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An Essay on Crimes & Punishments
Benefits of public, Speech Therapy for Autism. Autism is jefferson high school essay, a developmental disability that usually shows up before age 3. Autism is part of a group of neurological disorders that may involve impaired communication as well as impaired social interaction and cognitive skills. Known as autism spectrum disorder or ASD, autism may be linked with a wide range of traits. These include: Repetitive activities Extreme resistance to changes in daily routines Unusual responses to things such as touch Inability to public essay, interact with environment. Philosophy Essay What Is Real! People with ASD may have major problems with both speech and nonverbal communication. They may also find it very hard to public punishment, interact socially.
For these reasons, speech therapy is a central part of treatment for autism. Speech therapy can address a wide range of communication problems for people with autism. Essay! What are the common speech and communication problems with autism? Autism can affect speech, language development, and social communication in many ways. Speech problems. Punishment Essay! A person with autism may: Not talk at all Utter grunts, cries, shrieks, or throaty, harsh sounds Hum or talk in problems solved a musical way Babble with word-like sounds Use foreign-sounding words or robotic-like speech Parrot or often repeat what another person says (called echolalia) Use the right phrases and sentences, but with an essay, unexpressive tone of voice. Problems! About one out of three people with autism has trouble producing speech sounds to effectively communicate with others. Punishment Essay! The person's language, if present, is simply too hard to understand. Communication problems. A person with autism may have one or more of these communication challenges: Trouble with conversational skills, which include eye contact and gestures Trouble understanding the meaning of words outside the context where they were learned Memorization of things heard without knowing what's been said Reliance on echolalia -- the repeating of another's words as they are being said -- as the main way to communicate Little understanding of the meaning of words or symbols Lack of creative language.
Because of these challenges, a child with autism must do more than learn how to high essay, speak. The child also has to learn how to use language to communicate. This includes knowing how to hold a conversation. Public Essay! It also includes tuning into both verbal and thomas jefferson high school prompts nonverbal cues from other people -- such as facial expressions, tone of voice, and body language. What role does speech therapy play in the treatment of autism? Speech-language pathologists are therapists who specialize in public essay treating language problems and speech disorders. They are a key part of the autism treatment team. With early screening and detection of people at risk, speech therapists often lead the way in helping with the diagnosis of autism and in making referrals to other specialists. Once autism is diagnosed, speech therapists assess the best ways to improve communication and enhance a person's quality of life. Throughout therapy, the argument speech-language pathologist also works closely with the family, school, and other professionals. Public Essay! If someone with autism is essay is real, nonverbal or has major trouble with speech, the speech therapist may introduce alternatives to speech.
Speech therapy techniques might include: Electronic talkers Signing or typing Using picture boards with words, known as picture exchange communication systems that start out public punishment, using pictures instead of words to help a child learn to communicate Using sounds to which a person is over- or under-sensitive to expand and compress speech sounds Improving articulation of maths solved, speech by massaging or exercising lips or facial muscles Having individuals sing songs composed to match the rhythm, stress, and flow of sentences. Some of these techniques are supported more by research than others. Public Essay! Be sure to discuss them thoroughly with the speech-language pathologist and solved your child's pediatrician. What are the public punishment benefits of speech therapy for aASD? Speech therapy can improve overall communication. This makes it possible for people with autism to improve their ability to the crucible, form relationships and function in day-to-day life. Specific goals of public punishment, speech therapy include helping the beauty plan individual with autism: Articulate words well Communicate both verbally and nonverbally Comprehend verbal and nonverbal communication, understanding others' intentions in a range of settings Initiate communication without prompting from others Know the appropriate time and place to communicate something; for public essay example, when to say good morning Develop conversational skills Exchange ideas Communicate in ways to develop relationships Enjoy communicating, playing, and interacting with peers Learn self-regulation.
When is the best time to start speech therapy for autism? The earlier, the better. Autism spectrum disorder is usually evident before age 3, and language delays can be recognized as early as 18 months of age. In some cases, autism can be identified as early 10 to 12 months of age. It is very important to start speech therapy as early as possible, when it can have the greatest impact. Intensive, individualized treatment can help lessen the disabling isolation that may result from this social communication disability. With early identification and intervention, two out of three preschoolers with autism improve communication skills and problems solved their grasp of spoken language. Research shows those who improve the most are often those who receive the most speech therapy. To find a speech-language pathologist, go to the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association's web site at www.asha.org. There are other sources, so ask your pediatrician for suggestions.
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association: Principles for Speech-Language Pathologists in Diagnosis, Assessment, and essay Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders Across the Life Span; Treatment Efficacy Summary;'' and Roles and Responsibilities of self evaluation essay, Speech-Language Pathologists in punishment essay Diagnosis, Assessment, and self evaluation essay Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders Across the Life Span. Autism Research Institute: Music Therapy and Language for essay the Autistic Child. The Crucible Critical! Association for Science in Autism Treatment: Auditory Integration Training (AIT) and Oral-Motor Training/Therapy. Essay! Symptoms within the first 2 years of a child’s life. Where do they fall on argument writing the spectrum? Play therapy may undo the disorder in at-risk babies. What causes this rare condition? High-Functioning Autism Asperger's. Can Play Therapy Undo Autism Risk? 2005 - 2017 WebMD, LLC. All rights reserved.
WebMD does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.
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An Essay on Crimes and Punishments - Online Library of Liberty
Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The ancient Greek philosopher Thales was born in Miletus in Greek Ionia. Punishment! Aristotle, the major source for Thales's philosophy and science, identified Thales as the first person to investigate the basic principles, the question of the originating substances of critical matter and, therefore, as the founder of the school of natural philosophy. Thales was interested in almost everything, investigating almost all areas of knowledge, philosophy, history, science, mathematics, engineering, geography, and politics. He proposed theories to explain many of the events of nature, the primary substance, the support of the earth, and the cause of change. Public Punishment! Thales was much involved in reflection, the problems of astronomy and provided a number of explanations of cosmological events which traditionally involved supernatural entities. Public Punishment Essay! His questioning approach to self evaluation essay, the understanding of heavenly phenomena was the essay, beginning of Greek astronomy. Thales' hypotheses were new and bold, and in freeing phenomena from high essay godly intervention, he paved the way towards scientific endeavor. He founded the public, Milesian school of philosophy essay what is real natural philosophy, developed the scientific method, and punishment essay, initiated the first western enlightenment. A number of anecdotes is closely connected to Thales' investigations of the maths, cosmos.
When considered in association with his hypotheses they take on added meaning and are most enlightening. Thales was highly esteemed in ancient times, and a letter cited by Diogenes Laertius, and punishment essay, purporting to be from the crucible essay Anaximenes to Pythagoras, advised that all our discourse should begin with a reference to Thales (D.L. II.4). Doubts have always existed about whether Thales wrote anything, but a number of ancient reports credit him with writings. Simplicius (Diels, Dox. p. 475) specifically attributed to Thales authorship of the public, so-called Nautical Star-guide. Diogenes Laertius raised doubts about authenticity, but wrote that 'according to others [Thales] wrote nothing but two treatises, one On the Solstice and one On the Equinox ' (D.L. I.23). Lobon of Argus asserted that the writings of argument writing Thales amounted to two hundred lines (D.L. I.34), and Plutarch associated Thales with opinions and accounts expressed in verse (Plutarch, De Pyth. Public Punishment Essay! or. Philosophy Is Real! 18. 402 E).
Hesychius, recorded that '[Thales] wrote on celestial matters in epic verse, on the equinox, and much else' (DK, 11A2). Callimachus credited Thales with the public, sage advice that navigators should navigate by Ursa Minor (D.L. I.23), advice which may have been in writing. Diogenes mentions a poet, Choerilus, who declared that '[Thales] was the first to maintain the immortality of the soul' (D.L. I.24), and in problems, De Anima, Aristotle's words 'from what is recorded about [Thales]', indicate that Aristotle was working from a written source. Public Punishment! Diogenes recorded that '[Thales] seems by some accounts to have been the first to study astronomy, the first to predict eclipses of the sun and to fix the solstices; so Eudemus in his History of Astronomy. It was this which gained for him the admiration of Xenophanes and Herodotus and the notice of critical Heraclitus and punishment essay, Democritus' (D.L. I.23). Eudemus who wrote a History of Astronomy, and the crucible critical, also on geometry and theology, must be considered as a possible source for the hypotheses of Thales.
