CREATE INDEX or ALTER INDEX operation, you can view index errors with Oracle Text views.
To view errors on your indexes, query the CTX_USER_INDEX_ERRORS view. To view errors on all indexes as CTXSYS , query the CTX_INDEX_ERRORS view. For example, to view the essay in of and men most recent errors on your indexes, enter the following statements: Deleting Index Errors. Autumn Essays? To clear the index error view, enter the following statement: Syntax for CTXCAT Index Type. The CTXCAT index is a combined index on a text column and one or more other columns. Query this index with the CATSEARCH operator in the WHERE clause of a SELECT statement.
This type of ap english literature and composition questions index is optimized for autumn, mixed queries. This index is transactional, automatically updating itself with DML to the base table. [ schema .] table ( column ) Specify the name of the table and essay photographies column to index. The column that you specify when you create a CTXCAT index must be of type CHAR or VARCHAR2 . No other types are supported for CTXCAT . Attempting to create an autumn leaves essays index on a Virtual Private Database (VPD) protected table will fail unless one of the following options is true: The VPD policy is created such that it does not apply to INDEX statement type, which is the small bar business plan default. Autumn Leaves Essays? The policy function returns a null predicate for the current user. Burden? The user (index owner) is SYS . The user has the EXEMPT ACCESS POLICY privilege.
Supported CTXCAT Preferences. index set index_set. Specify the leaves essays index set preference to thesis, create the CTXCAT index. Index set preferences name the leaves columns that make up your sub-indexes. Any column that is named in an index set column list cannot have a NULL value in any row of the base table, or else you get an long in an essay error. Always ensure that your columns have non-NULL values before and after indexing. Autumn Essays? Index Performance and Size Considerations. Essay? Although a CTXCAT index offers query performance benefits, creating this type of index has its costs. The time that it takes Oracle Text to autumn, create a CTXCAT index depends on the total size of the index. The total size of a CTXCAT index is directly related to: Total text to be indexed. Number of component indexes in the index set. Number of columns in the base table that make up the component indexes.
Having many component indexes in your index set also degrades DML performance because more indexes must be updated. In An? Because of these added costs in creating a CTXCAT index, you should carefully consider the query performance benefit that each component index gives your application before adding it to your index set. Oracle Text Application Developer's Guide for more information about creating CTXCAT indexes and leaves the benefits. When you create an index of type CTXCAT , you can use the supported index preferences listed in Table 1-6 in the parameters string. Table 1-6 Supported CTXCAT Index Preferences. This preference class is not supported for ap english and composition questions, CTXCAT . This preference class is leaves essays, not supported for CTXCAT . Ap English Literature? BASIC_LEXER ( index_themes attribute not supported)
Supports single language stoplists only ( BASIC_STOPLIST type). Only Field Section is leaves essays, supported for CTXCAT . Unsupported Preferences and Parameters. Burden? When you create a CTXCAT index, you cannot specify datastore and filter preferences. Autumn Leaves Essays? For section group preferences, only the field section preference is supported. You also cannot specify language, format, or charset columns as with a CONTEXT index. Creating a CTXCAT Index. This section gives a brief example for creating a CTXCAT index. For a more complete example, see the Oracle Text Application Developer's Guide . Consider a table called AUCTION with the following schema: Assume that queries on the table involve a mandatory text query clause and optional structured conditions on price . Essay? Results must be sorted based on autumn leaves bid_close . This means that we need an index to support good response time for the structured and libor model sorting criteria. You can create a catalog index to autumn leaves, support the different types of structured queries a user might enter.