The information provided by Diogenes is the sort of material which he would have included in public essay, his History of Astronomy, and argument writing, it is possible that the titles On the Solstice, and On the public punishment essay, Equinox were available to Eudemus. Xenophanes, Herodotus, Heraclitus and the crucible critical essay, Democritus were familiar with the work of Thales, and may have had a work by Thales available to them. Proclus recorded that Thales was followed by a great wealth of geometers, most of whom remain as honoured names. They commence with Mamercus, who was a pupil of Thales, and include Hippias of Elis, Pythagoras, Anaxagoras, Eudoxus of Cnidus, Philippus of Mende, Euclid, and Eudemus, a friend of Aristotle, who wrote histories of arithmetic, of astronomy, and public punishment essay, of geometry, and many lesser known names. It is possible that writings of Thales were available to some of these men. Any records which Thales may have kept would have been an advantage in his own work. This is especially true of argument mathematics, of the public essay, dates and times determined when fixing the solstices, the positions of stars, and in financial transactions. It is difficult to believe that Thales would not have written down the information he had gathered in his travels, particularly the geometry he investigated in Egypt and his measuring of the height of the parlor business plan, pyramid, his hypotheses about nature, and the cause of change.
Proclus acknowledged Thales as the discoverer of a number of specific theorems ( A Commentary on the First Book of Euclid's Elements 65. 8-9; 250. 16-17). This suggests that Eudemus, Proclus's source had before him the written records of Thales's discoveries. How did Thales 'prove' his theorems if not in written words and sketches? The works On the Solstice, On the Equinox, which were attributed to Thales (D.L. I.23), and the ' Nautical Star-guide , to which Simplicius referred, may have been sources for the History of punishment essay Astronomy of essay Eudemus (D.L. I.23).
There is punishment no direct evidence that any written material of Thales was available to critical, Plato and Aristotle, but there is a surprisingly long list of early writers who could have known Thales, or had access to his works, and these must be considered as possible sources for essay, Plato, Aristotle, and the philosophers and commentators who followed them. Aristotle's wording, 'Thales says', is assertive wording which suggests a reliable source, perhaps writings of Thales himself. Anaximander and Anaximenes were associates of Thales, and would have been familiar with his ideas. Both produced written work. Thomas Jefferson! Anaximander wrote in a poetical style (Theophr. ap. Simpl. Phys. fr. 2), and the writing of public punishment essay Anaximenes was simple and unaffected (D.L. II.3).
Other philosophers who were credited with written works, who worked on philosophy is real topics similar to those of Thales, and who may have provided material for public essay, later writers, are Heraclitus of Ephesus, Anaxagoras of Clazomenae, Alcmaeon, Hippo of prompts Samos, and Hippias of Elis. 3. Thales says Water is the Primary Principle. Aristotle defined wisdom as knowledge of certain principles and causes ( Metaph. Essay! 982 a2-3). He commenced his investigation of the wisdom of the philosophers who preceded him, with Thales, the first philosopher, and argument writing, described Thales as the founder of essay natural philosophy ( Metaph. 983 b21-22). He recorded: 'Thales says that it is water'. 'it' is the nature, the arche , the originating principle. For Thales, this nature was a single material substance, water.
Despite the more advanced terminology which Aristotle and Plato had created, Aristotle recorded the doctrines of Thales in essay, terms which were available to Thales in the sixth century B.C.E., Aristotle made a definite statement, and punishment, presented it with confidence. It was only when Aristotle attempted to provide the reasons for the opinions that Thales held, and for the theories that he proposed, that he sometimes displayed caution. Those who believe that Thales inherited his views from Greek or Near-Eastern sources are wrong. Thales was esteemed in his times as an what is real, original thinker, and public essay, one who broke with tradition and maths, not as one who conveyed existing mythologies. Public Punishment Essay! Aristotle unequivocally recorded Thales's hypothesis on the crucible critical essay the nature of public essay matter, and proffered a number of conjectures based on observation in favour of Thales's declaration ( Metaph. 983 b20-28). His report provided the testimony that Thales supplanted myth in his explanations of the behaviour of natural phenomena. Thales did not derive his thesis from either Greek or non-Greek mythological traditions.
Thales would have been familiar with Homer's acknowledgements of divine progenitors but he never attributed organization or control of the cosmos to the gods. Aristotle recognized the similarity between Thales's doctrine about water and the ancient legend which associates water with Oceanus and Tethys, but he reported that Thales declared water to jefferson high essay, be the nature of all things. Aristotle pointed to a similarity to traditional beliefs, not a dependency upon them. Aristotle did not call Thales a theologian in public, the sense in which he designated 'the old poets' ( Metaph. 1091 b4) and others, such as Pherecydes, as 'mixed theologians' who did not use 'mythical language throughout' ( Metaph. Problems Solved! 1091 b9). To Aristotle, the theories of Thales were so obviously different from all that had gone before that they stood out from earlier explanations. Thales's views were not ancient and public essay, primitive. They were new and exciting, and the genesis of scientific conjecture about natural phenomena.
It was the writing, view for which Aristotle acknowledged Thales as the founder of natural philosophy. The problem of the nature of matter, and its transformation into the myriad things of which the universe is made, engaged the natural philosophers, commencing with Thales. For his hypothesis to be credible, it was essential that he could explain how all things could come into being from water, and return ultimately to the originating material. It is inherent in Thales's hypotheses that water had the potentiality to change to the myriad things of which the public, universe is made, the botanical, physiological, meteorological and geological states. In Timaeus, 49B-C, Plato had Timaeus relate a cyclic process. The passage commences with 'that which we now call water ', and describes a theory which was possibly that of Thales. Thales would have recognized evaporation, and the crucible critical, have been familiar with traditional views, such as the nutritive capacity of mist and ancient theories about spontaneous generation, phenomena which he may have 'observed', just as Aristotle believed he, himself had ( Hist. An. 569 b1; Gen. Public Punishment! An . Critical! 762 a9-763 a34), and about which Diodorus Siculus (I.7.3-5; 1.10.6), Epicurus (ap. Censorinus, D.N.
IV.9), Lucretius ( De Rerum Natura , V.783-808) and Ovid ( Met. I.416-437) wrote. When Aristotle reported Thales's pronouncement that the primary principle is punishment water, he made a precise statement: 'Thales says that it [the nature of things] is water' ( Metaph. 983 b20), but he became tentative when he proposed reasons which might have justified Thales's decision: '[Thales's] supposition may have arisen from observation . . Maths Solved! . ' ( Metaph . 983 b22). It was Aristotle's opinion that Thales may have observed, 'that the nurture of all creatures is punishment essay moist, and that warmth itself is generated from moisture and beauty business plan, lives by it; and essay, that from which all things come to be is their first principle' ( Metaph. 983 b23-25). Then, in the lines 983 b26-27, Aristotle's tone changed towards greater confidence. Reflection Essay! He declared: 'Besides this, another reason for the supposition would be that the semina of punishment all things have a moist nature . . . ' ( Metaph. 983 b26-27). In continuing the criticism of Thales, Aristotle wrote: 'That from which all things come to be is their first principle' ( Metaph.
983 b25). Simple metallurgy had been practised long before Thales presented his hypotheses, so Thales knew that heat could return metals to a liquid state. Water exhibits sensible changes more obviously than any of the other so-called elements, and can readily be observed in the three states of liquid, vapour and ice. The understanding that water could generate into earth is basic to solved, Thales's watery thesis. At Miletus it could readily be observed that water had the capacity to thicken into earth. Miletus stood on the Gulf of Lade through which the Maeander river emptied its waters. Within living memory, older Milesians had witnessed the island of punishment essay Lade increasing in size within the Gulf, and the river banks encroaching into the river to such an extent that at Priene, across the gulf from Miletus the warehouses had to be rebuilt closer to problems solved, the water's edge. Punishment! The ruins of the once prosperous city-port of Miletus are now ten kilometres distant from the jefferson school prompts, coast and the Island of Lade now forms part of a rich agricultural plain. Public Punishment Essay! There would have been opportunity to beauty, observe other areas where earth generated from water, for example, the deltas of the Halys, the Ister, about which Hesiod wrote ( Theogony , 341), now called the Danube, the Tigris-Euphrates, and public essay, almost certainly the Nile.
This coming-into-being of land would have provided substantiation of Thales's doctrine. To Thales water held the potentialities for the nourishment and generation of the entire cosmos. Aetius attributed to Thales the philosophy is real, concept that 'even the very fire of the sun and the stars, and indeed the punishment, cosmos itself is nourished by evaporation of the essay, waters' (Aetius, Placita, I.3). It is not known how Thales explained his watery thesis, but Aristotle believed that the reasons he proposed were probably the persuasive factors in Thales's considerations. Thales gave no role to the Olympian gods. Belief in generation of earth from water was not proven to be wrong until A.D.
1769 following experiments of Antoine Lavoisier, and spontaneous generation was not disproved until the public essay, nineteenth century as a result of the work of argument writing Louis Pasteur. Thales proposed answers to a number of questions about the earth: the question of public its support; its shape; its size; and the cause of earthquakes; the dates of the solstices; the size of the sun and moon. In De Caelo Aristotle wrote: 'This [opinion that the earth rests on water] is the jefferson high school essay prompts, most ancient explanation which has come down to us, and is attributed to Thales of Miletus ( Cael. 294 a28-30). Punishment! He explained his theory by beauty parlor, adding the analogy that the earth is at rest because it is of the nature of wood and similar substances which have the capacity to public essay, float on water, although not on air (Cael. 294 a30-b1). Critical! In Metaphysics (983 b21) Aristotle stated, quite unequivocally: 'Thales . . . declared that the earth rests on water'. This concept does appear to be at odds with natural expectations, and public, Aristotle expressed his difficulty with Thales's theory ( Cael. 294 a33-294 b6). Perhaps Thales anticipated problems with acceptance because he explained that it floated because of a particular quality, a quality of buoyancy similar to that of wood.
At the busy city-port of self evaluation essay Miletus, Thales had unlimited opportunities to observe the public essay, arrival and departure of ships with their heavier-than-water cargoes, and recognized an analogy to floating logs. Thales may have envisaged some quality, common to ships and earth, a quality of 'floatiness', or buoyancy. It seems that Thales's hypothesis was substantiated by sound observation and reasoned considerations. Indeed, Seneca reported that Thales had land supported by water and carried along like a boat (Sen. Self Evaluation Essay! QNat. III.14). Aristotle's lines in Metaphysics indicate his understanding that Thales believed that, because water was the permanent entity, the earth floats on water. Thales may have reasoned that as a modification of water, earth must be the lighter substance, and floating islands do exist. Public! Herodotus ( The Histories, II.156) was impressed when he saw Chemmis, a floating island, about thirty-eight kilometres north-east of Naucratis, the argument, Egyptian trading concession which Thales probably visited. Seneca described floating islands in Lydia: 'There are many light, pumice-like stones of which islands are composed, namely those which float in Lydia' (Sen.
QNat., III.25. 7-10). Pliny described several floating islands, the public punishment essay, most relevant being the Reed Islands, in Lydia ( HN, II.XCVII), and Pliny (the Younger) ( Ep. VIII.XX) described a circular floating island, its buoyancy, and the way it moved. Essay Is Real! Thales could have visited the public punishment essay, near-by Reed Islands. He might have considered such readily visible examples to be models of his theory, and he could well have claimed that the observation that certain islands had the capacity to thomas jefferson high essay, float substantiated his hypothesis that water has the capacity to support earth. Again it is understood that Thales did not mention any of the gods who were traditionally associated with the simple bodies; we do not hear of Oceanus or Gaia: we read of public punishment water and earth. What! The idea that Thales would have resurrected the gods is quite contrary to the bold, new, non-mythical theories which Thales proposed.
Modern commentators assume that Thales regarded the earth as flat, thin, and circular, but there is no ancient testimony to support that opinion. On the contrary, Aristotle may have attributed knowledge of the sphericity of the earth to Thales, an opinion which was later reported by essay, Aetius (Aet. III. 9-10) and thomas jefferson school essay prompts, followed by Ps.-Plutarch ( Epit. III.10). Aristotle wrote that some think it spherical, others flat and shaped like a drum (Arist. Cael. 293 b33-294 a1), and then attributed belief in public punishment, a flat earth to Anaximenes, Anaxagoras, and Democritus (Arist. Cael. 294 b14-15). Beauty! If following chronological order, Aristotle's words, 'some think it spherical', referred to the theory of public punishment essay Thales.
Aristotle then followed with the theory of Thales's immediate Milesian successor, Anaximander, and the crucible essay, then reported the flat earth view of Anaximenes, the third of the Milesian natural philosophers. There are several good reasons to accept that Thales envisaged the earth as spherical. Aristotle used these arguments to support his own view (Arist. Cael. 297 b25-298 a8). First is the fact that during a solar eclipse, the shadow caused by the interposition of the earth between the sun and the moon is always convex; therefore the public punishment, earth must be spherical. In other words, if the earth were a flat disk, the shadow cast during an eclipse would be elliptical. Second, Thales, who is acknowledged as an observer of the heavens, would have observed that stars which are visible in a certain locality may not be visible further to the north or south, a phenomena which could be explained within the understanding of jefferson school prompts a spherical earth.
Third, from mere observation the earth has the appearance of being curved. From observation, it appears that the earth is covered by a dome. When observed from an elevated site, the sky seems to surround the earth, like a dome, to meet the apparently curved horizon. If observed over the seasons, the dome would appear to revolve, with many of the heavenly bodies changing their position in varying degrees, but returning annually to a similar place in the heavens. Public Punishment! Through his work in astronomy Thales would almost certainly have become familiar with the night sky and the motion of the heavenly bodies. There is evidence that he gave advice to navigate by Ursa Minor, and was so involved in observation of the reflection essay, stars that he fell into a well. As a result of observations made over a long period of time, Thales could have realized that the motions of the fixed stars could not be explained within the idea of the observable hemispherical dome. During the determination of the size of the rising sun, and again while watching its risings and settings during his work on fixing the solstices, Thales may have realized that much natural phenomena could be explained only within the understanding of the earth as a sphere. From the shore, a ship can be seen to be descending, gradually, below the horizon, with the hull disappearing from view first, to be followed by masts and sails. If one had a companion observing from public punishment essay a higher point, the companion would see the self reflection evaluation, ship for a long period before it disappeared from view. Aetius recorded the different opinions of the shape of the earth that were held by Thales, Anaximander and Anaximenes (III.9-10; III.10; and public punishment essay, III.10).
Cicero attributed to Thales the earliest construction of a solid celestial globe ( Rep. I.XIII.22). Thales's immediate successors proposed theories about the shape of the earth which were quite different from each other, but that is no reason to reject the view that Thales hypothesized a spherical earth. It is not the only occasion on argument which Anaximander and Anaximenes failed to public essay, follow the theories of Thales. That they did not do so is the main argument in favour of accepting that the scientific method commenced in the Milesian School. There is testimony that Thales knew the earth to be spherical, but no evidence to philosophy essay what is real, suggest that he proposed any other shape. Thales's theory about the cause of earthquakes is consistent with his hypothesis that earth floats upon water.
It seems that he applied his floating on water simile to the natural phenomena of earthquakes. Aetius recorded that Thales and Democritus found in water the cause of earthquakes (Aet. III.15), and Seneca attributed to Thales a theory that on the occasions when the earth is public essay said to quake it is reflection evaluation fluctuating because of the roughness of oceans ( QNat. III.14; 6.6). Although the theory is wrong, Thales's hypothesis is rational because it provides an explanation which does not invoke hidden entities. It is an advance upon the traditional Homeric view that they resulted from an angry supernatural god, Poseidon, shaking the earth through his rapid striding. The question of whether Thales endowed the gods with a role in his theories is fundamental to his hypotheses. Punishment Essay! The relevant text from Aristotle reads: 'Thales, too, to judge from what is recorded of his views, seems to suppose that the soul is in a sense the cause of movement, since he says that a stone [magnet, or lodestone] has a soul because it causes movement to iron' ( De An . 405 a20-22); 'Some think that the soul pervades the whole universe, whence perhaps came Thales's view that everything is full of gods' ( De An. 411 a7-8).
In reference to critical, the clause in the first passage 'to judge from what is public punishment recorded of his views', Snell convincingly argued that Aristotle had before him the actual sentence recording Thales's views about the lodestone (Snell, 1944, 170). In the beauty parlor business plan, second passage the 'some' to whom Aristotle refers are Leucippus, Democritus, Diogenes of Apollonia, Heraclitus, and Alcmaeon, philosophers who were later than Thales. They adopted and adapted the earlier view of Thales that soul was the essay, cause of motion, permeating and enlivening the entire cosmos. Essay What! The order in which Aristotle discussed Thales's hypothesis obscures the issue. The source for Aristotle's report that Thales held all things to be full of gods is unknown, but some presume that it was Plato. Thales is not mentioned in the relevant lines in Plato, but there is a popular misconception that they refer to the belief of Thales. This is wrong. Thales had rejected the old gods. In a passage in Apology (26 C) Socrates identified the heavenly bodies as gods, and pointed out that that was the general understanding. In Cratylus (399 D-E) Plato had Socrates explain a relationship between soul as a life-giving force, the capacity to punishment, breathe, and the reviving force.
In Timaeus 34B) Plato had Timaeus relate a theory which described soul as pervading the whole universe. Then, in Laws Plato has the Athenian Stranger say: 'Everyone . . . who has not reached the utmost verge of evaluation folly is bound to regard the soul as a god. Concerning all the stars and the moon, and concerning the years and months and all seasons, what other account shall we give than this very same, - namely, that, inasmuch as it has been shown that they are all caused by one or more souls . . . we shall declare these souls to be gods . . .? Is there any man that agrees with this view who will stand hearing it denied that 'all things are full of gods'? The response is: 'No man is so wrong-headed as that' ( Laws, 899 A-B). Plato had the punishment essay, Athenian Stranger extend his ideas into a theological theory. He used a sleight of hand method to express his own ideas about divine spiritual beings. With the exception of gods in the scheme of things, these passages reflect the beliefs which formed the Thalean hypothesis, but Plato did not have the evaluation essay, Athenian Stranger attribute the crucial clause 'all things are full of gods' to Thales. Thales is not mentioned. Aristotle's text not the earliest extant testimony. Diogenes preserved a report from Hippias: 'Aristotle and Hippias affirm that, arguing from the magnet and from amber, [Thales] attributed a soul or life even to inanimate objects' (D.L.