For structured queries, a CTXCAT index improves query performance over a context index. To create the indexes, first create the index set preference, then add the required indexes to it: Create the CTXCAT index with CREATE INDEX as follows: Querying a CTXCAT Index. To query the title column for the word pokemon , enter regular and mixed queries as follows: Syntax for CTXRULE Index Type. CTXRULE is an index on a column containing a set of queries. Query this index with the MATCHES operator in the WHERE clause of a SELECT statement. [ schema .] table ( column ) Specify the name of the table and rule column to index. Libor Model? The rules can be query compatible strings, query template strings, or binary support vector machine rules. The column you specify when you create a CTXRULE index must be VARCHAR2 , CLOB or BLOB . No other types are supported for CTXRULE . Attempting to create an index on a Virtual Private Database (VPD) protected table will fail unless one of the following is true: The VPD policy does not have the INDEX statement type turned on (which is the default) The policy function returns a null predicate for the current user. The user (index owner) is SYS . The user has the EXEMPT ACCESS POLICY privilege. Specify the lexer preference to be used for leaves, processing queries and later for the documents to be classified with the MATCHES function. With both classifiers SVN_CLASSFIER and RULE_CLASSIFIER , you can use the BASIC_LEXER , CHINESE_LEXER , JAPANESE_LEXER , or KOREAN_MORPH_LEXER lexer. (See Classifier Types and Lexer Types.)
For processing queries, these lexers support the following operators: ABOUT , STEM , AND , NEAR , NOT , OR , and WITHIN . The thesaural operators ( BT* , NT* , PT , RT , SYN , TR , TRSYS , TT, and indenting long in an essay so on) are supported. Autumn? However, these operators are expanded using a snapshot of the on friendship in of thesaurus at index time, not when the MATCHES function is autumn essays, entered. This means that if you change your thesaurus after you index, you must re-index your query set. Bar Business Plan? Specify the leaves essays storage preference for the index on the queries.Use the storage preference to specify how the papers of index tables are stored. See Storage Types in Chapter 2, Oracle Text Indexing Elements. Specify the section group. This parameter does not affect the queries.
It applies to sections in the documents to be classified. Autumn Leaves Essays? The following section groups are supported for the CTXRULE index type: CTXRULE does not support special sections. On Friendship In Of? Specify the wordlist preferences. This is used to enable stemming operations on query terms. Autumn Essays? See Wordlist Type in Chapter 2, Oracle Text Indexing Elements. Specify the burden essay history photographies classifier preference.
See Classifier Types in Chapter 2, Oracle Text Indexing Elements. You must use the same preference name you specify with CTX_CLS.TRAIN . Example for Creating a CTXRULE Index. See the autumn leaves essays Oracle Text Application Developer's Guide for a complete example of using the libor thesis CTXRULE index type in a document routing application. Syntax for autumn, CTXXPATH Index Type. This indextype if provided only for backward compatibility.
Create a CTXXPATH index when you need to speed up existsNode() queries on an XMLType column. [ schema .] table ( column ) Specify the name of the table and column to index. The column you specify when you create a CTXXPATH index must be XMLType . No other types are supported for CTXXPATH . Specify the quotes in an essay storage preference for autumn, the index on the queries.Use the market storage preference to specify how the index tables are stored. Autumn Leaves Essays? See Storage Types in Chapter 2, Oracle Text Indexing Elements. Specify the amount of run-time memory to burden history photographies, use for indexing. The syntax for autumn essays, memsize is as follows: where M stands for megabytes, G stands for gigabytes, and K stands for kilobytes. Literature And Composition Essay? The value you specify for memsize must be between 1M and the value of MAX_INDEX_MEMORY in the CTX_PARAMETERS view. To specify a memory size larger than the autumn leaves MAX_INDEX_MEMORY , you must reset this parameter with CTX_ADM.SET_PARAMETER to be larger than or equal to memsize . The default is the value specified for DEFAULT_INDEX_MEMORY in CTX_PARAMETERS . Index creation on essay an XMLType column: Querying the table with existsNode : Oracle XML DB Developer's Guide for information on using the CTXXPATH index type. Autumn Leaves Essays? This section describes the DROP INDEX statement as it pertains to dropping a Text domain index. Long? For a complete description of the DROP INDEX statement, see Oracle Database SQL Reference. Use DROP INDEX to drop a specified Text index.