I.24). Punishment! This early report does not mention godly entities. The later commentators, Cicero ( Nat. What Is Real! D. I.X.25), and punishment, Stobaeus ( Ecl. Self Evaluation! I.1.11) included gods in Thales's theory. However, their views post-date Stoicism and are distorted by theistic doctrines. Plato converted the idea of soul into a theory that 'all things are full of public gods', and this may have been Aristotle's source, but the idea of gods is contrary to Thales's materialism. Business Plan! When Thales defined reality, he chose an element, not a god. The motive force was not a supernatural being. It was a force within the universe itself. Thales never invoked a power that was not present in nature itself, because he believed that he had recognized a force which underpinned the events of nature.
Thales is acclaimed for having predicted an eclipse of the public punishment essay, sun which occurred on 28 May 585 B.C.E. The earliest extant account of the critical essay, eclipse is from Herodotus: 'On one occasion [the Medes and the Lydians] had an unexpected battle in essay, the dark, an event which occurred after five years of indecisive warfare: the two armies had already engaged and the fight was in the crucible critical, progress, when day was suddenly turned into night. This change from daylight to public punishment essay, darkness had been foretold to the Ionians by the crucible critical essay, Thales of public essay Miletus, who fixed the jefferson high school essay prompts, date for it within the limits of the year in which it did, in punishment essay, fact, take place' (Hdt. What! I.74). Public Essay! The vital points are: Thales foretold a solar eclipse; it did occur within the period he specified.
How Thales foretold the eclipse is not known but there is strong opinion that he was able to perform this remarkable feat through knowledge of a cycle known as the Saros, with some attributing his success to use of the Exeligmos cycle. It is not known how Thales was able to predict the maths problems, Eclipse, if indeed he did, but he could not have predicted the Eclipse by using the Saros or the Exeligmos cycles. In addition to public punishment essay, Herodotus, the jefferson high school prompts, successful prediction of the punishment, eclipse was accepted by Eudemus in his History of philosophy what Astronomy and public, acknowledged by a number of other writers of ancient times (Cicero, Pliny, Dercyllides, Clement, Eusebius). This is how Diogenes Laertius recorded the event: '[Thales] seems by some accounts to have been the first to study astronomy, the first to predict eclipses of the sun, and to fix the solstices; so Eudemus in critical, his History of Astronomy. Public Essay! It was this which gained for him the admiration of Xenophanes and Herodotus and the notice of Heraclitus and Democritus' (D.L.
I.23). Argument Writing! Diogenes asserted that Herodotus knew of Thales's work, and in naming Xenophanes, Heraclitus, and Democritus, he nominated three of the great pre-Socratics, eminent philosophers who were familiar with the public punishment essay, work of Thales. Modern astronomy confirms that the eclipse did occur, and was total. According to Herodotus's report, the umbra of the eclipse of Thales must have passed over the battle field. The un-naturalness of argument writing a solar eclipse is public essay eerie and chilling. All becomes hushed and beauty, there is a strong uncanny sensation of public impending disaster, of being within the control of some awful power. In ancient times, the awesome phenomenon must have aroused great fear, anxiety and wonder. The combatants saw the eclipse as disapproval of their warfare, and as a warning. They ceased fighting and the crucible, a peace agreement was reached between the two kings. It is not known why Thales turned away from the traditional beliefs which attributed all natural events and public punishment essay, man's fortunes and misfortunes to the great family of Olympian gods, but Miletus was the maths solved, most prosperous of the punishment essay, Ionian cities, and it cannot be doubted that the flourishing merchants believed that their prosperity resulted from their own initiative and endeavours.
Thales's great philosophical pronouncement that water is the basic principle shows that Thales gave no acknowledgement to the gods as instigators and controllers of phenomena. Thales's hypotheses indicate that he envisaged phenomena as natural events with natural causes and possible of explanation. From his new perspective of observation and reasoning, Thales studied the heavens and sought explanations of heavenly phenomena. It is widely accepted that Thales acquired information from Near-Eastern sources and gained access to the extensive records which dated from the time of Nabonassar (747 B.C.E.) and which were later used by Ptolemy ( Alm. III.7. Essay! H 254). Some commentators have suggested that Thales predicted the solar eclipse of 585 B.C.E. through knowledge of the Saros period, a cycle of 223 lunar months (18 years, 10-11 days plus 0.321124 of a day) after which eclipses both of the sun and moon repeat themselves with very little change, or through knowledge of the public essay, Exeligmos cycle which is exactly three times the length of the Saros (Ptolemy, Alm. IV.2. H270). The ancients could not have predicted solar eclipses on the basis of philosophy what is real those periodic cycles because eclipses of the sun do not repeat themselves with very little change. The extra 0.321124 of a day means that each recurring solar eclipse will be visible to the west, just under one-third of the public essay, circumference of the earth, being a period of time of almost 7.7 hours.
This regression to the west could not have been known to the ancient astrologers, a fact which seems not to have been taken into account by the philosophers who attribute Thales's success to application of one of those two cycles. The following important fact should be noted. Some commentators and philosophers believe that Thales may have witnessed the solar eclipse of philosophy essay what is real 18th May 603 B.C.E. Public Essay! or have had heard of it. They accepted that he had predicted the thomas high essay prompts, solar eclipse of 28 May 585 B.C.E. and reasoned from the astronomical fact of the Saros cycles and the fact that the two solar eclipses had been separated by the period of 18 years, 10 days, and 7.7 hours, and concluded that Thales had been able to predict a solar eclipse based upon the knowledge of that cycle. Two facts discount rebut those claims. First, recent research shows that the solar eclipse of public punishment essay 18th May 603 B.C.E. would not have been visible in Egypt, nor in the Babylonian observation cities where the astronomers watched the heavens for expected and unusual heavenly events. The eclipse of 603 passed over the Persian Gulf, too far to the south for observation (Stephenson, personal communication, March 1999; and Stephenson, Long-term Fluctuations, 165-202). Even if the eclipse of 603 had been visible to the Near-Eastern astronomers, it is not possible to self reflection essay, recognize a pattern from witnessing one event, or indeed, from witnessing two events. One may suggest a pattern after witnessing three events that are separated by equal periods of time, but the eclipse which preceded that of punishment essay 603, and which occurred on 6th May 621, was not visible in writing, Near-Eastern regions.
Consequently, it could not have been recorded by the astrologer/priests who watched for unusual heavenly phenomena, and punishment, could not have been seen as forming a pattern. It is quite wrong to say that eclipses repeat themselves with very little change, because each solar eclipse in a particular Saros occurs about 7.7 hours later than in the previous eclipse in the same Saros, and that is about 1 / 3 of the circumference of the earth's circumference. Adding to the difficulty of recognizing a particular cycle is the fact that about forty-two periodic cycles are in progress continuously, and overlapping at any time. Every series in a periodic cycle lasts about 1,300 years and reflection, comprises 73 eclipses. Eclipses which occur in one periodic cycle are unrelated to eclipses in other periodic cycles. The ancient letters prove that the Babylonians and Assyrians knew that lunar eclipses can occur only at full moon, and solar eclipses only at new moon, and also that eclipses occur at public, intervals of five or six months.
However, while lunar eclipses are visible over about half the solved, globe, solar eclipses are visible from only small areas of the earth's surface. Recent opinion is that, as early as 650 B.C.E. the Assyrian astronomers seem to have recognized the six months-five months period by which they could isolate eclipse possibilities (Steele, Eclipse Prediction, 429). In other recent research Britton has analysed a text known as Text S, which provides considerable detail and fine analysis of lunar phenomena dating from Nabonassar in 747 B.C.E. The text points to knowledge of the six-month five month periods. Britton believes that the Saros cycle was known before 525 B.C.E. (Britton, Scientific Astronomy, 62) but, although the text identifies a particular Saros cycle, and graphically depicts the number of eclipse possibilities, the ancient commentary of Text S does not attest to an actual observation (Britton, An Early Function, 32). There is no evidence that the Saros could have been used for the prediction of solar eclipses in the sixth century B.C.E., but it remains possible that forthcoming research, and the transliteration of more of the vast stock of punishment essay ancient tablets will prove that the Babylonians and Assyrians had a greater knowledge of eclipse phenomena than is now known. The Babylonian and Assyrian astronomers knew of the Saros period in relation to lunar eclipses, and had some success in critical essay, predicting lunar eclipses but, in the sixth century B.C.E. when Thales lived and worked, neither the Saros nor the Exeligmos cycles could be used to predict solar eclipses. It is testified that Thales knew that the public punishment essay, sun is eclipsed when the moon passes in front of it, the day of eclipse - called the thirtieth by argument, some, new moon by others ( The Oxyrhynchus Papyri, 3710). Aetius (II.28) recorded: [Thales] says that eclipses of the sun take place when the moon passes across it in a direct line, since the moon is earthy in character; and it seems to the eye to be laid on the disc of the sun'. There is a possibility that, through analysis of punishment ancient eclipse records, Thales identified another cycle, the lunar eclipse-solar eclipse cycle of 23 1 / 2 months, the fact that a solar eclipse is a possibility 23 1 / 2 months after a lunar eclipse.
However, lunar eclipses are not always followed by solar eclipses. Although the possibility is about 57% it is important to note that the total solar eclipse of 28th May, 585, occurred 23 1 / 2 months after the total lunar eclipse of 4th July, 587. The wording of the report of the eclipse by Herodotus: 'Thales . Philosophy What! . . fixed the date for the eclipse within the limits of the year' is precise, and suggests that Thales's prediction was based upon essay a definite eclipse theory. A report from Theon of Smyrna ap. Dercyllides states that: 'Eudemus relates in the Astronomy that Thales was the first to beauty parlor business plan, discover the eclipse of the sun and that its period with respect to the solstices is not always constant' (DK, 11 A 17). Diogenes Laertius (I.24) recorded that [Thales] was the first to determine the sun's course from solstice to solstice, and also acknowledged the Astronomy of Eudemus as his source. Solstices are natural phenomena which occur on June 21 or 22, and December 21 or 22, but the determination of the precise date on which they occur is difficult. This is because the sun seems to 'stand still' for several days because there is punishment essay no discernible difference in its position in the sky. It is the reason why the philosophy essay what is real, precise determination of the solstices was so difficult. It was a problem which engaged the public punishment, early astronomers, and more than seven centuries later, Ptolemy acknowledged the difficulty ( Alm.
III.1. Writing! H203). It is not known how Thales proceeded with his determination, but the testimony of Flavius Philostratus is that: '[Thales] observed the heavenly bodies . . . from public essay [Mount] Mycale which was close by his home' (Philostratus, Life of Apollonius , II.V). This suggests that Thales observed the rising and setting of the sun for many days at mid-summer and mid-winter (and, necessarily, over many years). Mount Mycale, being the highest point in the locality of Miletus, would provide the perfect vantage point from the crucible which to essay, make observations. Another method which Thales could have employed was to measure the length of the philosophy what, noon-day sun around mid-summer and mid-winter. Again this would require observations to be made, and records kept over many days near the solstice period, and over many years. c. Thales's Discovery of the Seasons. From Diogenes Laertius we have the report: '[Thales] is said to have discovered the seasons of the punishment, year and divided it into 365 days' (D.L. I.27). Because Thales had determined the solstices, he would have known of the number of days between say, summer solstices, and therefore have known the length of a solar year.
It is consistent with his determination of the solstices that he should be credited with discovering that 365 days comprise a year. It is also a fact that had long been known to the Egyptians who set their year by the more reliable indicator of the the crucible, annual rising of the star Sirius in July. Thales may have first gained the knowledge of the length of the year from the punishment, Egyptians, and perhaps have attempted to clarify the matter by using a different procedure. Thales certainly did not 'discover' the seasons, but he may have identified the relationship between the solstices, the changing position during the maths solved, year of the public essay, sun in the sky, and associated this with seasonal climatic changes. d. Thales's Determination of the Diameters of the Sun and the Moon. Apuleius wrote that 'Thales in his declining years devised a marvellous calculation about the sun, showing how often the sun measures by its own size the circle which it describes'. (Apul. Is Real! Florida, 18). Following soon after Apuleius, Cleomedes explained that the calculation could be made by running a water-clock, from which the result was obtained: the public punishment essay, diameter of the sun is found to be one seven-hundred-and-fiftieth of its own orbit (Cleomedes, De Motu circulari corporum caelestium, II.75). The third report is from Diogenes: 'According to some [Thales was] the first to declare the size of the sun to self, be one seven hundred and twentieth part of the solar circle, and the size of the moon to be the punishment essay, same fraction of the lunar circle' (D.L. I.24). Little credence can be given to the water-clock method for reaching this determination, because there is an inbuilt likelihood of repeated errors over the 24 hour period.
Even Ptolemy, who flourished in the second century A.D., rejected all measurements which were made by critical essay, means of public punishment essay water-clocks, because of the impossibility of thomas jefferson high school prompts attaining accuracy by such means ( Alm. Public! V.14. H416). In his work in geometry, Thales was engaged in circles and angles, and their characteristics, and he could have arrived at his solution to the problem by applying the geometrical knowledge he had acquired. There is no evidence to support a suggestion that Thales was familiar with measurements by degrees but he could have learnt, from the Babylonians, that a circle is divided into 3600.
The figure of 720, which was given by Diogenes for Thales, is double 360, and this is related to the Babylonian sexagesimal system. To establish the dates of the solstices, Thales probably made repeated observations of the risings and settings of the is real, sun. From such experiments he could have observed that the angle which was subtended by the elevation of the rising sun is 1/20 and with 3600 in a circle, the punishment essay, ratio of 1:720 is determined. Of the jefferson school essay, report from Diogenes Laertius (D.L. I.24) that Thales also determined the orbit of the moon in relation to the size of its diameter, Thales would repeat the method to calculate the orbit of the moon.
Callimachus (D.L. I.22) reported that Thales 'discovered' Ursa Minor. This means only that he recognized the advantages of navigating by public punishment, Ursa Minor, rather than by Ursa Major, as was the preferred method of the Greeks. Ursa Minor, a constellation of self reflection evaluation essay six stars, has a smaller orbit than does the Great Bear, which means that, as it circles the public punishment essay, North Pole, Ursa Minor changes its position in the sky to a lesser degree than does the Great Bear. Thales offered this sage advice to the mariners of Miletus, to philosophy essay what, whom it should have been of special value because Miletus had developed a maritime trade of economic importance. In Theaetetus (174 A) Plato had Socrates relate a story that Thales was so intent upon watching the public, stars that he failed to watch where he was walking, and fell into a well. The story is also related by Hippolytus (Diels, Dox. 555), and by Diogenes Laertius (D.L. II.4-5). Jefferson High Essay Prompts! Irony and public, jest abound in Plato's writing and he loved to make fun of the pre-Socratics, but he is not likely to have invented the maths, episode, especially as he had Socrates relate the event. Aristotle wrote that viewing the heavens through a tube 'enables one to see further' ( Gen.
An. 780 b19-21), and essay, Pliny ( HN, II.XI) wrote that: 'The sun's radiance makes the fixed stars invisible in daytime, although they are shining as much as in thomas jefferson school essay, the night, which becomes manifest at a solar eclipse and also when the star is reflected in a very deep well'. Thales was renowned and admired for his astronomical studies, and he was credited with the 'discovery' of Ursa Minor (D.L. I.23). If Thales had heard that stars could be viewed to public punishment essay, greater advantage from wells, either during day or night, he would surely have made an opportunity to test the theory, and to take advantage of a method that could assist him in his observations. The possibility that the story was based on fact should not be overlooked. Plato had information which associated Thales with stars, a well, and an accident.
Whether Thales fell into a well, or tripped when he was getting in or out of a well, the story grew up around a mishap. The practical skill of land measurement was invented in business, Egypt because of the public essay, necessity frequently to remeasure plots of land after destructive inundations. Thomas Jefferson High School Essay Prompts! The phenomena is well described by Herodotus (II.93-109). Egypt was believed to be the source of much wisdom and reports tell us that many Greeks, including Thales, Pythagoras, Solon, Herodotus, Plato, Democritus, and Euclid, visited that ancient land to see the wonders for public essay, themselves. The Egyptians had little to offer in the way of abstract thought. The surveyors were able to measure and to calculate and they had outstanding practical skills.
In Egypt Thales would have observed the land surveyors, those who used a knotted cord to make their measurements, and were known as rope-stretchers. Egyptian mathematics had already reached its heights when The Rhind Mathematical Papyrus was written in about 1800 B.C.E. More than a thousand years later, Thales would have watched the high school, surveyors as they went about their work in the same manner, measuring the land with the aid of a knotted rope which they stretched to essay, measure lengths and to form angles. The development of geometry is preserved in a work of Proclus, A Commentary on the First Book of Euclid's Elements (64.12-65.13). Argument! Proclus provided a remarkable amount of intriguing information, the public essay, vital points of writing which are the following: Geometry originated in Egypt where it developed out of necessity; it was adopted by Thales who had visited Egypt, and punishment essay, was introduced into Greece by him. The Commentary of Proclus indicates that he had access to what is real, the work of Euclid and also to public punishment essay, The History of Geometry which was written by problems, Eudemus of Rhodes, a pupil of Aristotle, but which is public punishment no longer extant. His wording makes it clear that he was familiar with the views of the crucible critical essay those writers who had earlier written about the origin of geometry. He affirmed the earlier views that the rudiments of geometry developed in Egypt because of the need to re-define the boundaries, just as Herodotus stated.
a. The Theorems Attributed to punishment essay, Thales. Five Euclidean theorems have been explicitly attributed to Thales, and the crucible, the testimony is that Thales successfully applied two theorems to the solution of practical problems. Thales did not formulate proofs in the formal sense. What Thales did was to essay, put forward certain propositions which, it seems, he could have 'proven' by induction: he observed the similar results of his calculations: he showed by repeated experiment that his propositions and theorems were correct, and if none of his calculations resulted in contrary outcomes, he probably felt justified in accepting his results as proof. Thalean 'proof' was often really inductive demonstration. The process Thales used was the method of exhaustion.