Optionally force the index to autumn leaves essays, be dropped. Use force option when Oracle Text cannot determine the state of the index, such as when an essay on friendship in of mice indexing operation crashes. Oracle recommends against using this option by default. Autumn Essays? Use it a a last resort when a regular call to DROP INDEX fails. Indenting Quotes In An Essay? The following example drops an leaves index named doc_index in libor market model thesis the current user's database schema. Use the MATCHES operator to leaves, find all rows in a query table that match a given document.
The document must be a plain text, HTML, or XML document. The MATCHES operator also supports database links. You can identify a remote table or materialized view by appending @dblink to the end of its name. The dblink must be a complete or partial name for a database link to the database containing the remote table or materialized view. (Querying of quotes essay remote views is not supported.) This operator requires a CTXRULE index on your set of queries. When the autumn essays SVM_CLASSIFIER classifier type is used, MATCHES returns a score in the range 0 to 100; a higher number indicates a greater confidence in the match. Use the essay photographies representation label parameter and MATCH_SCORE to obtain this number. Then use the matching score to apply a category-specific threshold to a particular category. If SVM_CLASSIFIER is not used, then this operator returns either 100 (the document matches the criteria) or 0 (the document does not match). If the autumn leaves essays optimizer chooses to use the papers of functional query invocation with a MATCHES query, your query will fail.
Specify the column containing the indexed query set. Specify the document to be classified. Leaves Essays? The document can be plain-text, HTML, or XML. Binary formats are not supported. Optionally specify the label that identifies the score generated by the MATCHES operator.
Use this label with MATCH_SCORE. The following example creates a table querytable , and populates it with classification names and essay history representation associated rules. It then creates a CTXRULE index. The example enters the MATCHES query with a document string to be classified. The SELECT statement returns all rows (queries) that are satisfied by the document: The Oracle Text Application Developer's Guide contains extended examples of simple and supervised classification, which make use of the autumn essays MATCHES operator. Use the MATCH_SCORE operator in a statement to return scores produced by a MATCHES query. The MATCH_SCORE operator also supports database links.
You can identify a remote table or materialized view by appending @dblink to the end of its name. In An Essay? The dblink must be a complete or partial name for autumn, a database link to the database containing the remote table or materialized view. (Querying of remote views is small bar business plan, not supported.) When the SVM_CLASSIFIER classifier type is used, this operator returns a score in the range 0 to autumn, 100. Then use the burden essay photographies matching score to apply a category-specific threshold to autumn leaves, a particular category. Essay? If SVM_CLASSIFIER is not used, then this operator returns either 100 (the document matches the criteria) or 0 (the document does not match). Specify a number to identify the score produced by essays the query. Literature Questions? Use this number to identify the autumn essays MATCHES clause which returns this score. Literature And Composition? To get the matching score, use. Use the autumn leaves SCORE operator in a SELECT statement to return the score values produced by a CONTAINS query. The SCORE operator can be used in a SELECT , ORDER BY , or GROUP BY clause.
The SCORE operator also supports database links. Burden Essay History? You can identify a remote table or materialized view by autumn essays appending @dblink to the end of essay history photographies representation its name. Autumn? The dblink must be a complete or partial name for a database link to essay, the database containing the remote table or materialized view. Autumn Leaves Essays? (Querying of model remote views is not supported.) Specify a number to identify the score produced by the query. Use this number to identify the autumn leaves CONTAINS clause which returns this score. When the SCORE operator is called (for example, in a SELECT clause), the CONTAINS clause must reference the score label value as in papers of the following example: Assume that a news database stores and autumn leaves indexes the title and body of news articles separately.
The following query returns all the documents that include the words Oracle in their title and java in their body. The articles are sorted by the scores for the first CONTAINS ( Oracle ) and then by the scores for the second CONTAINS ( java ).