This seems to be the evidence from Proclus who declared that Thales 'attacked some problems in a general way and others more empirically'. DEFINITION I.17: A diameter of the circle is a straight line drawn through the centre and terminated in both directions by the circumference of the circle; and such a straight line also bisects the circle (Proclus, 124). PROPOSITION I.5: In isosceles triangles the angles at the base are equal; and if the equal straight lines are produced further, the angles under the base will be equal (Proclus, 244). It seems that Thales discovered only the first part of maths solved this theorem for public punishment, Proclus reported: We are indebted to old Thales for the discovery of this and many other theorems. For he, it is said, was the first to argument, notice and assert that in every isosceles the angles at the base are equal, though in somewhat archaic fashion he called the equal angles similar (Proclus, 250.18-251.2). PROPOSITION I.15: 'If two straight lines cut one another, they make the vertical angles equal to one another' (Proclus, 298.12-13). This theorem is positively attributed to Thales. Proof of the theorem dates from the Elements of Euclid (Proclus, 299.2-5). PROPOSITION I.26: 'If two triangles have the two angles equal to two angles respectively, and one side equal to one side, namely, either the side adjoining the equal angles, or that subtending one of the equal angles, they will also have the remaining sides equal to the remaining sides and the remaining angle equal to the remaining angle' (Proclus, 347.13-16). 'Eudemus in his history of geometry attributes the theorem itself to Thales, saying that the method by which he is reported to public, have determined the distance of ships at sea shows that he must have used it' (Proclus, 352.12-15). Thales applied this theorem to determine the height of a pyramid. The great pyramid was already over two thousand years old when Thales visited Gizeh, but its height was not known.
Diogenes recorded that 'Hieronymus informs us that [Thales] measured the height of the the crucible, pyramids by the shadow they cast, taking the observation at the hour when our shadow is of the same length as ourselves' (D.L. I.27). Essay! Pliny ( HN, XXXVI.XVII.82) and argument, Plutarch ( Conv. sept. sap. 147) also recorded versions of the punishment, event. Thales was alerted by is real, the similarity of the two triangles, the 'quality of proportionality'. He introduced the concept of ratio, and recognized its application as a general principle. Public! Thales's accomplishment of measuring the height of the pyramid is a beautiful piece of mathematics. Beauty Parlor Plan! It is considered that the general principle in public, Euclid I.26 was applied to the ship at parlor, sea problem, would have general application to other distant objects or land features which posed difficulties in the calculation of their distances. PROPOSITION III.31: 'The angle in a semicircle is public a right angle'. Diogenes Laertius (I.27) recorded: 'Pamphila states that, having learnt geometry from the Egyptians, [Thales] was the philosophy essay is real, first to inscribe a right-angled triangle in a circle, whereupon he sacrificed an ox'.
Aristotle was intrigued by essay, the fact that the angle in a semi-circle is always right. In two works, he asked the problems solved, question: 'Why is the angle in a semicircle always a right angle?' ( An. Post. 94 a27-33; Metaph. 1051 a28). Aristotle described the conditions which are necessary if the conclusion is to hold, but did not add anything that assists with this problem. It is public essay testified that it was from Egypt that Thales acquired the rudiments of geometry.
However, the evidence is that the Egyptian skills were in orientation, measurement, and beauty parlor plan, calculation. Thales's unique ability was with the characteristics of lines, angles and circles. He recognized, noticed and apprehended certain principles which he probably 'proved' through repeated demonstration. Herodotus recorded 'the general belief of the punishment essay, Greeks' that Thales assisted Croesus in transporting his troops across the Halys river (Hdt. I.75) on his advance into Capadoccia to argument writing, engage the great Persian conqueror, Cyrus who threatened from the east. Herodotus provided a detailed description of the public essay, reported crossing which many of the Greeks supposed had been accomplished through Thales's engineering skills and ingenuity (Hdt. I.75). Jefferson School Essay! Herodotus had been told that Thales advised Croesus to divide the river into two parts. Public Punishment Essay! The story is that Thales directed the digging so that the river was diverted into jefferson high school essay, two smaller streams, each of which could then be forded. The story from Herodotus describes a formation similar to an oxbow lake. The work could have been undertaken by the men of Croesus's army, and directed by Thales.
With both channels then being fordable, Croesus could lead his army across the Halys. This description complies with 'the general belief of the Greeks' which Herodotus related. However, Herodotus did not accept that story, because he believed that bridges crossed the river at that time (I.74). Herodotus's misgivings were well founded. There is considerable support for the argument that Croesus and his army crossed the Halys by the bridge which already existed and travelled by the Royal Road which provided the public punishment, main access to high essay, the East. Herodotus explained that at the Halys there were gates which had to be passed before one crossed the essay, river, which formed the border, with the post being strongly guarded (Hdt. V.52). The town of Cesnir Kopru, or Tcheshnir Keupreu, is a feasible site for a crossing. Before the industrialization of the area, a mediaeval bridge was observed, underneath which, when the river was low, could be seen not only the beauty, remains of public essay its Roman predecessor but the roughly hewn blocks of a much earlier bridge (Garstang, 1959, 2). Any clues that may have helped to jefferson high school, provide an answer to the question of whether there were bridges in the time of Croesus are now submerged by punishment, the hydroelectric plants which have been built in the area.
Herodotus recorded the details that he had obtained, but used his own different understanding of the situation to discount the beauty parlor business plan, report. 11. The Possible Travels of Thales. Establishing whether or not Thales travelled and what countries he visited is important because we may be able to establish what information he could have acquired from other sources. In Epinomis 987 E) Plato made the point that the Greeks took from public punishment foreigners what was of value and developed their notions into better ideas. Eudemus, who was one of Aristotle's students, believed that Thales had travelled to Egypt (Eudemus ap. Proclus, 65.7). A number of essay ancient sources support that opinion, including Pamphila who held that he spent time with the public essay, Egyptian priests (D.L.
I.24), Hieronymus from whose report we learn that Thales measured the height of the pyramids by the shadow they cast (D.L. I.27), and Plutarch ( De Is. et Os. 131). Argument! Thales gave an explanation for the inundation (D.L. Public Essay! I.37). He may have devised this explanation after witnessing the phenomena, which Herodotus later described (Hdt. II.97).
By 620 B.C.E., and perhaps earlier, Miletus held a trading concession at Naucratis (Hdt. Essay! II.178, Strab. 17.1.18) on the Canopic mouth of the essay, Nile, and it is possible that Thales visited Egypt on a trading mission. Travel to Egypt would not have been difficult. Homer had Ulysses sailing from Crete to the Nile in five days, and Ernle Bradford recently made a similar journey, proving the trip to be feasible (Bradford, Ulysses Found, 26, and passim). The wealth of Miletus was the result of its success as a trading centre, and there would have been no difficulty in arranging passage on one of the thomas jefferson high school essay, many vessels which traded through of Miletus. Josephus ( Contra Apionem I.2) wrote that Thales was a disciple of the Egyptians and the Chaldeans which suggests that he visited the Near-East.
It is thought that Thales visited the Babylonians and Chaldeans and had access to the astrological records which enabled him to predict the solar eclipse of 585 B.C.E. Miletus had founded many colonies around the Mediterranean and especially along the coasts of the Black Sea. Pliny ( HN, V.31.112) gives the number as ninety. The Milesians traded their goods for public essay, raw materials, especially iron and timber, and tunny fish. Strabo made mention of 'a sheep-industry', and the yield of 'soft wool' (Strabo, 12.3.13), and Aristophanes mentioned the fine and luxurious Milesian wool ( Lysistrata, 729; Frogs, 543). The Milesian traders had access to the hinterland. The land around the mouth of the Halys was fertile, 'productive of everything . . . and planted with olive trees' (Strabo, 12.3.12-13). Thales was associated with a commercial venture in the production of reflection evaluation olive oil in Miletus and Chios, but his interests may have extended beyond those two places.
Olive oil was a basic item in the Mediterranean diet, and public punishment, was probably a trading commodity of some importance to Milesian commerce. It is likely that Thales was one of the 'great teachers' who, according to philosophy is real, Herodotus, visited Croesus in the Lydian capital, Sardis (Hdt. I.30). Public! From Sardis, he could have joined a caravan to make the three-month journey along the well used Royal Road (Hdt. V.53), to maths solved, visit the observatories in Babylonia, and seek the astronomical knowledge which they had accumulated over centuries of observation of heavenly phenomena. In about 547 B.C.E. late in his life, Thales travelled into Cappadocia with Croesus, and, according to some belief, devised a scheme by which the army of Croesus was able to essay, cross the River Halys. Milesian merchantmen continually plied the Black Sea, and gaining a passage could have been easily arranged.
From any number of ports Thales could have sought information, and from Sinope he may have ventured on the long journey to Babylonia, perhaps travelling along the valley of the Tigris, as Xenophon did in 401-399 B.C.E. In a letter purported to be from Thales to Pherecydes, Thales stated that he and Solon had both visited Crete, and Egypt to confer with the priests and astronomers, and all over Hellas and Asia (D.L. I.43-44). Beauty Parlor! All that should be gleaned from such reports, is that travel was not exceptional, with many reports affirming the visits of mainly notable people to foreign lands. Alcaeus visited Egypt' (Strabo, 1.2.30), and his brother, Antimenidas, served in punishment, Judaea in the army of the Babylonian monarch, King Nebuchadrezzar. Sappho went into exile in Sicily, her brother,Charaxus, spent some time in Egypt, and a number of friends of Sappho visited Sardis where they lived in Lydian society.
There must have been any number of people who visited foreign lands, about whom we know nothing. Very little about the travels of Thales may be stated with certainty, but it seems probable that he would have sought information from any sources of knowledge and wisdom, particularly the centres of argument writing learning in the Near-East. It is accepted that there was ample opportunity for essay, travel. Thales was the founder of a new school of philosophy (Arist. Metaph. 983 b20). His two fellow Milesians who also engaged in the new questioning approach to the understanding of the the crucible essay, universe, were Anaximander, his disciple (D.L. I.13), and public, Anaximenes, who was the disciple of beauty parlor business Anaximander (D.L. II.2).
Anaximander was about ten years younger than Thales, but survived him by only a year, dying in public punishment, about 545. Beauty Business Plan! Anaximenes was born in 585 and died in about 528. Their lives all overlapped. Through their association they comprised the Milesian School: They all worked on similar problems, the nature of matter and the nature of change, but they each proposed a different material as the primary principle, which indicates that there was no necessity to follow the master's teachings or attribute their discoveries to him. Each proposed a different support for the earth. Thales was held in high regard for his wisdom, being acclaimed as the most eminent of the Wise Men of Ancient Greece, but he was not regarded as a god, as Pythagoras was. Anaximander and Anaximenes were free to pursue their own ideas and to express them in writing.
This surely suggests that they engaged in critical discussion of the punishment essay, theories of each other. Argument Writing! The Greeks are a sociable people, and their willingness to converse brought rewards in knowledge gained, as Plato remarked ( Epinomis, 987E). Critical discussion implies more than familiarity with other views, and essay, more than mere disagreement with other theories. It is the adoption, or in this case, the development, of a new style of discussion. It is a procedure which encourages questioning, debate, explanation, justification and criticism. There was a unique relationship between the three Milesians and parlor business, it is highly probable that the critical method developed in the Milesian School under the public punishment, leadership of Thales. 13.
The Seven Sages of Ancient Greece. The earliest reference to the Seven Sages of Ancient Greece is in Plato's Protagoras in reflection evaluation essay, which he listed seven names: 'A man's ability to utter such remarks [notable, short and compressed] is to be ascribed to public punishment, his perfect education. Such men were Thales of Miletus, Pittacus of Mitylene, Bias of Priene, Solon of our city [Athens], Cleobulus of maths solved Lindus, Myson of public essay Chen, and, last of the traditional seven, Chilon of self evaluation Sparta. . . . and you can recognize that character in their wisdom by the short memorable sayings that fell from each of them' ( Protagoras, 342 E-343 A). Diogenes recorded that 'Thales was the first to receive the name of Sage in punishment essay, the archonship of essay Damasias at punishment essay, Athens, when the term was applied to all the Seven Sages, as Demetrius of Phalerum [born. Reflection Essay! ca. 350 B.C] mentions in his List of Archons (D.L. I.22). Demetrius cannot have been the source for Plato, who died when Demetrius was only three years old. Public! Perhaps there was a source common to both Plato and thomas jefferson high school prompts, Demetrius, but it is unknown. Damasias was archon in 582/1.
It may be significant that at this time the public, Pythian Games were re-organized. More events were added and, for critical essay, the first time, they were to be held at intervals of four years, in the third year of the public, Olympiad, instead of the previous eight-yearly intervals. Whether there is an association between the re-organization of the Pythian Games and argument, the inauguration of the Seven Sages in punishment essay, not known but, as Pausanias indicates, the Seven were selected from all around Greece: 'These [the sages] were: from Ionia, Thales of Miletus and Bias of the crucible critical Priene; of the Aeolians in essay, Lesbos, Pittacus of Mitylene; of the Dorians in Asia, Cleobulus of Lindus; Solon of thomas high school Athens and Chilon of Sparta; the seventh sage, according to the list of Plato, the son of Ariston is not Periander, the son of Cypselus, but Myson of Chenae, a village on Mount Oeta' (Paus. 14.1). The purpose of Damasias may have been aimed at establishing unity between the city-states.
It is difficult to public punishment essay, believe that the Seven all assembled at Delphi, although the problems solved, dates just allow it. Public Punishment! Plato wrote that their notable maxims were featured at Delphi: 'They [the Sages], assembled together and dedicated these [short memorable sayings] as the first-fruits of their lore to Apollo in his Delphic temple, inscribing there those maxims which are on every tongue - Know thyself' and Nothing overmuch ' (Pl. Prt. 343 A-B). Plato regarded wise maxims as the most essential of the criteria for thomas jefferson high school essay, a sage, and public punishment essay, associated them with wisdom and with good education, but he has Socrates say: 'Think again of all the ingenious devices in arts or other achievements, such as you might expect in one of practical ability; you might remember Thales of Miletus and Anacharsis the Scythian' ( Respublica , 600 A).
Practical ability was clearly important. Several other lists were compiled: Hippobotus (D.L. I.42); Pittacus (D.L. I.42); and Diogenes (D.L. I.13. They omitted some names and adding others. Thomas Prompts! In his work On the Sages, Hermippus reckons seventeen, which included most of the names listed by other compilers.
Many commentators state that Thales was named as Sage because of the practical advice he gave to Miletus in punishment essay, particular, and to jefferson, Ionia in punishment essay, general. The earlier advice was to his fellow Milesians. In 560, the thirty-five year old Croesus (Hdt. Beauty Plan! I.25) succeeded his father Alyattes and continued the efforts begun by his father to subdue the Milesians, but without success. Punishment Essay! Diogenes tells us that 'when Croesus sent to Miletus offering terms of alliance, [Thales] frustrated the plan' (D.L. I.25). The second occasion was at an even later date, when the power of Cyrus loomed as a threat from the east.
Thales's advice to beauty parlor business plan, the Ionian states was to unite in a political alliance, so that their unified strength could be a defence against the might of Cyrus. This can hardly have been prior to essay, 550 B.C.E. which is thirty years later than the promulgation of the argument, Seven Sages. Thales was not named as a Sage because of any political advice which is extant. One of the few dates in Thales's life which can be known with certainty is the date of the Eclipse of 585 B.C.E. It brought to a halt the battle being fought between Alyattes and the Mede, Cyaxares and, in addition, brought peace to the region after 'five years of public punishment essay indecisive warfare' (Hdt. I.74). The Greeks believed that Thales had predicted the Eclipse, and perhaps even regarded him as being influential in causing the phenomenon to occur. This was reason enough to declare Thales to be a man of problems great wisdom and to designate him as the first of the Seven Sages of Ancient Greece. Thales's reputation for wisdom is further enhanced in essay, a story which was related by Aristotle. Beauty Plan! ( Politics, 1259 a 6-23).
Somehow, through observation of the heavenly bodies, Thales concluded that there would be a bumper crop of olives. Public Punishment Essay! He raised the maths problems solved, money to put a deposit on the olive presses of Miletus and Chios, so that when the harvest was ready, he was able to let them out at a rate which brought him considerable profit. In this way, Thales answered those who reproached him for his poverty. As Aristotle points out, the scheme has universal application, being nothing more than a monopoly. There need not have been a bumper harvest for the scheme to punishment, have been successful.
It is quite likely that Thales was involved in commercial ventures, possibly the export of olive oil, and Plutarch reported that Thales was said to have engaged in trade (Plut. Vit. Sol. Essay! II.4). Thales is the first person about whom we know to propose explanations of natural phenomena which were materialistic rather than mythological or theological.
His theories were new, bold, exciting, comprehensible, and possible of explanation. He did not speak in riddles as did Heraclitus, and had no need to invent an public punishment essay, undefined non-substance, as Anaximander did. Because he gave no role to mythical beings, Thales's theories could be refuted. Maths! Arguments could be put forward in attempts to discredit them. Thales's hypotheses were rational and scientific.
Aristotle acknowledged Thales as the first philosopher, and public punishment, criticized his hypotheses in a scientific manner.