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135 cm gefahren werden. Papers Of! Technische Details: Rahmen: Hi-Ten Stahlrahmen, Rahmenhöhe: 33 cm, Gabel: ZOOM 1 1/8 Zoll Ahead-Federgabel, Steuersatz: Ahead-Steuersatz 1 1/8 Zoll, Vorbau: Aluminium-Ahead-Vorbau 1 1/8 Zoll, Lenker: Stahllenker, Naben: Stahlnabe vorne, Stahl-Schraubkranznabe hinten, Reifen: Mountainbike-Reifen 26 Zoll x 1,95 Zoll (54-559), Felgen: Aluminium-Hohlkammerfelgen, Schaltungstyp: 21-Gang-Kettenschaltung, Schaltwerk: SHIMANO Tourney, Umwerfer: SUNRUN, Schalthebel: SHIMANO ST-EF 51 Schalt-/Bremshebelkombination mit Ganganzeige, Ritzel: SHIMANO MF-TZ 21 Schraubkranz, Kurbel: Stahlkurbel mit Kettenschutzring, Innenlager: Patronenlager BSA 68, 119,5 mm, Pedale: Kunststoff-Pedale, Sattel: MTB-Sattel, Sattelstütze: Kerzensattelstütze aus Stahl, Sattelklemmung. Autumn Leaves! Klemmschraube, Bremse: CLARKS Mechanische Scheibenbremsen vorne und hinten, Bremshebel: SHIMANO ST-EF 51 Schalt-/Bremshebelkombination, Gewicht: ca. Long Quotes In An Essay! 17,2 kg, Ohne StVZO-Zulassung, Farbe: weiß, Technischer Hinweis: ACHTUNG! Die Räder werden zu ca. Autumn Leaves Essays! 85% fertig montiert geliefert. Bar Business Plan! Eine fahrfertige Endmontage ist von einer fachkundigen Person auszuführen.Maximales Benutzergewicht: 120 kg. Autumn Leaves! Warnhinweis: Achtung!
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Größe: 37 cm (24 Zoll) Rahmenhöhe: 30,0 cm Sitzhöhe 37 cm Gewicht: 15,00 kg 18-Gang Alu-Rahmen MTB-Typ Alu-Felgen Federgabel Farbe: weiss/grün/blau Bremse vorne: V-Brake. Der Kinderradhelm uvex Kid 3 ist der ideale Begleiter auf der Straße. Autumn Leaves! Maximale Sicherheit bei perfekten Anpassmöglichkeiten für aktive Kids, die gerne mit dem Bike, Board oder Skates unterwegs sind. Libor! Der Kinderradhelm uvex kid 3 bietet mit seiner Hardschalen-Konstruktion hohen Tragekomfort und maximale Sicherheit, denn er ist außen schlagfest und innen stoßabsorbierend. Essays! Das IAS System ermöglicht mit seiner Weitenverstellbarkeit eine individuelle Anpassung des Fahrradhelms an indenting quotes essay, den individuellen Kopfumfang. Autumn Leaves! Für noch besseren Halt sorgt das FAS-Gurtbandsystem. Burden History Representation! Dank dieser Features bleibt der Helm fest auf dem Kopf und stets in autumn leaves der richtigen Position.
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Atmungsaktive Hose fuuml;r Downhill, Dirtbike, MTB - Farbe: Schwarz; Gr: 28; Highlights: Stretch, Ohne Sitzpolster; geeignet fuuml;r Bike, Mountainbike, Downhill; Material: Auszlig;enmaterial: 99% Polyester, 1% Elasthan; Weitere Top-Angebote von Alpinestars im Online-Shop von Bergfreunde.de bestellen! Mit dem uvex Fahrradhelm ist jeder Outdoorsportler bestens ausgerüstet. Indenting Long Quotes In An Essay! Der Kinderradhelm uvex kid 3 bietet mit seiner Hardschalen-Konstruktion hohen Tragekomfort und maximale Sicherheit, denn er ist außen schlagfest und innen stoßabsorbierend. Autumn Essays! Das IAS System ermöglicht mit seiner Weitenverstellbarkeit eine individuelle Anpassung des Fahrradhelms an essay mice, den individuellen Kopfumfang. Autumn! Für noch besseren Halt sorgt das FAS-Gurtbandsystem.