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An American Hero Essay Research Paper The. An American Hero Essay, Research Paper. The American Hero. War, defined in the dictionary as the fighting between nations or groups of people in a nation. The term war to me means not hate and death, but history and pain. Looking back into the past, the most influential war that ever took place in the world, was World War II. Public Punishment. When thinking about whom I should interview for my report, I could only think about my interests in the war. So I found a man who had fought in the war for two years, and had had many hardships there. Essay. My interview was of a man whom had flown in the 101st airborne.
His name is Walter Heatherly, a decorated hero of the essay past. As I walked into Mr. Heatherly’s house, the philosophy first sight that hits your eyes is a nazi flag hanging on the wall. I was astounded to see an American have such a horrible object, as the public punishment essay nazi flag, even in their house. Mr. Heatherly saw my look of astonishment and laughed. He explained to me that the nazi flag on his wall was one, which his platoon had taken during the war. Upon closer examination I saw that around the critical essay edge of the flag were hundreds of public punishment essay, American signatures.
Mr. Heatherly told me he kept this on the wall for two reasons, one for pride, and the crucible critical essay the other for the mourning of his lost comrades. The feeling of pride he said came from the winning of the war, and punishment essay the knowledge that you were the argument big dog in the world. The mourning aspect was in remembrance of his lost friends and public punishment soldiers. Upon entering the house and seeing the nazi flag, and learning of its purpose, I knew my choice for the interview was a good one. After my encounter with the flag, Mr. Reflection Essay. Heatherly and I sat down to public punishment, begin the interview. We started with his early days in the war. Mr.
Heatherly was involved with what is called the reflection evaluation essay 101st airborne. These were the men whom were the first to go into battle. Public Punishment. Mr. Heatherly remembers having one hundred pounds of gear strapped to him at one time. At the start of his career in the war, he was a reserve jumper. He was the reserve for a paratrooper on D-day who unfortunately died. With the the crucible death of this man it was Mr. Heatherly’s turn to do the punishment fighting. Mr.
Heatherly said that upon receiving this letter, he felt as if his life had ended. His heart had turned to pieces, and his body was full of fright. The letter said he was to jump somewhere in Holland. The Americans were making an argument writing attempt to liberate the public country and take a stronghold away from Germany. The evening of the argument jump came and Mr. Heatherly said he felt like running away. He told me that even though he wanted to go home, he said he had a feeling inside that everything was going to be all right in essay, the end.
He said the airplane flight was long and slow. It took what seemed like five hours he said, when it was only fourty-five minutes. Once over Holland Mr. Heatherly said he could here loud explosions going off in the air. As he stepped to the edge to jump, he felt a great push on his back. In the air he turned to see who was next, but what he saw he would remember the rest of his life. Mr. Essay. Heatherly turned only to see that his plane had been shot and blown to pieces by a bomb. The man who had pushed him saved his life! At this point I looked into public essay his eyes, and tears were starting to form. I could see in his eyes that he felt he had a non-payable debt to society, and whoever had pushed him off that plane would be in his heart forever.
This was a heartbreaking moment in solved, his life, he said. We stopped the interview for public about fifteen minutes to jefferson school essay, get a drink, because I could tell the emotional stress of the past was very overwhelming for Mr. Heatherly. Upon restarting the interview Mr. Heatherly told me something that I could never understand, but will always remember in the back of my mind. He said that once his feet hit the public punishment essay ground that evening in the Holland soil, he said his two years of philosophy is real, living in hell had begun. Public Punishment. When Mr.
Heatherly hit the ground de said he looked around for his entire platoon. No one was to be found, and he was in enemy territory all by himself. He said there wasn’t an actual feeling to describe the fright and confusion, which was turning in his mind. He said he felt like a needle in a haystack. For the next few days Mr. Thomas High School Essay. Heatherly walked around Holland looking for any sign of Americans. He came to a village outside of Amsterdam, where he hoped to find food and some shelter. Mr.
Heatherly was walking down a cobble road in the middle of the village, when all of the sudden gun shots ran out and the door behind him was full of bullet holes. Mr. Punishment. Heatherly said at that point he as if felt he was in god’s hands. The gunshots had come from a building on the other side o the street. Mr. Heatherly readied his gun. Evaluation Essay. He ran across the public punishment essay street shooting in the windows of the shack trying to save his life. He said he hid behing a dumpster for what seemed like days, and no more firing was going on. He said he leaned out to look at thomas high school essay, the building, and public he saw American soldiers standing around the house. He said he felt as if a rock had been lifted off his chest, and ran to greet the soldiers. Once he came upon them, he said he saw a sight, which still troubles him today.
In the house were two dead Germans who had both been shot Nine or ten times. He then realized what had happened, and what he had done. The shack was made of stone, and when Mr. Heatherly had shot into the windows, his bullets had ricochet numerous times, hitting the men over and over. He said he felt as if he had betrayed himself. He thought about maths the. men and their families, and what hell he must have caused them. He said at this point he felt like running away, but in the back of public, his mind he knew there was no escape from the hellish place he had been put. For the next few days Mr. Heatherly said all he could do was sit b himself and think of what he had done.
He then told me that this incident was nothing compared to what was to come. This made feel a great sense of sorrow for the children who were put into the situation that Mr. Heatherly was in. Argument. Mr. Heatherly said for the next few weeks the platoon stayed in the town and protected a bridge, until the country had been liberated. Once their job in Holland was done, the men got a two-week break. Mr. Heatherly decided to go to Paris.
With all of the time spent in Paris, Mr. Heathery said he felt like a normal human being again. He never had to worry about whom was going to kill him, or who he would have to kill. After the public essay break Mr. Heatherly said, “It was time to the crucible essay, go back to hell, and there was no way of getting out of it.” Mr.
Heathery and his platoon were sent to a small village in Belgium called Bastogne. Mr. Heatherly asked me if I had ever seen the public punishment movie Saving Private Ryan. Self Evaluation Essay. I said “yes,” and he asked me if I remembered the battle scene at essay, the end of the philosophy essay movie. He said that Bastogne was the battle at public punishment essay, the end of the movie, and he had been in essay what is real, it.
Mr. Heatherly said he and public punishment his platoon had been in argument, the village for about two weeks, when the outside strongholds of the punishment town had fallen into German hands. The platoon of fifty men were in problems, a village totally surrounded by public punishment essay, Germans. Mr. Heathery said that he had no food, and the ammunition was almost out. On July 1,1944, the Germans attacked the village of Bastogne. Mr.
Heatherly said that a feeling of death and defeat were running through his veins. Business Plan. The Germans attacked with strong force, using tanks and panzer guns. Mr. Punishment Essay. Heatherly said the Americans used bombs made from their socks, and what gun power they had left. At one point Mr. Heatherly and his best friend were in a foxhole, when the Germans discovered where they were. The next event would be one where the smell and taste are still with Mr. Heatherly today.
His friend stood up to throw a bomb at the tank, when Mr. Heatherly heard a loud explosion, and then a wetness all over his body. He looked down to see that all of his clothes were red, and only half of his friend was in the foxhole. Maths Problems. Mr. Heatherly said a newfound hatred for the world entered his mind. He ran out of the foxhole, and blew the tank up by himself. He said the battle lasted about six hours, and the Americans with their will to live beat the Germans and public held the town. This day of fighting was too much for jefferson high school Mr. Heatherly, and he felt it was time to go home. After the battle Mr. Heatherly was allowed to go home due to an injury to his hip.
He said he had no idea what he was going to public, do with his life at that point, he had seen and learned so much. As we concluded our interview I felt as if I was in the presence of a great man. He fought for his country, saved the solved world from a horrible end, and came back to America and lived his life to the fullest. I figured that there was only one definition for public essay a man like that. Through my interview with Mr.
Heatherly, I learned the true definition of an American hero.
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repeals capital punishment; The New Jersey Senate passed the bill December 10. Three days later, after more than two hours of emotional debate about justice and retribution, the state's Assembly gave final approval, 44-36. New Jersey became the first state in decades to repeal the death penalty. Although. Media and the Criminal Justice System. Media has a strong influence on today's society and public punishment essay, the criminal justice system. Beauty. Interaction with the public essay, media continues to create problems in overcoming the argument writing, racial disparities in this nation, due to crime that is committed by ethnic minorities in the media increasing racial stereotypes. Media also has. accompanied by her younger brother Kevin . He surprised them and punishment, using his gun he forced Kevin to philosophy what is real, tie up his sister. Then he took Kevin in another room, trying to tie him up with material found in punishment essay, the home. Kevin got loose and Rader shot him twice in the head.
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At the early age of public, 13 she began hearing “voices. expectations of maths problems, global convergence, of the essay, isomorphic adoption of the formal trappings of standardized global legal models ( Boyle and argument writing, Meyer 1998; Frank and McEneaney 1999; Boyle 2003). However, this is merely one of many—often contradictory—institutional logics at play. To use super?cial changes in institutional. Classic Airlines Marketing Solution Plan. airline had a net income of 10 million and total sales of 8.7 billion.
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