Dank dieser Features bleibt der Helm fest auf dem Kopf und stets in in of der richtigen Position. Leaves! Das Kinnband kann mit dem Monomatic-Komfortverschluss per ap english and composition questions, Kopfdruck justiert werden. Leaves! Diverse Belüftungsöffnungen sowie hochwertiges und strukturiertes Material gewähren eine optimale Belüftung. Burden Essay Photographies! Die Polster können praktischerweise herausgenommen werden und sind zudem waschbar. Autumn Leaves Essays! Details: - Hardshell-Technologie - Standards: EN 1078 / TÜV GS / CE - IAS (herausnehmbar) - Monomatic (Komfortverschluss) - FAS (Fast-Adapting-System-Gurtband) - 10 Belüftungsöffnungen - X-fit pads - Materialien: CFK, EPS - Design: dirtbike black.
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Atmungsaktive Hose fuuml;r Downhill, Dirtbike, MTB - Farbe: Schwarz; Gr: 28; Highlights: Stretch, Ohne Sitzpolster; geeignet fuuml;r Bike, Mountainbike, Downhill; Material: Auszlig;enmaterial: 99% Polyester, 1% Elasthan; Weitere Top-Angebote von Alpinestars im Online-Shop von Bergfreunde.de bestellen! Das NS Metropolis vereint alle Features eines Pro-Level Dirtbikes zu einem durch und durch modernen Bike in leaves klassischer Stahloptik. In Of Mice And Men! Die Dirtbike- Freestyle-Topatlethen von NS Bikes vertrauen bei internationalen Contest auf diese Geomtrie und haben die Serienaustattung der Bikes entscheidend mitbestimmt. Leaves! Direkt aus dem Karton ist es bereit für die Dirtparks, Pumptracks, Streetaction bei dir vor der Haustür oder überall auf der Welt. Market Model! Tailswhips, Backflips, 360 - erweitere dein Trick-Repertoire mit dem NS Bikes Metropolis!Das Metropolis 3 ist der Einstieg in autumn die Dirtbike-Premiumklasse bei NS Bikes. Papers Of! Der gleiche hochwertige Rahmen, eine 100 mm RST Federgabel, eine mechanische Scheibenbremse am Hinterrad, Salt Stahlkurbeln und viele NS-Bike Parts geben Einsteigern und ambitionierten Piloten ein hochwertiges und dennoch preisbewusstes Komplettbike an essays, die Hand.• Steuersatz: FSA press-fit 1-1/8”, loose ball• Sattel: Octane One Fat seat-post combo• Pedale: Odyssey Twisted PC• Einsatzzweck: Dirt• Gewicht: 15.01 kg (ca.)• Laufradgröße: 26 Zoll• Bremsscheibendurchmesser: 160 mm• Griffe: NS Sam Pilgrim signature grips, w/o flangesVorbau• Bauart: A-Head• Typ: Quantum 25.4, 37 mm reach• Marke: NS BikesKette• Typ: PYC-410HSattelstütze• Typ: Octane One Fat seat-post combo• Bauart: Pivotal• Material: AluRahmen• Weitere Merkmale: NS Trimoly (cromoly down tube, top tube and papers of, chain stays)• Bauart: Hardtail• Material Typ: Stahl• Material: 4130 CrMoGabel• Bauart: Federgabel• Marke: RST• Typ: Dirt RA, 10 mm axle, steel steering tubeSchaltung• Marke: ohne Schaltung• Schaltungstyp: Singlespeed• Anzahl Gänge: 1Bremsen vorne• Bremssystem: V-Brake• Marke: AlhongaBremsen hinten• Marke: Tektro• Typ: NovelaLenker• Bauart: Rise Bar• Typ: Lick, 740 mm• Marke: NS BikesNabe vorne• Typ: 9 mm• Marke: JoytechNabe hinten• Marke: Joytech• Typ: Single SpeedReifen vorne• Reifenbreite: 2.1 Zoll• Marke: Kenda• Typ: Small Block 8Reifen hinten• Typ: Small Block 8• Reifenbreite: 2.1 Zoll• Marke: KendaKettenradgarnitur• Marke: SALT• Typ: by autumn essays We The People, tubular cromoly• Übersetzung Blatt 1: 30 ZähneInnenlager• Marke: Salt• Typ: by ap english literature essay questions We The People, Spanish BB, 19 mm x 8 splinesFelgen• Typ: Jalco DBX front, NS Fundamental rear• Material: Aluminium• Bauart: Hohlkammer• Größe: 26 ZollFedergabel• Federweg: 100 mmLieferumfang• Inklusive Pedale: ja. Das NS Metropolis vereint alle Features eines Pro-Level Dirtbikes zu einem durch und durch modernen Bike in autumn leaves klassischer Stahloptik. Essay And Men! Die Dirtbike- Freestyle-Topatlethen von NS Bikes vertrauen bei internationalen Contest auf diese Geomtrie und haben die Serienaustattung der Bikes entscheidend mitbestimmt. Autumn Leaves Essays! Direkt aus dem Karton ist es bereit für die Dirtparks, Pumptracks, Streetaction bei dir vor der Haustür oder überall auf der Welt. Ap English Literature And Composition Essay Questions! Tailswhips, Backflips, 360 - erweitere dein Trick-Repertoire mit dem NS Bikes Metropolis!Das Metropolis 3 ist der Einstieg in autumn essays die Dirtbike-Premiumklasse bei NS Bikes.
Der gleiche hochwertige Rahmen, eine 100 mm RST Federgabel, eine mechanische Scheibenbremse am Hinterrad, Salt Stahlkurbeln und viele NS-Bike Parts geben Einsteigern und ambitionierten Piloten ein hochwertiges und dennoch preisbewusstes Komplettbike an indenting long, die Hand.• Steuersatz: FSA press-fit 1-1/8”, loose ball• Sattel: Octane One Fat seat-post combo• Pedale: Odyssey Twisted PC• Einsatzzweck: Dirt• Gewicht: 15.01 kg (ca.)• Laufradgröße: 26 Zoll• Bremsscheibendurchmesser: 160 mm• Griffe: NS Sam Pilgrim signature grips, w/o flangesVorbau• Bauart: A-Head• Typ: Quantum 25.4, 37 mm reach• Marke: NS BikesKette• Typ: PYC-410HSattelstütze• Typ: Octane One Fat seat-post combo• Bauart: Pivotal• Material: AluRahmen• Weitere Merkmale: NS Trimoly (cromoly down tube, top tube and autumn leaves, chain stays)• Bauart: Hardtail• Material Typ: Stahl• Material: 4130 CrMoGabel• Bauart: Federgabel• Marke: RST• Typ: Dirt RA, 10 mm axle, steel steering tubeSchaltung• Marke: ohne Schaltung• Schaltungstyp: Singlespeed• Anzahl Gänge: 1Bremsen vorne• Bremssystem: V-Brake• Marke: AlhongaBremsen hinten• Marke: Tektro• Typ: NovelaLenker• Bauart: Rise Bar• Typ: Lick, 740 mm• Marke: NS BikesNabe vorne• Typ: 9 mm• Marke: JoytechNabe hinten• Marke: Joytech• Typ: Single SpeedReifen vorne• Reifenbreite: 2.1 Zoll• Marke: Kenda• Typ: Small Block 8Reifen hinten• Typ: Small Block 8• Reifenbreite: 2.1 Zoll• Marke: KendaKettenradgarnitur• Marke: SALT• Typ: by papers of We The People, tubular cromoly• Übersetzung Blatt 1: 30 ZähneInnenlager• Marke: Salt• Typ: by leaves essays We The People, Spanish BB, 19 mm x 8 splinesFelgen• Typ: Jalco DBX front, NS Fundamental rear• Material: Aluminium• Bauart: Hohlkammer• Größe: 26 ZollFedergabel• Federweg: 100 mmLieferumfang• Inklusive Pedale: ja.
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